An attempt to identify the 'Head of the Snake'
Part of the Executive Office of the President, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) is intended to help the president develop and implement policies related to science and technology. The OSTP works with federal agencies, the private sector, state and local governments, science and higher education communities, and other nations to ensure federal investments contribute to the nation’s prosperity, the quality of the environment, and national security. The office is led by a director who is more commonly known as the President’s Science Advisor, often an academic or leading researcher in an important scientific field. The position of director is currently held by Dr. John P. Holdren. Holdren has stated that he is focusing his efforts both on science for policy and policy for science, as many scientists had criticized the Bush administration for allowing morality- and business-based decision-making to trump scientific findings.
The Anunnaki were Sumerian God's who lived, walked, and ruled among them. Gilgamesh was their last 'God-King'. When An left to return to Nibru, He left his sons; Enlil the eldest from Ki and Enki the youngest from Nammu herself, in charge of 600 Anunnaki. 300 Anuki Above 300 Igigi Below 4 High 7 Who Decree Fates 50 Great Anunnaki
Tiamat ♀, Kinqu ♂
Ninlil ♀, Ishkur ♂, Nudimmud (Enki; Ea) ♂, Damkina ♀
Ningal, Nergal ♂, Ninazu ♂, Ninurta ♂, Marduk ♂, Dumuzi ♂, Geshtinenna ♀, Ninsar, Ninkur, Uttu, Abu, Nuntulla (Nintul), Ninsutu, Ninkasi, Nanshe (Nazi), Azimua, Ninti (Eve) ♀, Enshag (Enshagag)
Utu ♂, Aia ♀, Erishkigal ♀, Inanna ♀, Gizzida ♂
D.O.T.S. was founded to research the Historical Founders, Leaders, and Decendants of the True Illuminati.
Adolf Hitler (German pronunciation: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ]; 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as head of state as Führer und Reichskanzler from 1934 to 1945. Hitler is most remembered for his central leadership role in the rise of fascism in Europe, World War II and the Holocaust. A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the precursor of the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919, and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. He attempted a coup d'état known as the Beer Hall Putsch, which occurred at the Bürgerbräukeller beer hall in Munich on 8–9 November 1923. Hitler was imprisoned for one year due to the failed coup, and wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (in English "My Struggle"), while imprisoned. After his release on 20 December 1924, he gained support by promoting Pan-Germanism, antisemitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He was appointed chancellor on 30 January 1933, and transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism. Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people; directing the resources of the state towards this goal. This included the rearmament of Germany, which culminated in 1939 when the Wehrmacht invaded Poland. In response, the United Kingdom and France declared war against Germany, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Within three years, German forces and their European allies had occupied most of Europe, and most of North Africa, and the Japanese forces had occupied parts of East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1944, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians, including an estimated six million Jews targeted in the Holocaust and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma, added to the Poles, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun. To avoid capture by Soviet forces, the two committed suicide less than two days later on 30 April 1945 and their corpses were burned. http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/hitler.html
March 12, 1807 - June 20, 1881 Dr. Mackey practiced medicine until 1854, after which literary and masonic pursuits fully occupied his time. In July, 1865, President Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port. Later defeated in a senatoral race, he moved to Washington, D.C. in 1870. Compiler of A Lexicon of Freemasonry in 1845, he went on to publish many books on Freemasonry, most notably his Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. At various times he edited such publications as the Western Masonic Miscellany (1849-54), the Masonic Quarterly Review (1857-58), the American Freemason (1859-60), and Mackey’s National Freemason (1871-74) and the Voice of Freemasonry (1875-79). Initiated, Passed and Raised: 1841 Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, South Carolina Worshipful Master : 1842 Solomon’s Lodge No. 1, Charleston Founding member : 1851 Landmark Lodge No. 76 Grand Secretary : 1842-1867 South Carolina Affiliated : 1870 Landmark Lodge No. 19, D.C. Source: Albert G. Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry.
December 29, 1809 - April 2, 1891 Well-known masonic author and composer of the ritual for the concordant body, the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, he was elected Sovereign Grand Commander of that body in 1859, an office he held until his death. Appointed Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas on November 7, 1864, from 1853 onward he was, at various times, chairman of numerous committees and boards, as well as Grand Representative of four jurisdictions. Western Star Lodge No. 2, Little Rock, Arkansas Entered Apprentice: July 1850 Fellow Craft: July 1850 Master Mason: November 4, 1850 Demitted: November 4, 1852 Magnolia Lodge No. 60, Little Rock Charter member: November 4, 1852 Worshipful Master: 1854 Demitted: 1858 c. Affiliated: 1884 c. Kilwinning Lodge No. 341, Memphis, Tenn. Marion Lodge No. 68, New Orleons, La Affiliated: 1858 Demitted: 1860 Honorary member: February 24, 1871 Pentalpha Lodge No. 23, Washington, D.C. Affiliated: October 4, 1880 Demitted January 1, 1883 Source: Denslow
Savalette de Langes was the son of Charles Pierre Savalette de Magnanville (1713-1790) – intendant of the Generality of Tours (1745) and Keeper of the Royal Treasury from 1756 to 1788 – and Marie-Émilie Joly de Choin (1726-1776), the daughter of a fermier général. In 1773, like his father, Savalette de Langes became a Keeper of the Royal Treasury; 1790/91, Captain of the Paris National Guard in the battalion of Saint Roch and aide-de-campe to Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834). One of the most active and influential Masons of his time, Savalette de Langes was first initiated in 1766 at the Lodge “L’Union Indivisible” in Lille, he was the founder of the Paris Lodge “Les Amis Réunis” (1771), Regime of the Philalèthes (1773), and convoked the Philalèthes Convents of Paris in 1785 and 1787. From the beginning Savalette was on the side of the Duke de Chartres (future Duke d’Orléans) for the creation of the Grand Orient, and after this was accomplished (1773) Savalette subsequently became its Grand Officer and Archivist. He was also a member of the Paris Lodge “L’Olympique de la Parfaite Estime” from 1783-88, the founder of “La Société Olympique” in 1785, and a member of the Paris Lodge “Centre des Amis” in 1793. Permanent, official correspondence between the Illuminati and Savalette’s Amis Réunis was established in 1784. Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Beulwitz (1755-1829), the head of the Rudolstadt Illuminati was initiated into the Amis Réunis in 1784, while visiting Paris, and received into the 11th class of the Philalèthes. Another Illuminatus, Sigismund Falgera (1752-1790) was already initiated into the Amis Réunis in 1784 (to 1789) and was appointed the official Illuminati correspondent/liaison to the Paris Lodge. Yet even before this, other Illuminati were simultaneously members of the Amis Réunis – Count Kolowrat, for one (see below) – and it would be hard to believe that they hadn’t at least tried to “Illuminize” this most important Lodge in Paris. In this regard, about all we can safely say is that there remains a lack of documentation about any successes the Illuminati may have had in France before 1787.
Aleister Crowley (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast, was an influential English occultist, mystic and ceremonial magician, responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. He was also successful in various other fields, including mountaineering, chess and poetry, and it has also been alleged that he was a spy for the British government. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite faith, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early twentieth century.
The Battenberg family was a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany. The first member was Countess Julia Hauke whose brother-in-law, Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse, created her Countess of Battenberg at her morganatic marriage to his brother, Prince Alexander of Hesse, in 1851 and Princess of Battenberg in 1858. The name Battenberg was last used by her youngest son, Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, who died childless in 1924. Most members of the family, residing in the United Kingdom, had renounced their German titles in 1917, due to rising anti-German sentiment among the British public during World War I, and changed their name to Mountbatten, an anglicised version of Battenberg. The name Battenberg refers to Battenberg, Hesse.
