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Motivation - 2 by Mind Map: Motivation - 2

1. General theoretical explanations

1.1. Classic extrinsic / intrinsic dichotomy

1.1.1. Differentiated by the locus of causality: internal or external.

1.1.2. Activities fall along a continuum from fully self-determined (intrinsic motivation) to fully determined by outside factors (extrinsic motivation).

1.1.3. Intrinsic and extrinsic tendencies are two independent possibilities.

1.2. Behavioural

1.2.1. Emphasize extrinsic motivation

1.2.2. Best understood by analyzing incentives and rewards.

1.2.3. Skinner

1.3. Humanistic

1.3.1. Sources of motivation = intrinsic

1.3.2. Humans intrinsicly need self-esteem, self-fulfilment and self-determination.

1.3.3. Deci's self-determination theory and Maslow's need hierarchy

1.4. Cognitive

1.4.1. Source of motivation: intrinsic

1.4.2. Behaviour determined by thinking (beliefs, attributions for successes ans failures, expectations) plans goals schemas expectations attributions

1.4.3. Weiner's attribution theory

1.5. Social cognitive

1.5.1. Source of motivation: intrinsic (expectation) and extrinsic (value).

1.5.2. Motivation viewed as an equation "expectancy x value"

1.5.3. Expectation of reaching a goal and value of that goal. Sometimes, cost. Goals and self-efficacy are important influences.

1.5.4. Locke&Latham, Bandura

1.6. Sociocultural

1.6.1. Source of motivation: intrinsic

1.6.2. Perspective that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice.

1.6.3. People move from legitimate peripheral participation to central participation.

2. Needs

2.1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

2.2. Self-determination theory

2.2.1. Stipulates basic needs for Competence Autonomy and control Relatedness

2.2.2. Implication for the classroom Supporting self-determination and autonomy leads to higher interest and curtiosity Controlling environments leads to improved performance in only simple, low-level tasks.

2.2.3. Cognitive evaluation theory Less perceived control leads to diminished intrinsic motivation. Information increasing the sense of competence leads to increased intrinsic motivation.

2.2.4. Need for relatedness When children's interest are cared about, intrinsic motivation is high, especially children at risk of failure.

2.2.5. Guidelines: Supporting self-determination and autonomy p.406

3. Goals

3.1. Reasons why setting goals improves performance

3.1.1. Directs attention

3.1.2. Energize efforts

3.1.3. Increase persistence

3.1.4. Promote the development of new knowledge and new strategies when old strategies fail

3.2. Characteristics of efficient goals

3.2.1. Specific and elaborated, to provide clear standards to judge performance

3.2.2. Moderately difficult

3.2.3. That can be reached fairly soon

3.3. Goal orientations

3.3.1. Mastery goal Approach focus Focus on mastering the task, learning, understanding. Standards used: self-improvement, progress, deep understanding (task-involved) Avoidance focus Focus ion avoiding misunderstanding or not mastering the task Standards used: Just don't be wrong. No mistakes.

3.3.2. Performance goal Approach focus Focus on being superior, winning, being the best. Standard used: Normative - getting the highest grade, winning the competition (ego involved goals) Avoidance focus Focus on avoiding looking stupid, avoiding losing. Standards used: Normative - don't be the worst, get the lowest grade, or be the slowest (ego-involved goals)

3.3.3. Work-avoidant

3.3.4. Social goals Helping learning Hindering learning

3.4. Goals in the classroom

3.4.1. Feedback

3.4.2. Goal framing

3.4.3. Goal acceptance

4. Beliefs

4.1. Epistemological beliefs

4.1.1. dimensions of Structure of knowledge Stability / certainty of knowledge Speed of learning Nature of learning Ability to learn Entity view of ability Incremental view of ability When children can differentiate between effort, ability and performance, beliefs about ability begins to influence motivation.

4.2. About causes and effects: Attribution theory

4.2.1. Model Attributed causes for success and failures can be characterized in terms of three dimensions Locus Stability Controllability Dimensions influence expectancy and value, thus motivation

4.2.2. Students Strong sense of efficacy: failure = internal and controllable Low sense of efficacy: failure = lack of ability. Biggest motivational problem = attributing failure to stable, uncontrollable causes.

