Part IV: Developing and Managing Reference Collections and Services

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Part IV: Developing and Managing Reference Collections and Services by Mind Map: Part IV: Developing and Managing Reference Collections and Services

1. Selecting and Evaluating Reference Materials

1.1. Need to Knows before starting collection development:

1.1.1. - knowledge of the libraries community of users (specifically their needs and interests)

1.1.2. knowledge of how different types and formats of reference materials are used

1.1.3. knowledge of subject areas and how much updating they need

1.1.4. knowledge of how to evaluate reference materials

1.2. Identifying, selecting, and evaluating new reference materials

1.2.1. sources for reviews

1.2.1.1. Library Journal

1.2.1.1.1. publication of Media Source, semimonthly and monthly in January, July, August, and December.

1.2.1.1.2. There is a "Reference" section that looks at about 15-20 reference materials with recommendations as to which to use and which type of library it would service best in each issue.

1.2.1.2. School Library Journal

1.2.1.2.1. contains two reference columns - "Digital resources" and "Reference Reviews"

1.2.1.3. Choice

1.2.1.3.1. Published twice a month by the American College and Research Libraries.

1.2.1.3.2. It is published to support academic library collections

1.2.1.4. Reference and User Services Quarterly

1.2.1.4.1. published by the Reference and User Services Association of ALA- it is devoted to all aspects pf reference services.

1.2.1.5. Booklist's "Reference Book Bulletin"

1.2.1.5.1. Booklist is published bi-monthly, September through June, and monthly in July and August.

1.2.1.5.2. "Reference Book Bulliten" is prepared and critiqued by members of the editorial board and contributing reviewers.

1.2.2. Evaluation Criteria

1.2.2.1. Scope

1.2.2.1.1. in printed works - the abstract will give you a good idea of the scope of the topics covered

1.2.2.1.2. includes a discussion of what the work covers (via abstract or other source), how comprehensive it is, if it covers other like topics, dates covered, if it national (US) or international coverage.

1.2.2.2. Quality of Content

1.2.2.2.1. defined as accurate, up-to-date information of sufficient depth, and diversity of reference titles.

1.2.2.3. Authority of author or publisher

1.2.2.3.1. the author or publisher must be know for publishing reference materials or an expert in that specific field

1.2.2.4. Accuracy of content

1.2.2.4.1. Accuracy can be tested by comparing it to other works in the same topic or subject field

1.2.2.5. Currency

1.2.2.5.1. is recent information on the specific topic included in the work- also publication date

1.2.2.6. Ease of Use: Including usability, searching capabilities, and response time

1.2.2.6.1. Specific for e-resources: is it easy to search, how quickly it yields results, if it uses Boolean operations, if it has advanced searching capabilities

1.2.2.7. Arrangement of material

1.2.2.7.1. are the sections well organized and indexed in a way for easy reading? Are there subject headings?

1.2.2.8. Appropriateness to the audience /meeting of users needs

1.2.2.8.1. Is it appropriate for the audience of the library? Is it accessible for the high school, middle school, elementary, or adult level? Particularly important for Media centers.

1.2.2.9. Format

1.2.2.9.1. is it print or electronic? Is there a version that is electronic if there is also a print version? Is it subscription based?

1.2.2.10. Cost

1.3. Ongoing Assessment & Weeding of Reference Collection

1.3.1. Do they meet the needs of the users?

1.3.2. what is missing in the collection?

1.3.3. Are the available sources top quality?

1.3.4. Criteria for weeding books from the reference collection:

1.3.4.1. The content is no longer up to date

1.3.4.2. A new edition is available

1.3.4.3. The reference work is seldom used

1.3.4.4. the information is duplicated in another reference work

1.3.4.5. the book is physically damaged

2. Assessing and Improving Reference Services

2.1. Why Assess?

2.1.1. As libraries lose funding and fall down the totem poll for funding at the governmental level, it is imperative that we prove that libraries are still relevant and crucial to the proper functioning of our society.

2.1.2. Sometimes funding is also determined by how current the library is and its collections usefulness to the public.

2.2. What to Assess?

2.2.1. The Reference Collection

2.2.2. Reference Staff

2.2.3. Reference Services

2.3. How to Assess?

2.3.1. Suggestion Boxes

2.3.1.1. the most basic and simple form of assessment- this is great for ease of use for the user and simple for the staff.

2.3.1.2. Cons: the randomness of suggestions leads more to tweaking and making small improvements instead of planning larger improvements.

2.3.2. Surveys

2.3.2.1. In House Surveys

2.3.2.1.1. most commonly used survey- relatively inexpensive. Used to gauge patron satisfaction and collection usage.