Basarab I of Wallachia, House of Drăculeşti, Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia
Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston on January 17, 1706. He was the tenth son of soap maker, Josiah Franklin. Benjamin's mother was Abiah Folger, the second wife of Josiah. In all, Josiah would father 17 children. In 1729, Benjamin Franklin bought a newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin not only printed the paper, but often contributed pieces to the paper under aliases. His newspaper soon became the most successful in the colonies. This newspaper, among other firsts, would print the first political cartoon, authored by Ben himself. During the 1720s and 1730s, the side of Franklin devoted to public good started to show itself. He organized the Junto, a young working-man's group dedicated to self- and-civic improvement. He joined the Masons. He was a very busy man socially. Popularly, Benjamin Franklin gets pegged as a sybaritic sort of fellow, a man given to lusty appetites. That Franklin did indeed enjoy eating and drinking we can gauge by looking at portraits painted of him, reading his letters, or considering the gout which afflicted him later in life. Whether his lusty appetite extended to the boudoirs of French socialites or the trysting nature of late-night dalliances, is a matter of conjecture that historians are divided over. Regardless, Franklin carefully considered most everything he did — including eating and drinking — and could serve as a posterboy for the Platonic notion that "the life which is unexamined is not worth living." Whether it came to questions of philosophy or norms of social behavior, Franklin carefully examined pros and cons, costs and benefits. Often, added into the balance of a question was whether its consequence would have any positive public upshot, and further, to consider how the public perceived his response to said question. Thus, in this manner, even the matter of fine dining became a philosophical question for Franklin. "Query, Whether it is worth a Rational Man's While to forego the Pleasure arising from the present Luxury of the Age in Eating and Drinking and artful Cookery, studying to gratify the Appetite for the Sake of enjoying a healthy Old Age, a Sound Mind and a Sound Body, which are the Advantages reasonably to be expected from a more simple and temperate Diet." This question, posed by Franklin in 1732, and translated for the modern ear, more or less asks, "When there is so much good food and beverage available should we just indulge ourselves or should we partake of a blander diet as that will probably make us live longer and healthier? Today, the public forum for that type of question might be a call-in radio show or a glossy article in a glamour magazine. But where today does one find forums and answers for the following questions?
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (1090 – August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. Three years later, he was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 km southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. In the year 1128, Bernard assisted at the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility.
The Borgias, also known as the Borjas, "Borjia," "Borghetti" and "Bourghesse" were a European Papal family of Béarnaise origin with the name stemming from the familial fief seat of Borja belonging to their Aragonese Lords; they became prominent during the Renaissance. The Borgias were patrons of the arts; thanks to their support, artists of the Renaissance could 'spread their wings' and realize their artistic potential. The most brilliant personalities of this era regularly visited their court. The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 1400s and 1500s. Today they are remembered for their corrupt rule when one of them was Pope. They have been accused of many different crimes, including adultery, simony, theft, rape, bribery, incest, and murder (especially murder by arsenic poisoning). Because of their search for power, they made enemies of other powerful families such as the Medici and the Sforza, as well as the influential Dominican friar Savonarola.
Bowes-Lyon is a Scottish family; see the following articles for more information, including information on individual members: Baron Bowes Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Gibside Glamis Castle Katherine Bowes-Lyon Lilian Bowes Lyon Lord Glamis Michael Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne Monster of Glamis Nerissa Bowes-Lyon Patrick Bowes-Lyon (tennis player) Viscount of Lyon Princess Anne of Denmark There are now Bowes-Lyon family members all over the world, ranging from Ireland to England, Australia and other various Countries. In some cases it has been found to have been shortened to Lyon.
The Bush family is a prominent American family. Along with many members who have been successful bankers and businessmen, across three generations the family includes two U.S. Senators, one Supreme Court Justice, two Governors, one Vice President and two Presidents.
Prescott Sheldon Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush, Carlyle Group
George Walker Bush
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian", Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling (meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHG kerlinc), derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty which until then had ruled the Franks by right was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.
Cecil John Rhodes PC, DCL (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was an English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%. An ardent believer in British colonial imperialism, he was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him. In 1964, Northern Rhodesia became the independent state of Zambia and Southern Rhodesia was thereafter known as simply as Rhodesia. In 1980, Rhodesia, which had been de-facto independent since 1965, was granted independence by Britain and was renamed Zimbabwe. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after Rhodes. He set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate.
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton, Mena, Arkansas, Operation Black Eagle
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton, Clinton Global Initiative
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) is the most influential writer of renaissance esoterica. His de occulta philosophia appeared in three books. Written from 1509 to 1510 (he would have been 23 at the time), it circulated widely in manuscript form, and was eventually printed in 1533. It is a "systematic exposition of ... Ficinian spiritual magic and Trithemian demonic magic (and) ... treatised in practical magic" (I. P. Couliano in Hidden Truths 1987, p. 114). Without doubt, this book should be at the top of any required reading list for those interested in Western magic and esoteric traditions.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 13th Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977, under President Gerald Ford, and as the 21st Secretary of Defense from 2001 to 2006, under President George W. Bush. Combined, he is the second longest-serving defense secretary after Robert McNamara. Rumsfeld was White House Chief of Staff during part of the Ford Administration and also served in various positions in the Nixon Administration. He was elected to four terms in the United States House of Representatives, and served as the United States Permanent Representative to NATO. He was president of G. D. Searle & Company from 1977–1985, CEO of General Instrument from 1990–1993, and chairman of Gilead Sciences from 1997-2001.
Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French occult author and purported magician. "Eliphas Lévi," the name under which he published his books, was his attempt to translate or transliterate his given names "Alphonse Louis" into Hebrew although he was not Jewish. His second wife was French sculptress Marie-Noémi Cadiot. Lévi's version of magic became a great success, especially after his death. That Spiritualism was popular on both sides of the Atlantic from the 1850s contributed to this success. His magical teachings were free from obvious fanaticisms, even if they remained rather murky; he had nothing to sell, and did not pretend to be the inititate of some ancient or fictitious secret society. He incorporated the Tarot cards into his magical system, and as a result the Tarot has been an important part of the paraphernalia of Western magicians. He had a deep impact on the magic of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and later on the ex-Golden Dawn member Aleister Crowley. He was also the first to declare that a pentagram or five-pointed star with one point down and two points up represents evil, while a pentagram with one point up and two points down represents good. It was largely through the occultists inspired by him that Lévi is remembered as one of the key founders of the twentieth century revival of magic.
Elliott Abrams (born January 24, 1948) is an American lawyer and policy analyst who served in foreign policy positions for two Republican U.S. Presidents, Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. He is currently a senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies at the Council on Foreign Relations. During the Reagan administration, Abrams gained notoriety for his involvement in controversial foreign policy decisions regarding Nicaragua and El Salvador. During Bush's first term, he served as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director on the National Security Council for Near East and North African Affairs. At the start of Bush's second term, Abrams was promoted to be his Deputy National Security Advisor for Global Democracy Strategy, in charge of promoting Bush's strategy of advancing democracy abroad. His appointment by Bush was controversial due to his conviction in 1991 on two misdemeanor counts of unlawfully withholding information from Congress during the Iran-Contra Affair investigation.
In 1780 Pagano co-founded the Naples Lodge ‘Della Vittoria’ of the Orient. He was insinuated into the Illuminati in October 1786, and became one of the six founding members of an Illuminati cell in Naples; named Venerable Master of the Naples Lodge ‘La Philantropia’ in 1796 – the Lodge which contained the core of the Illuminati insinuated by Münter. His alias refers to the influential sixteenth-century Neapolitan author, scholar, occultist and scientist Giambattista della Porta (1535?-1615). Pagano was an author, historian, philosopher and a professor of law in Naples. His famous work Saggi Politici, was a major contribution to the Neapolitan Enlightenment (Illuminismo, in Italian), and is compared with Adam Ferguson’s Essay on the History of Civil Society. It was translated into German by fellow-Illuminatus von Müller (Anselmus Sanchoniaton) in 1796.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount Saint Alban, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, author and pioneer of the scientific method. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. Although his political career ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works established and popularized inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today. His dedication probably led to his death, bringing him into a rare historical group of scientists who were killed by their own experiments. Bacon was knighted in 1603, and created both the Baron Verulam in 1618, and the Viscount St Alban in 1621; as he died without heirs both peerages became extinct upon his death. He famously died of pneumonia contracted while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat. Imperator of the Rosicrucian Order.
François Rabelais (French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃swa ʁablɛ]) (c. 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and Renaissance humanist. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, and bawdy jokes and songs.