4.2.3. Relationship with teacher's actions failure attributed to forces beyond the student's control = sympathy failure attributed to controllable factor = irritability and anger pity, praise for a good try or unsolicited help = students attribute failure to uncontrollable cause --> demotivation!

4.3. About self-worth

4.3.1. Learned helplessness

4.3.2. Motivational sets connecting beliefs about ability, self-efficacy and self-worth Mastery oriented Failure avoiding Failure accepting

4.3.3. Table 12.3

4.3.4. Guidelines: Encouraging self-worth, p.417

5. Roles of interest, curiosity, emotions and anxiety

5.1. Interest

5.1.1. Two types of interest Personal (trait) Situational (state)

5.1.2. Four phase model of interest development (Renninger, 2009) Situational interest trigerred Situational interest maintained Emerging individual interest Well-developed individual interest

5.1.3. Catching and holding interest = challenge. For interested students, how can the subject be of personal use.

5.2. Curiosity

5.2.1. Arises when attention is focused on a gap in knowledge, causing a sense of deprivation

5.2.2. Base knowledge is needed in order to feels gaps

5.2.3. Metacognitive awareness of what one knows is needed

5.2.4. Fulfilling the need to know increases the need to know more

5.3. Emotions

5.3.1. Neuroscience and emotions affects learning by changing dopamine level --> redirects attention and influences LTM Can impair learning if negative

5.3.2. Linked to achievement and motivation

5.3.3. Anxiety In school Too much arousal = anxiety, too little = boredom Pressure to perform Competition Severe consequences for failure Interferes with achievement on three points Focusing attention Learning Testing Coping with anxiety Problem-focused self-regulating strategies Emotion-focused strategies Avoidance Teachers should help students set realistic goals, directly teach problem-focused self-regulating strategies and support self-efficacy to help student be more in control of their learning and their anxiety. Guidelines: Coping with anxiety p.424

6. Influencing and encouraging student's motivation

6.1. Motivation to learn

6.2. T.A.R.G.E.T. model

6.2.1. Tasks that students are asked to do Task value Attainment (importance) Intrinsic (interest) Utility Cost Authentic tasks Problem-based learning Service learning

6.2.2. Autonomy or authority students are allowed in working Bounded choices

6.2.3. Recognition for accomplishement Students should be recognized for improving on their own personal best, for tackling difficult tasks, for persisting and for creativity - not just for performing better than others. Interest, performance, attributions to effort and task involvement are higher after personalized comments on work, not just praise.

6.2.4. Grouping practices Goal structures

6.2.5. Evaluation procedures

6.2.6. Time in the classroom

6.3. Four conditions for motivation strategies to work in the classroom

6.3.1. environment: organized/ free of interruptions or disruptions

6.3.2. teacher and students: view mistakes as opportunities for learning

6.3.3. academic task authentic challenging enough

6.4. Summary of what influences student's motivation in 4 (?)

6.4.1. Can I succeed in this task? Begin work at student's level and move in small steps Make sure learning goals are clear, specific and possible to reach in the near future Stress self-comparison, not comparison with others Communicate to students that academic ability is improvable and specific to tasks Model good problem solving

6.4.2. Do I want to succeed? attainment and intrinsic value Tie class activities to students interest Arouse curiosity Make the learning tasks fun Make use of novelty and familiarity instrumental value Explain the connections to real life or ask students how material will be important Provide incentive and rewards Use ill-structured problems and authentic tasks

6.4.3. Do I need to succeed? Give students frequent opportunities respond through questions and answers, short assignment, demonstrations, etc. Have students create a finished product Avoid heavy emphasis on grades and competition Reduce the task without oversimplifying it Model motivation to learn for your students Teach the particular learning strategies that students will need to master

6.4.4. Do I belong? create learning communities (chapter 13)

6.4.5. Guidelines: Motivation to learn - family and community partnership p.433

6.5. Strategies to encourage motivation

6.5.1. 4 conditions for motivation strategies to work Classroom must be organized and free of interruption \ disruption teeacher must be patient and supportive, never embarass students for mistakes