2.3.2.2. Telephone Surveys

2.3.2.2.1. provides serious direct and instant entry into every household - but this leads to criticism from those being surveyed for being too intrusive

2.3.2.3. Mailed Surveys

2.3.2.3.1. most non-intrusive survey, but often leads to low response

2.3.2.4. Emailed/Online Surveys

2.3.2.4.1. primary tool of choice

2.3.2.4.2. gives the responder anonymity; often yields high response levels

2.3.2.4.3. commonly used online survey tools

2.3.3. Interviews

2.3.3.1. Surveys are often supplemented by interviews. These can be used to help make survey questions or to add in depth responses

2.3.4. Observations

2.3.4.1. Direct Observation

2.3.4.1.1. when an activity or service is monitored and the observations are recorded.

2.3.4.2. Hidden Observation

2.3.4.2.1. when someone is asked to observe a staff member and how they conduct interviews without knowing they are being watched.

2.3.4.3. Self-Imposed observation

2.3.4.3.1. transaction diaries, journals, preset forms, and reference activity notebooks

2.3.5. Focus Groups

2.3.5.1. creating a group in a particular setting to cover a set agenda to get a group response on any issue.

2.3.6. Case Studies

2.3.6.1. in depth evaluation of librarianship in expanded detail- usually used in academic environments.

2.4. Acting on Assessments

2.4.1. Quantify

2.4.1.1. statistical analysis of data is the best way to prove and get more external support

2.4.2. Strategize

2.4.2.1. clarity of reason for assessment

2.4.2.1.1. do you want to launch a new reference initiative?

2.4.2.1.2. Do you just want to monitor if you are meeting needs and expectations of patrons?

2.4.2.1.3. Do you want to prioritize funding allocation?

2.4.2.1.4. do you want to attract new funding?

2.4.3. Visualize

2.4.3.1. imagine the different scenarios you may face as the reference manager

3. Reference 2.0

3.1. What is the 2.0 Universe?

3.1.1. Collaboration

3.1.1.1. cooperative content creation - tools eing used like blogs, vlogs, microblogs, and podcasting

3.1.2. Social Networking

3.1.2.1. online communities that are helpful for reference outreach- using these sites to stay in professional communities

3.1.3. Customization

3.1.3.1. using tools to customize information to your needs like widgets, RSS feeds, and plug ins

3.1.4. Seamlessness

3.1.4.1. global platforms that allow for easy transition between different mediums like Second Life or Instant messaging, text messaging and mobile reference

3.2. Cooperative Content Creation

3.2.1. Reference Wikis

3.2.1.1. Ready Reference

3.2.1.1.1. Wikipedia is and example of ready reference

3.2.1.2. Subject Guides

3.2.1.2.1. pathfinders and subject guides - created to aid users in specific research topics

3.2.1.3. Reference Instruction and Manuals

3.2.1.3.1. how to manuals, syllabi, handouts dealing with information literacy

3.2.2. Reference Blogs, Microblogs, and Podcasts

3.2.2.1. Blogs

3.2.2.1.1. Campus Newsletters

3.2.2.1.2. Readers' Advisory

3.2.2.1.3. In-House Communication

3.2.2.1.4. News Bulletins

3.2.2.1.5. Personal Statement

3.2.2.2. Microblogs

3.2.2.2.1. Example is Twitter

3.2.2.3. Podcasts

3.2.2.3.1. audiofiles - used like radio syndication and can be used for walking tours , bibliographic instruction, presentations, etc.

3.2.3. Reference Folkonomies

3.2.3.1. socially tagged informational sites: from traditional subject indexing, develops taxonomy- user created space

4. Managing Reference Department

4.1. Organizing Reference Departments

4.1.1. It is shifting from a hierarchical principle to a more emerging "self-regulating management system"

4.2. Organizing Staff

4.2.1. The model of an "Information/Learning Commons" aims to integrate all reference activities into a one-stop shop. this allows for more integrated research planning and process

4.3. New Roles

4.3.1. Electronic Resource Management

4.3.1.1. the position or resource in which we choose, plan, buy and budget for all online databases for electronic resources

4.3.2. Web Management

4.3.2.1. In charge of library website- should be the first step in research and getting to the electronic resources provided by the library.

4.3.3. Reference Marketing

4.3.3.1. developing a plan to market the reference materials to each target audience from students, teachers, senior citizens, business people, etc.

4.3.4. Virtual Reference Service Evaluation

4.3.4.1. focusing on both the reference interview but also the digital competency to educate the user so that they may continue their research without much fail

5. Works Cited:

5.1. Cassell, K. A., & Hiremath, U. (2013). Reference and information services: an introduction. Chicago: Neal-Schuman, an imprint of the American Library Association.