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT (1882-1945) Thirty-second President (1933-1945) MASONIC RECORD Initiated: October 11, 1911, Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. Brother Roosevelt participated in the Raising of his son Elliott (1910-1990) on February 17, 1933, in Architect's Lodge No. 519, also in New York City. He was present, but did not participate in the Degrees when two other sons, James (1907-1991) and Franklin D., Jr. (1914-1988) became Members of their brother Elliott's Lodge, on November 7, 1935. Brother and President Roosevelt was made the first Honorary Grand Master of the Order of DeMolay on April 13, 1934 at the White House. Governor of New York, 1929-1933. http://www.pagrandlodge.org/mlam/presidents/froosevelt.html
Alias: Syrianus A theologian, church historian and archaeologist, Münter studied theology and philosophy in Copenhagen (1778-81) and Göttingen (1781-83), being taught by, and/or studying with some of following: Johann Benjamin Koppe (Illuminatus), Johann Georg Heinrich Feder (Illuminatus), Christian Gottlieb Heyne (1729-1812), Christian Wilhelm Walch (1726–1784), Ludwig Timotheus Spittler (Illuminatus) and Johann Christoph Gatterer (1727-1799). He earned a doctorate of philosophy in 1784, was a professor of theology in Copenhagen in 1788, a member of the Danish Academy of Sciences in 1798, and became Bishop of Zealand in 1807. Münter was invested as a Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1808, and became the commander of the Order in 1817. He was initiated into Freemasonry in 1780 and reached the 5th degree of the Zinnendorf Rite in the same year; a member of the Gotha Lodge ‘Zum Rautenkranz’; a member of the Templar Strict Observance, knighted ‘Eques ab Itinere’; initiated in 1787 at the Copenhagen Lodge ‘Friedrich zur gekrönten Hoffnung,’ becoming its librarian and Lodge Master from 1794 to 1807; visitor of the Vienna Lodge ‘Zur wahren Eintracht.’ Münter was insinuated into the Illuminati in 1783; Illuminatus Major in 1784; Prefect of the Illuminati in Copenhagen. He helped spread Illuminatism into Italy (1784-87) and established an Illuminati cell in Naples with Mario Pagano (see below), Emmanuele Mastelloni, Donato Tommasi, Giuseppe Zurlo, Gaetano Carrascal, and Nicola Pacifico; and one in Rome (February 1785), that according to the late historian Hanns Gross of Loyola University Chicago was overseen by Wilhelm Tischbein.68 Gross cited historian Carlo Francovich as his source. Corroboration comes from Hermann Schüttler, who wrote that Münter had been recruiting members for the Order while staying at the palace of Monsignor (later Cardinal) Stefano Borgia (1731-1804). His alias refers to Syrianus (c. 5th Century AD), the Greek Neo-Platonist philosopher and the teacher of Proclus.
Schröder was a major reformer of German Freemasonry, a stage actor, theatrical manager and dramatist. His mother was an actor as well, and the young Friedrich – travelling with his mother and stepfather, Konrad Ernst Ackermann, an actor from Russia – appeared in child roles. When he moved to Hamburg in 1767, Schröder befriended Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and worked “as a script editor and critic for the Hamburg national theater.” In 1771, after his stepfather had passed away, he and his mother took over the management of Ackermann’s theatre in Hamburg. From 1781-85 he was a court actor at the Vienna Hofburg (for the Hapsburg Imperial residence); from 1786-98, and again in 1810, he was the director of the Hamburg theatre. On the suggestion of J. J. C. Bode, Schröder was first initiated into Freemasonry at the Hamburg Lodge ‘Emanuel zur Maienblume’ in 1774 and received the Master Degree in 1785, becoming the Lodge’s Master in 1787; a member of the Lodge ‘Einigkeit und Toleranz’ in 1792/93; Provincial Grand Master of the Grand Lodge in Hamburg, 1814-16; and a co-founder of the Engbund Chapter in Hamburg. Schröder was the determining influence in the ritual reform of German Freemasonry, which he accomplished in collaboration with his former Illuminati brethren Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Leonhard Reinhold and Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland. He practically made a career out of Freemasonry. According to Dr. Schüttler, Schröder was the most significant Masonic reformer and author of his time. His alias alludes to Quintus Roscius Gallus (c. 126-62 BC), the most famous Roman actor of his time.
That Mirabeau was influenced by Illuminati such as Jakob Mauvillon and the Prussian Aufklärer in particular, there is no doubt. He’s prefaced here with an asterisk because his membership in the Illuminati, however probable or likely, is not confirmed. Mirabeau’s (claimed) aliases are Adramelech and/or Leonidas. In Die Mitglieder des Illuminatenordens 1776-1787/93, Hermann Schüttler used an asterisk under Mirabeau’s name in the section that lists the Paris Illuminati, but neglects to include it in his actual biography (pp. 221 and 106 respectively). The good thing about Schüttler, however, is that he is completely transparent. Precise citations are provided on three fronts: 1) for biographical details, 2) Masonic and 3) Illuminati membership.
George Soros (Hungarian: Soros György; born August 12, 1930, as Schwartz György) is a Hungarian-American financier, businessman and notable philanthropist focused on supporting liberal ideals and causes. He became known as "the Man Who Broke the Bank of England" after he made a reported $1 billion during the 1992 Black Wednesday UK currency crises. Soros correctly speculated that the British government would have to devalue the pound sterling.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775–1783, and he presided over the writing of the Constitution in 1787. As the unanimous choice to serve as the first President of the United States (1789–1797), he developed the forms and rituals of government that have been used ever since, such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address.
A French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution.
German philosopher and mathematician. Leibniz occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. He developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton, and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the binary number system, which is at the foundation of virtually all digital computers. In philosophy, Leibniz is mostly noted for his optimism, e.g. his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that a God could have created. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a priori definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in biology, medicine, geology, probability theory, psychology, linguistics, and information science. He wrote works on politics, law, ethics, theology, history, philosophy, and philology. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. As of 2010, there is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz.
The House of Welf (historically rendered in English, Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century. The House of Welf is the older branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose oldest known members lived in Lombardy in the 9th century. For this reason, it is sometimes also called Welf-Este. The first member of this branch was Welf IV; he inherited the property of the Elder House of Welf when his maternal uncle Welf, Duke of Carinthia, died in 1055. In 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria. Welf V married Countess Matilda of Tuscany who died childless and left him her possessions, including Tuscany, Ferrara, Modena, Mantua, and Reggio, which played a role in the Investiture controversy. Since the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, partisans of the Pope came to be known in Italy as "Guelphs"; see Guelphs and Ghibellines.
The House of Guise was a French ducal family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion. The Guises were Catholic, and Henry Guise wanted to end growing Calvinist influence. The assassination of Guise heightened passions and inspired Catholic attacks on Huguenots and their culture. The House of Guise was founded as a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine by Claude of Lorraine, first Duke of Guise (1496–1550), who entered French service and was made a duke by King Francis I. Claude's daughter, Mary of Guise (1515–1560), married King James V of Scotland and was mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Claude's eldest son, Francis, became a military hero thanks to his capture of Calais from the English in 1558, while another son, Charles became Archbishop of Reims and a Cardinal in the Catholic Church. In 1558, the Dauphin Francis married Mary, Queen of Scots. When the sickly young man became king after his father's death in 1559, the queen's uncles the Duke of Guise and his brother the Cardinal of Lorraine controlled French politics during his short reign. This prompted the Amboise conspiracy in which the Huguenots and the House of Bourbon plotted to usurp the power of the House of Guise. The Cardinal of Lorraine was also leader of the French representatives at the final sittings of the Council of Trent, and, ironically given his family's role in French politics, had fought for a greater willingness to compromise with Protestantism than the Italian and Spanish delegates.
The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Victoria in 1901. They are sometimes referred to as the House of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Hanover line. The House of Hanover is a younger branch of the House of Welf, which in turn is the senior branch of the House of Este. Queen Victoria was the granddaughter of George III, and was an ancestor of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together; this earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father, Prince Albert. Since Victoria could not inherit the German kingdom and duchies under Salic law, those possessions passed to the next eligible male heir, her uncle Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale—the fifth son of George III. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover.
The House of Habsburg (English pronunciation: /ˈhæps.bɝːg/, German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria was one of the most important aristocratic royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries. Originally from Switzerland, the dynasty first reigned in Austria, which they ruled for over six centuries. A series of dynastic marriages brought Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in in the 18th century: The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch went extinct in 1780 with the death of Empress Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen).
HARRY S TRUMAN (1884-1972) Thirty-third President (1945-1952) MASONIC RECORD Initiated: February 9, 1909, Belton Lodge No. 450, Belton, Missouri. In 1911, several Members of Belton Lodge separated to establish Grandview Lodge No. 618, Grandview, Missouri, and Brother Truman served as its first Worshipful Master. At the Annual Session of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, September 24-25, 1940, Brother Truman was elected (by a landslide) the ninety-seventh Grand Master of Masons of Missouri, and served until October 1, 1941. Brother and President Truman was made a Sovereign Grand Inspector General, 33°, and Honorary Member, Supreme Council on October 19,1945 at the Supreme Council A.A.S.R. Southern Jurisdiction Headquarters in Washington D.C., upon which occasion he served as Exemplar (Representative) for his Class. He was also elected an Honorary Grand Master of the International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. On May 18, 1959, Brother and Former President Truman was presented with a fifty-year award, the only U.S. President to reach that golden anniversary in Freemasonry. http://www.pagrandlodge.org/mlam/presidents/truman.html
Hassan-i Sabbāh (Persian: حسن صباح, Arabic: حسن الصباح Hassan aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ, Hasan ibn Sabbah, Hassan Ben Sabbah. 1050s-1124) was a Persian Nizārī Ismā'īlī missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The place was called Alamut and was attributed to an ancient king of Daylam. He founded a group whose members are sometimes referred to as the Hashshashin or Assassins. His search for a base from where to guide his mission ended when he found the castle of Alamut in the Rudbar area in 1088. It was a fort that stood guard to a valley that was about fifty kilometers long and five kilometers wide. The fort had been built about the year 865; legend has it that it was built by a king who saw his eagle fly up to and perch upon a rock, of which the king, Wah Sudan ibn Marzuban, understood the importance. Likening the perching of the eagle to a lesson given by it, he called the fort Aluh Amut: the "Eagles Teaching". Hassan’s takeover of the fort was one of silent surrender in the face of defeated odds. To affect this takeover Hassan employed an ingenious strategy: it took the better part of two years to effect. First Hassan sent his Daʻiyyīn and Rafīks to win the villages in the valley over. Next, key people were converted and in 1090 Hassan took over the fort. It is said that Hassan offered 3000 gold dinars to the fort owner for the amount of land that would fit a buffalo’s hide. The term having been agreed upon, Hassan cut the hide in to strips and link the strips around the perimeter of the fort. The owner was defeated. (This story bears striking resemblance to Virgil's account of Dido's founding of Carthage.) Hassan gave him a draft on the name of a wealthy landlord and told him to take the money from him. Legend further has it that when the landlord saw the draft with Hassan’s signature, he immediately paid the amount to the fort owner, astonishing him. With Alamut as his, Hassan devoted himself so faithfully to study, that it is said that in all the years that he was there – almost 35, he never left his quarters, except the two times when he went up to the roof. He was studying, translating, praying, fasting, and directing the activities of the Daʻwa: the propagation of the Nizarī doctrine was headquartered at Alamut. He knew the Qur'ān by heart, could quote extensively from the texts of most Muslim sects, and apart from philosophy, he was well versed in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, medicine, architecture, and the major science fields of his time. Hassan was one who found solace in austerity and frugality. A pious life was one of prayer and devotion. Hassan was a charismatic revolutionary; it was said that by the sheer gravity of his conviction he could pierce the hardest and most orthodox of hearts and win them over to his side. From this point on his community and its branches spread throughout Iran and Syria and came to be called Hashshashin or Assassins, an Islamic mystery cult. Hassan was extremely strict and disciplined. The event of the Great Resurrection (al-qiyāmat al-kubrā) occurred under the later Ismaili Imam Hasan ala-dhikrihi as-salaam in 1164.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky was born on August 12, 1831, at Dnepropetrovsk (Ekaterinoslav), Ukraine, daughter of Colonel Peter Alexeyevich von Hahn and novelist Helena Andreyevna (née de Fadeyev). In 1849 she married N. V. Blavatsky, and shortly thereafter began more than 20 years of extensive travel, bringing her into contact with mystic traditions the world over. In 1873 Blavatsky arrived in New York from Paris where, impelled by her teachers, she began her work. At first she attempted to interest the Spiritualists in the philosophy behind phenomena but they resented her refusal to accept their standard explanations. In July 1875 she was urged "to establish a philosophico-religious society," and in the Fall of the same year she became the principal founder, along with H. S. Olcott and W. Q. Judge, of The Theosophical Society. She devoted the rest of her life to its humanitarian and educational objectives. About the time the Society began, she started to write her first major work, Isis Unveiled, and after its publication in 1878 she and H. S. Olcott left for India. There they worked to re-establish Oriental philosophical and religious ideas, largely through the pages of The Theosophist, a magazine which Blavatsky founded and edited. In 1884, while Blavatsky was traveling in Europe, disgruntled TS employees in India went to the missionaries with forged documents, bringing charges of fraud against her. The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) then sent Richard Hodgson to investigate the charges, and subsequently published an unfavorable report. (In 1986 the SPR published an analysis of the Hodgson Report by Dr. Vernon Harrison, an SPR member expert in forgery and handwriting analysis, who concluded that the Hodgson Report was biased, unscientific, and completely unconvincing.) Under the strain, Blavatsky's health had broken down, and in 1885 she left India for Europe, where she continued to write The Secret Doctrine, her masterwork. In 1887 she settled in London, and began a new magazine Lucifer ("Light-bringer"). In 1888 The Secret Doctrine was published and, in the same year, aided by W. Q. Judge, she formed the Esoteric Section of The Theosophical Society. Shortly afterwards she wrote The Key to Theosophy and The Voice of the Silence. In 1890 she became head of a newly-established European Section. She died in London on May 8, 1891 after many years of chronic illness.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (May 27, 1923) is a German-born American political scientist, diplomat, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. After his term, his opinion was still sought by many following presidents and many world leaders. A proponent of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a dominant role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with the People's Republic of China, and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War. Various American policies of that era, including the bombing of Cambodia, remain controversial.
Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933–1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946). In the 1948 presidential election, Wallace was the nominee of the Progressive Party. http://www.theinsider.org/reports/dollar-bill-symbols/
Hugues de Payens, Hughes de Pagan (English: Hugh of Payens or Hugh Pagan) (c. 1070–1136), a French knight from the Champagne region, was the co-founder and first Grand Master of the Knights Templar. With Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, he created the Latin Rule, the code of behavior for the Order.
Ignatius of Loyola (Basque: Ignazio Loiolakoa, Spanish: Ignacio de Loyola) (1491 – July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy.
Ignaz Elder von Born was a metallurgist, mineralogist and mining expert, inventing an amalgamation process for the extraction of silver and gold. Born was a member of “over a dozen learned societies throughout Europe.” According to Heather Morrison, von Born belonged to “the Royal Society in London, academies in Russia, Toulouse and Danzig, the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin, and the Munich Academy of Sciences” and societies in “Göttingen, Uppsala, Lund, Burghausen, and Siena.” Born came from a noble family at Karlsburg, Transylvania and was educated by the Jesuits in Vienna. After sixteen months in their tutelage he fled Prague and took up the study of Law, afterwards turning to mineralogy, physics and mining. From 1769-70 he traveled throughout Europe—mainly Germany, Holland and France—studying and learning from the mining districts in those regions. In his late twenties Born had a serious accident, having been poisoned by noxious fumes in a mine shaft. Apparently, the consequences of this incident left him “a semi-invalid for the rest of his life.” In 1776 Born was chosen by Maria Theresa to enlarge and reshape the natural history collection of the Imperial Museum in Vienna. By 1779 Born “was appointed Wirklicher Hofrat at the mining and monetary administration of the Austrian court.” In 1770 he was initiated into Freemasonry at the Lodge ‘Zu den drei gekrönten Säulen’ in Prague. When he settled in Vienna, Born was enthusiastically proposed for initiation into the Lodge ‘Zur wahren Eintracht’ by the former-African prince and Master Mason Angelo Soliman. On November 19th, 1781 Born passed the Second Degree; “raised to the Third Degree two days later; on 9 March 1782 he was elected Master of the Lodge by a large majority.”
Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727), mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time. Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he attended school, he entered Cambridge University in 1661; he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. He remained at the university, lecturing in most years, until 1696. Of these Cambridge years, in which Newton was at the height of his creative power, he singled out 1665-1666 (spent largely in Lincolnshire because of plague in Cambridge) as "the prime of my age for invention". During two to three years of intense mental effort he prepared Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) commonly known as the Principia, although this was not published until 1687. As a firm opponent of the attempt by King James II to make the universities into Catholic institutions, Newton was elected Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689, and sat again in 1701-1702. Meanwhile, in 1696 he had moved to London as Warden of the Royal Mint. He became Master of the Mint in 1699, an office he retained to his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1671, and in 1703 he became President, being annually re-elected for the rest of his life. His major work, Opticks, appeared the next year; he was knighted in Cambridge in 1705. As Newtonian science became increasingly accepted on the Continent, and especially after a general peace was restored in 1714, following the War of the Spanish Succession, Newton became the most highly esteemed natural philosopher in Europe. His last decades were passed in revising his major works, polishing his studies of ancient history, and defending himself against critics, as well as carrying out his official duties. Newton was modest, diffident, and a man of simple tastes. He was angered by criticism or opposition, and harboured resentment; he was harsh towards enemies but generous to friends. In government, and at the Royal Society, he proved an able administrator. He never married and lived modestly, but was buried with great pomp in Westminster Abbey. Newton has been regarded for almost 300 years as the founding examplar of modern physical science, his achievements in experimental investigation being as innovative as those in mathematical research. With equal, if not greater, energy and originality he also plunged into chemistry, the early history of Western civilization, and theology; among his special studies was an investigation of the form and dimensions, as described in the Bible, of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. Book Excerpt - from Chapter 3 The strange relationship between Newton and the complex fringes of the Hermeticism of the epoch has long been unknown, and even concealed. The official biographies have mostly kept silent about this side of Newton. Loup Verlet writes of the conditions of the “miraculous” discovery of Newton’s unpublished manuscripts. Put in a stack in 1696 when he was leaving the directorship of the mint in London, they escaped the burning of his personal documents arranged just after his death. They were discovered two centuries later and put up at auction in 1936. John Maynard Keynes won the manuscripts and revealed that Newton was not only the “first physicist” but also the “last magician.” The haul included several alchemical works, the bulk of them now at Cambridge, some at the University of Jerusalem, and others in private collections. According to Verlet, Newton’s known work comprises 1.4 million words relating to theology, 550,000 on alchemy, 150,000 on monetary affairs, and one million on scientific problems. Verlet considers Newton, from a scientific point of view, to have been a coincidence. If he had not lived, the development of the sciences would surely have been delayed, and the work begun by Galileo and Descartes would have been slowed down. But by hiding his secrets away, Newton the magus also hid the alchemical, Hermetic, and esoteric dimensions which elucidated his research. From this point of view, victorious Science made its complex matrix disappear. Alexandre Koyré writes that Newton senselessly brought his most technical work into the realm of questioning regarding “methodological, epistemological, and metaphysical problems.” He explains that historians often neglect this development, getting mixed up over the various editions of Newton’s works, especially his Optics. Bishop Berkeley soon saw the danger, and vigorously attacked Newton’s ideas starting in 1710. Leibniz, for his part, accused Newton of philosophical occultism. Newton reacted by publishing his “General Scholium” in a new edition of his Principia. He wrote: “The true God is a living, intelligent, and powerful Being; . . . his duration reaches from eternity to eternity; his presence from infinity to infinity; he governs all things.” Was Newton cautious, or truly a heretic? He refuted the purely mechanist positions of Descartes and Leibniz, always remaining at the edge of what was tolerated in religious matters, even attacking his contemporaries for “impiety.” Leibniz reacted on the same terrain, writing in 1715 to the Princess of Wales--who would later be Queen of England--that “Sir Isaac Newton, and his followers, have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. Nay, the machine of God’s making is so imperfect, according to these gentlemen, that he is obliged to clean it now and then by an extraordinary concourse, and even to mend it, as a clockmaker mends his work.” The controversy continued for a long time, mingling theological and scientific arguments in a surprising mixture, often subtle, sometimes of an absolute intellectual perversity. Isabelle Stengers writes that Newton affirmed: “I do not feign hypotheses, I stick to phenomena.” This did not hinder his speculative theories, and placed him in contrast with the “contemplative” Galileo. In his work on the history of zero, Charles Seife highlights the will of Newton, like Leibniz, to use a “dangerous idea,” the idea of zero, to invent differential calculus. Accepting the idea of a number that is nothing and infinite--a strange and terrifying concept emerging before the time of Christ, rejected by all the thinkers of the ancient world, except for the Babylonians who invented this empty space and the Mayans who placed it before 1--the scientists of the eighteenth century used the nothing and gave it substance. Another revolution was in progress: “mystic calculus” appeared. In 1669, according to Richard Westfall, Newton immersed himself in alchemical literature. Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs affirms that “Newton read virtually everything alchemical that had ever been published, and a good many things that had not.” Numerous manuscripts from Hartlib’s circle were copied by Newton himself. His friend Robert Boyle served him as a link to other circles of Rosicrucians and alchemists. Elias Ashmole did the same in writing his Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (published in 1652). Newton even devised an anagram of his name as a pseudonym (Isaacus Neuutonus becoming Jeova sanctus unus), which allowed him to exchange manuscripts with his correspondents while remaining anonymous, despite widespread speculation. In Newton’s personal archives, a great many manuscripts have been found with lengthy annotations: Philalethes’ Secrets Reveal’d from 1669, Sendivogius’ Novum Lumen Chymicum, Espagnet’s Arcanum hermeticae philosophiae, Maier’s Symbola aureae mensae duodecim, the Opera of George Ripley (the great English alchemist), Basil Valentine’s Triumphal Chariot of Antimony. Most of these are preserved at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Newton was fascinated by the transmutation of metals. “Far from seeking to make gold, he sought to understand nature,” writes Jacques Blamont. Newton sought to isolate mercury, a fundamental element. This was probably the cause of his death. Outside this dimension, Newton developed truly heretical ideas. Fascinated by the trinity, he was impassioned by the conflict between the orthodox, led by Athanasius in the fourth century, and the disciples of Arius. Arius believed that God was one, and that the trinity could not be. Newton, according to Richard Westfall, became convinced bit by bit “that a massive fraud had perverted the legacy of the early church.” Newton considered the worship of Christ, in place of God, to be idolatrous. But living in a completely orthodox Cambridge where his own master, Barrow, defended the trinity, Newton did not express his views publicly. David Brewster, in his 1855 biography, wrote, “uniting philosophy and religion, Newton dissolved the alliance that genius had formed with skepticism, and added to the myriad witnesses the most brilliant name of ancient and modern times.” Book-review In this valuable book Alain Bauer has been firmly established that the myths relating to the directly operative origins of Freemasonry, seeing the cathedral builders as the true forerunners of speculative Masons and viewing these latter as legitimate heirs of the former, can no longer be considered as anything more than what they are: myths, stories that are significant but are in no way historical facts. The Author presents the swirl of historical, sociological, and religious influences that sparked the spiritual ferment and transformation of that time. His research shows that Freemasonry represented a crossroads between science and spirituality and became the vehicle for promoting spiritual and intellectual egalitarianism. Ceasing to search for the key to understanding itself in mysterious and abstruse geometry and in the fabulous architectonic legacy of the pyramids, speculative Masonry must redirect its attention to what, after almost three centuries, defines it and gives it structure: an intellectual and moral adventure. Bruno Gazzo Editor, PS Review of Freemasonry. http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/book_bauer.html
James of Molay (French: Jacques de Molay) (c. 1240/1250 – March 1314) was the 23rd and last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, leading the Order from April 20, 1292 until the Order was dissolved by order of Pope Clement V in 1312. Though little is known of his actual life and deeds except for his last years as Grand Master, he is the best known Templar, along with the Order's founder and first Grand Master, Hugues de Payens (1070–1136). Jacques de Molay's goal as Grand Master was to reform the Order, and adjust it to the situation in the Holy Land during the waning days of the Crusades. As European support for the Crusades had dwindled, other forces were at work which sought to disband the Order and claim the wealth of the Templars as their own. King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Templars, had Molay and many other French Templars arrested in 1307 and tortured into making false confessions. When Molay later retracted his confession, Philip had him burned at the stake on an island in the Seine river in Paris, on March 1314. The sudden end of both the centuries-old order of Templars, and the dramatic execution of its last leader, turned Jacques de Molay into a legendary figure. The fraternal order of Freemasonry has also drawn upon the Templar mystique for its own rituals and lore, and today there are many modern organizations which draw their inspiration from the memory of Jacques de Molay.
Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt – 18 November 1830 in Gotha) was a German philosopher and founder of the Order of Illuminati, a secret society with origins in Bavaria.
Schweizer was a Swiss merchant and banker, a member of the Helvetian Society, made a Mason at the Zurich Lodge “Bescheidenheit und Freiheit” (Modestia cum Libertate) in 1782, was initiated into the Illuminati in 1785, and became a Jacobin.
St. John of the Cross - (1542-1591), Spanish mystic, Carmelite friar and priest Born in Spain in 1542, John learned the importance of self-sacrificing love from his parents. His father gave up wealth, status, and comfort when he married a weaver's daughter and was disowned by his noble family. After his father died, his mother kept the destitute family together as they wandered homeless in search of work. These were the examples of sacrifice that John followed with his own great love -- God. When the family finally found work, John still went hungry in the middle of the wealthiest city in Spain. At fourteen, John took a job caring for hospital patients who suffered from incurable diseases and madness. It was out of this poverty and suffering, that John learned to search for beauty and happiness not in the world, but in God. After John joined the Carmelite order, Saint Teresa of Avila asked him to help her reform movement. John supported her belief that the order should return to its life of prayer. But many Carmelites felt threatened by this reform, and some members of John's own order kidnapped him. He was locked in a cell six feet by ten feet and beaten three times a week by the monks. There was only one tiny window high up near the ceiling. Yet in that unbearable dark, cold, and desolation, his love and faith were like fire and light. He had nothing left but God -- and God brought John his greatest joys in that tiny cell. After nine months, John escaped by unscrewing the lock on his door and creeping past the guard. Taking only the mystical poetry he had written in his cell, he climbed out a window using a rope made of strips of blankets. With no idea where he was, he followed a dog to civilization. He hid from pursuers in a convent infirmary where he read his poetry to the nuns. From then on his life was devoted to sharing and explaining his experience of God's love. His life of poverty and persecution could have produced a bitter cynic. Instead it gave birth to a compassionate mystic, who lived by the beliefs that "Who has ever seen people persuaded to love God by harshness?" and "Where there is no love, put love -- and you will find love." John left us many books of practical advice on spiritual growth and prayer that are just as relevant today as they were then. These books include: Ascent of Mount Carmel , Dark Night of the Soul and A Spiritual Canticle of the Soul and the Bridegroom Christ .
John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American lawyer and diplomat who has served in several Republican presidential administrations. He served as the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations from August 2005 until December 2006 on a recess appointment. He resigned in December 2006 when his recess appointment would have ended because he was unable to gain confirmation from the Senate. Bolton is currently a Senior Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), Fox News Channel commentator, and of counsel to the law firm Kirkland & Ellis, in their Washington D.C. office. He is also involved with a broad assortment of other conservative think tanks and policy institutes, including the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), Project for the New American Century (PNAC), Institute of East-West Dynamics, National Rifle Association, US Commission on International Religious Freedom, and the Council for National Policy (CNP). Known for his hawkish views on foreign policy, Bolton is often described as a neoconservative, though he personally rejects the term. In August 2010, Bolton suggested that he may run for president in 2012. On May 27, 2011 he was asked by Neil Cavuto if was going to run for president. He replied "I'm thinking about it."
Joseph Smith, Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. He was also a theocrat, politician, city planner, military leader, and polygamist. Smith was raised in western New York during a period of religious enthusiasm. Having been influenced by folk religion as a youth, he claimed the ability to find buried treasure through supernatural means. In the late 1820s, Smith said that an angel had directed him to a buried book of golden plates inscribed with a religious history of ancient American peoples. After publishing what he said was an English translation of the plates as the Book of Mormon, he organized branches of the Church of Christ, a church whose adherents were later called Latter Day Saints or, popularly, Mormons. In 1831, Smith moved west to Kirtland, Ohio intending to establish the city of Zion in western Missouri, but his plans were frustrated when Missouri settlers expelled the Saints in 1833. After leading an unsuccessful paramilitary expedition to recover the land, Smith began building a temple in Kirtland. In 1837, the church in Kirtland collapsed after a financial crisis, and the following year Smith joined his followers in northern Missouri. A war ensued with Missourians who believed Smith had incited insurrection. When the Saints lost the war, they were expelled, and Smith was imprisoned on capital charges. After being allowed to escape state custody in 1839, Smith led his followers to settle at Nauvoo, Illinois on Mississippi River swampland, and there he served as both mayor and commander of its large militia, the Nauvoo Legion. In early 1844, he announced his candidacy for President of the United States. That summer, after the Nauvoo Expositor criticized Smith's practice of polgyamy, the Nauvoo city council ordered the paper's destruction. During the ensuing turmoil, Smith first declared martial law and then surrendered to the governor of Illinois who promised his safety. Smith was killed by a mob while awaiting trial in Carthage, Illinois. Smith's followers revere him as a prophet and regard many of his writings as scripture. His teachings include unique views about the nature of God, cosmology, family structures, political organization, and religious collectivism. His legacy includes a number of religious denominations, which collectively claim a growing membership of over 14 million worldwide. Masonic Symbols and the LDS Temple http://www.utlm.org/onlineresources/masonicsymbolsandtheldstemple.htm Mormonism and Freemasonry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mormonism_and_Freemasonry
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian-born, Soviet politician and Bolshevik revolutionary, who held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. While formally the office of the General Secretary was elective and was not initially regarded as the top position in the Soviet state, after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin managed to consolidate more and more power in his hands, gradually putting down all opposition groups within the party. This included Leon Trotsky, the Red Army organizer, proponent of world revolution, and principal critic of Stalin among the early Soviet leaders, who was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929. Instead, Stalin's idea of socialism in one country became the primary line of the Soviet politics. In 1928, Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with a highly centralized command economy and Five-Year Plans, launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization in the countryside. As a result, the USSR was transformed from a largely agrarian society into a great industrial power, and the basis was provided for its emergence as the world's second largest economy after World War II. However, during this period of rapid economical and social changes, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts, and millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. The initial upheaval in the changing agricultural sector disrupted food production in the early 1930s, contributing to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933, one of the last major famines in Russia. In 1937–38, a campaign against former members of the communist opposition, potential rivals in the party, and other alleged enemies of the regime culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repression in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including Red Army leaders convicted in coup d'état plots.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( pronunciation (help·info)) (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci points out, however, that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time. Born the illegitimate son of a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, at Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice and spent his last years in France, at the home awarded him by Francis I. Leonardo was and is renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo's Creation of Adam. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on everything from the euro to text books to t-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number due to his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists only rivalled by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo. Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, the double hull and outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had little to no influence on later science.
Manly Palmer Hall (March 18, 1901 – August 29, 1990) was a Canadian-born author and mystic. He is perhaps most famous for his work The Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy, published in 1928 when he was 27 years old. It is claimed that Hall was made a knight patron of the Masonic Research Group of San Francisco in 1953, although he was not raised as a Mason until 22 November 1954 into Jewel Lodge No. 374, San Francisco. He later received his 32° in the Valley of San Francisco AASR (SJ). On December 8, 1973 (47 years after writing The Secret Teachings of All Ages), Hall was recognized as a 33° Mason (the highest honor conferred by the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite) at a ceremony held at the Philosophical Research Society (PRS)). The definitive Manly Palmer Hall Archive states that Hall received the 33°, "despite never being initiated into the physical craft." In his over 70-year career, Hall delivered approximately 8,000 lectures in the United States and abroad, authored over 150 books and essays, and wrote countless magazine articles. He appears in the introduction to the 1938 film When Were You Born, a murder mystery that uses astrology as a key plot point.
Maria Orsitsch was the head of the 'The All German Society for Metaphysics' (Alldeutsche Gesellschaft für Metaphysik) founded in the early 20th century as a female circle of mediums who were involved in extraterrestrial telepathic contact. The society was later renamed the 'Vril Society' or 'Society of Vrilerinnen Women'. In 1917 Maria Orsitsch is said to have made contact with extraterrestrials from Aldebaran with her female Vril circle. Later in 1919 the Vril circle met with other [Volkisch] groups in a small forester’s lodge in the vicinity of Berchtesgaden to discuss a possible voyage to Aldebaran to meet the Aliens by the construction of Nazi ufos. Notes on this space mission are discussed in a recent detailed analysis of Nazi Occultism entitled 'Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity: 'Maria claimed to have received mediumistically transmissions in a secret German Templar script - a language unknown to her - containing technical data for the construction of a flying machine. Vril documents mention these telepathic messages had their origin in Aldebaran, a solar system 68 light-years away in the constellation Taurus’.
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Prince of Mindelheim, KG, PC
A professor of mathematics at the University of Mainz, he was also a member of the Erfurt Academy of the Arts and Sciences Useful to the Public. When the French Revolution broke out, Metternich was enthralled and subsequently an active participant as a founding member of the Mainz Jacobin Club, its literary propagandist and vice president of the Rhenish-German National Convention after the Republic of Mainz was declared. Patterned after the Paris Jacobin Clubs, the Mainz ‘Society of the Friends of Liberty and Equality’ (Gesellschaft der Freunde der Freiheit und Gleichheit) advocated political union with France. There were twenty original members and Illuminatus Professor Anton Josef Dorsch (1758-1819) – who had previously renounced his priestly vows and already joined a Jacobin Club in Strasbourg – was sent as commissioner for the Mainz club. It was at his previous post at the Strasbourg Jacobin Club that Dorsch was recorded as saying on December 26th, 1791: The Illuminati Order counted among its members the noblest men in Germany and provided great service for the education of many a young man. The reports, which the clerical and secular inquisition give of the Illuminati, are for the most part as false as that of a propaganda [club] in France. Nearly all of the founding members of the Mainz Jacobins were initiates of the Illuminati, and in addition to Mathias Metternich and Anton Josef Dorsch, we can list the following: Felix Anton Blau (1754-1798) Johann Christoph Blessmann (1760-1836) Johann Georg Wilhelm Böhmer (1761-1839) Johann Adam Caprano (1760-1800) Franz Anton Chambion (1754-1822) Johann Heinrich Rudolf Eickemeyer (1753-1825) Andreas Josef Christian Hofmann (1752-1849) Johann Stephan Köhler (1733-1815) Johann Adam Lang (1752-1790) Franz Konrad Macké (1756-1844) Johann Georg Nimis (1754-1811) Johann Valentin Schumann (1733-1803) Lorenz Schweickhard (b. 1768) Friedrich Joseph Stumme Adam Umpfenbach (b. 1748)
The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin) largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family. During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule was ended March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, re-confirmed and crowned Pepin the Short in Childeric's place in 754 beginning the Carolingian monarchy and early introduction of the Holy Roman Empire.
Merovech, Clovis I
Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current. While conducting these studies, Faraday established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics, subsequently enlarged upon by James Maxwell. He similarly discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. As a chemist, Michael Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. Historians of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that magnetic flux changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force. Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a life-time position. Albert Einstein kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Faraday was highly religious; he was a member of the Sandemanian Church, a Christian sect founded in 1730 that demanded total faith and commitment. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."
Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt]; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for the wars he led against a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars, during which he established hegemony over much of Europe and sought to spread revolutionary ideals. Napoleon was born in Corsica to parents of noble Italian ancestry and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. Bonaparte rose to prominence under the French First Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade of the 19th century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European power. After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states. Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies throughout much of the world. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena. An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer.
Nicholas Roerich, also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Никола́й Константи́нович Рéрих; October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947), was a Russian mystic, painter, philosopher, scientist, writer, traveler, and public figure.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a former United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, President of the World Bank, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University. He is currently a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships, and chairman of the US-Taiwan Business Council. He is a leading neoconservative. As Deputy Secretary of Defense, he was "a major architect of President Bush's Iraq policy and ... its most hawkish advocate." Donald Rumsfeld in his interview with Fox News on February 8, 2011 said that Wolfowitz was the first to bring up Iraq after 9/11 attacks during a meeting at presidential retreat at Camp David. After serving two years, he resigned as president of the World Bank Group "ending a protracted and tumultuous battle over his stewardship, sparked by a promotion he arranged for his companion."
Paracelsus (born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 11 November or 17 December 1493 – 24 September 1541) was a Swiss Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist. "Paracelsus", meaning "equal to or greater than Celsus", refers to the Roman encyclopedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus from the 1st century, known for his tract on medicine. He is also credited for giving zinc its name, calling it zincum and is regarded as the first systematic botanist.
The House of Plantagenet (pronounced /plænˈtædʒɨnɨt/), a branch of the Angevins, was a royal house founded by Geoffrey V of Anjou, father of Henry II of England. Plantagenet kings first ruled the Kingdom of England in the 12th century. Their paternal ancestors originated in the French province of Gâtinais and gained the County of Anjou through marriage during the 11th century. The dynasty accumulated several other holdings, building the Angevin Empire which at its peak stretched from the Pyrenees to Ireland and the border with Scotland. In total, fifteen Plantagenet monarchs, including those belonging to cadet branches, ruled England from 1154 until 1485. The senior branch ruled from Henry II of England until the deposition of Richard II of England in 1399. After that, a junior branch, the House of Lancaster, ruled for some fifty years, before clashing with another branch, the House of York, in a civil war known as the Wars of the Roses over control of England. After three ruling Lancastrian monarchs, the crown passed to three Yorkist monarchs, the last of whom, Richard III, was killed in battle during 1485. The legitimate male line went extinct with the execution of Richard's nephew, Edward, Earl of Warwick in 1499. However an illegitimate scion, Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, was active at the court of Henry VIII of England. Several illegitimate lines persist, including the Dukes of Beaufort, (who are today the last male line descendants of the Plantagenet House of Lancaster).
René Descartes (French pronunciation: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; (31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) (Latinized form: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian") was a French philosopher and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system—allowing geometric shapes to be expressed in algebraic equations—was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the Early Modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like St. Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the Schools on two major points: First, he rejects the analysis of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God’s act of creation. Descartes was a major figure in 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. As the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, Descartes founded analytic geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; English: I think, therefore I am; or I am thinking, therefore I exist or I do think, therefore I do exist), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644 – written in Latin).
Richard Lee Armitage, KCMG AC (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005.
Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. He was Chairman of the Board from 2001 to 2003 under the Bush Administration. He is a member of several think-tanks, such as the Hudson Institute, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors, the Center for Security Policy (CSP), and (as a resident fellow) the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, as well as the neoconservative Project for the New American Century (PNAC) and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA). He is also a Patron of the Henry Jackson Society. Perle has written extensively on a number of issues; his cited research interests including defense, national security, and the Middle East. Aside from these engagements, Perle is the former co-chairman and director of Hollinger, Inc., a partner of Trireme Partners and a non-executive director of Autonomy Corporation.
"The Father of the North American Union and N.A.F.T.A." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Pastor
William Avery Rockefeller, Sr, John Davison Rockefeller, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Abby Rockefeller Mauzé, John D. Rockefeller III, Nelson Rockefeller, Laurance Spelman Rockefeller, Winthrop Rockefeller, David Rockefeller, Sr., David Rockefeller, Jr., Ariana (1982), Camilla (1984), Abby Rockefeller, Neva Rockefeller Goodwin, Peggy Dulany Rockefeller, Richard Rockefeller, Eileen Rockefeller Growald, William Avery Rockefeller, Jr, Lewis Edward Rockefeller (1865–1866), Emma Rockefeller McAlpin (1868–1934), William Goodsell Rockefeller (1870–1922), James Stillman Rockefeller, John Davison Rockefeller II (1872–1877), Percy Avery Rockefeller (1878–1934), Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge (1882–1973)
The Rothschild family (known as The House of Rothschild, or more simply as the Rothschilds) is a European family of German Jewish origin that established European banking and finance houses from the late eighteenth century. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family were elevated into the Austrian nobility, being given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. The British branch of the family was elevated into the British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria. It has been argued that during the 19th century, the family possessed by far the largest private fortune in the world, and by far the largest fortune in modern world history.
Moses Kalman Rothschild, Amschel Moses Rothschild, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Schönche Jeannette Rothschild, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, Salomon Mayer von Rothschild, Nathan Mayer Rothschild, Lionel de Rothschild, Leopold de Rothschild, Anthony Gustav de Rothschild, Evelyn Robert de Rothschild, Anthony James de Rothschild, David Mayer de Rothschild, Isabella Rothschild, Babette Rothschild, Kalman Mayer Rothschild, Julie Rothschild, Henriette Rothschild, James Mayer de Rothschild, Alphonse James de Rothschild, Édouard Alphonse James de Rothschild, Guy de Rothschild, David René de Rothschild, Jakob Mayer Rothschild
The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa Savoia) was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II. The House of Savoy ruled unified Italy for 85 years with Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II as monarchs. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being overthrown by a popular referendum and a new republican government.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the collective name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany. They were located in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and the two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. The Duchy came to an end in 1918 with the other German monarchies, and the Free State of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was established. This was merged into the new state of Thuringia two years later. The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha also may refer to the family of the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which played many varied roles in nineteenth and twentieth-century European dynastic and political history, branches of which currently reign in Belgium and the Commonwealth realms.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, House of Windsor, Dame of Malta; Queen Elizabeth II
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte y Blanco, commonly known as Simón Bolívar (Spanish pronunciation: [siˈmon boˈliβar]; Caracas, July 24, 1783 – Santa Marta, December 17, 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader. Together with José de San Martín, he played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Following the triumph over the Spanish Monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, which was named Gran Colombia, and of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Simón Bolívar is regarded in Hispanic America as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator. During his lifetime, he led Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela to independence, and helped lay the foundations for democratic ideology in much of Hispanic America. http://www.militaryheritage.com/bolivar.htm
The House of Stuart (also known as the House of Stewart) is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century. Their direct ancestors (from Brittany) had held the title High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also upholding a claim to the Kingdom of France. In total, nine Stewart monarchs ruled just Scotland from 1371 until 1603. After this there was a Union of the Crowns under James VI & I who had become the senior genealogical claimant to all of the holdings of the extinct House of Tudor. Thus there were six Stuart monarchs who ruled England and Scotland as well as Ireland (although the Stuart era was interrupted by an interregnum lasting from 1649–1660, as a result of the English Civil War). Additionally at the foundation of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union, which politically united England and Scotland, the first monarch was Anne of Great Britain. After her death, all the holdings passed to the House of Hanover, under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701.
Alan fitz Flaad, Walter fitz Alan, Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, Robert II of Scotland, Robert III of Scotland, James I, King of Scots, James II of Scotland, James III of Scotland, James IV, James V, Mary, Queen of Scots, John Stewart of Bonkyll, Sir Alan Stuart, John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, James VI & I, Authorized King James Version, Andrew Stewart, Elizabeth Stewart, Hawise Stewart
Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, (March 28, 1515 – October 4, 1582) was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, and writer of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be, along with John of the Cross, a founder of the Discalced Carmelites. In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV, and in 1970 named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI. Her books, which include her autobiography, The Life of Teresa of Jesus, and her seminal work, El Castillo Interior (The Interior Castle), are an integral part of the Spanish Renaissance literature as well as Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practices as she entails in her other important work Camino de Perfección (The Way of Perfection).She died in 1582.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776). An influential Founding Father, Jefferson envisioned America as a great "Empire of Liberty" that would promote republicanism. Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), barely escaping capture by the British in 1781. Many people were not pleased with his tenure and in the next election he did not win office again in Virginia. From mid-1784 through late 1789 Jefferson lived outside the United States. He served in Paris initially as a commissioner to help negotiate commercial treaties. In May 1785 he succeeded Benjamin Franklin as the U.S. Minister to France. He was the first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793) under George Washington and advised him against a national bank and the Jay Treaty. He was the second Vice President (1797–1801) under John Adams. Winning on an anti-federalist platform, Jefferson took the oath of office and became President of the United States in 1801. As president he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the vast new territory and lands further west. Jefferson always distrusted Britain as a threat to American security; he rejected a renewal of the Jay Treaty that his ambassadors had negotiated in 1806 with Britain and promoted aggressive action, such as the embargo laws, that contributed to the already escalating tensions with Britain and France leading to war with Britain in 1812 after he left office. Jefferson idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a limited federal government. Jefferson supported the separation of church and state and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). Jefferson's revolutionary view on individual religious freedom and protection from government authority have generated much interest with modern scholars. He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the co-founder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, which dominated American politics for 25 years. Born into a prominent planter family, Jefferson owned hundreds of slaves throughout his life; he held views on the racial inferiority of Africans common for this period in time. While historians long discounted accounts that Jefferson had an intimate relationship with his slave Sally Hemings, it is now widely held that he did and had six children by her. Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and could read two others. He was a major book collector with an enormous library, much of which he sold to the Library of Congress in 1814 after the British set fire to the Capitol which destroyed most of its works. He wrote more than sixteen thousand letters and was acquainted with nearly every influential person in America, and many throughout Europe. Jefferson is constantly rated by historical scholars as one of the greatest U.S. presidents. http://srjarchives.tripod.com/1998-03/beless.htm
The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor, a descendant through his mother of a legitimized branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extirpated. Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII. His victory was reinforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty. The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542, (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland. They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of France, but none of them tried to make substance of it, though Henry VIII fought wars with France to try and reclaim that title. After him, his daughter Mary I lost the claim on France forever with the Fall of Calais.
Elizabeth I of England
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeus ˈmoːtsaʁt], English see fn.), baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers. Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood in Salzburg. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always composing abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of Mozart's death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons. Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and maturity of style that encompassed the light and graceful along with the dark and passionate. His influence on subsequent Western art music is profound. Beethoven wrote his own early compositions in the shadow of Mozart, of whom Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years." The youngest child and only surviving son of freemason, Leopold Mozart, Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus was born in Salzburg in 1756, He showed early precocity both as a keyboard-player and violinist, and soon turned his hand to composition. Mozart composed a number of masonic pieces. When his father received his masonic Second Degree Wolfgang wrote "Fellow Crafts Journey (Op. K468) to honour the occasion. For lodge Zur Wohltatigkeit he wrote "Opening Ode" (Op. K483) and Closing Ode (Op. K484) His last masonic work (Op. K623) was written for the dedication of a masonic temple in Vienna on November 15, 1791. Mozart was essentially an operatic composer. His last stage work, "The Magic Flute", an opera with strong hermetic themes, was running with success at the time of his death. Initiated: December 14, 1784 lodge Zur Woltatigkeit Passed: January 7, 1785 Raised: before April 22, 1785 Lodge Zur Wahren Eintracht Source: Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, "Bro. Mozart and some of his masonic friends," Herbert Bradley. vol. xxvi (1913), pp. 241-263. Note Frederick Smyth, Paul Nettl, and others maintain that the actual Raising date is unknown. Lewis L. Main Jr. and Jacques Chailley state he was raised on April 22, 1785. Cf. Mozart, Music and Masonry, William K. Bissey, member of the Philalethes Society : 'Bro. F. de Backer of Kortrijk, Belgium states the following. The minutes of Lodge True Concord of April 22, 1785 show the following "Bro. Leopold Mozard (sic) of Lodge zur Wohltätigkeit ...[with two other candidates]...were raised to the Third Degree of our Royal Order with the accustomed ceremonies." Bro. de Backer continues stating that "In the Attendance Register of Eintract for 22 April both Leopold and Wolfgang signed as a Master Mason but the name of Leopold was struck through because he had signed as a Master Mason while still a Fellow Craft." A photo copy of the attendance register in question is reproduced as plate 2 in Nettl’s book Mozart and Masonry. Thus, Wolfgang Mozart was raised as a Master Mason sometime between January 7, 1785 and April 22, 1785."' http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/mozart_a/mozart_a.html
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (Polish: Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzeziński, pronounced [ˈzbiɡɲev bʐɛˈʑiɲski]; born March 28, 1928) is a Polish American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981. http://fufor.twoday.net/stories/2302873/
The Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Order of Hospitallers or simply Hospitallers, were a group of men attached to a hospital in Jerusalem that was founded by Blessed Gerard around 1023 out of which two major Orders of Chivalry evolved, the Order of the Knights of St. Lazarus and the Order of the Knights of St. John, later to be known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Hospitallers arose around the work of an Amalfitan hospital located at the Muristan site in Jerusalem, founded around 1023 to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the Western Christian conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a religious and military order under its own charter, and was charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the Order operated from Rhodes, over which it was sovereign, and later from Malta where it administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. The Order was weakened by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 and became dispersed throughout Europe. It regained strength during the early 19th century as it repurposed itself towards humanitarian and religious causes. The modern continuation of the mediaeval Order is the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta, headquartered in Rome; allied Protestant orders are headquartered in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. The first master of the original Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem was Brother Gerard (whose origins remain a mystery). Although the original traditions may go further back, we believe that in about 1080, with the help of certain merchants and pilgrims, the Benedictine abbey of St Mary in Jerusalem, in which Gerard was probably a monk, established a hospice close to the Holy Sepulchre compound. Its aim was to tend to pilgrims visiting the city and the holy places nearby, as well as the poor and sick. In 1099, the First Crusade entered Jerusalem - and the fame of Blessed Gerard and his hospital soon spread. The hospital was independently endowed; and the number of brothers (and sisters) grew. Before long, the Brotherhood of Hospitallers, dedicated to St John the Baptist, assumed a military as well as a nursing character. The Knights, as well as tending to our lords the sick and the poor, served as armed guards for the Hospital and escorts for visiting pilgrims, in addition to fighting in support of the Crusader kings and princes. The first master of the original Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem was Brother Gerard (whose origins remain a mystery). Although the original traditions may go further back, we believe that in about 1080, with the help of certain merchants and pilgrims, the Benedictine abbey of St Mary in Jerusalem, in which Gerard was probably a monk, established a hospice close to the Holy Sepulchre compound. Its aim was to tend to pilgrims visiting the city and the holy places nearby, as well as the poor and sick. In 1099, the First Crusade entered Jerusalem - and the fame of Blessed Gerard and his hospital soon spread. The hospital was independently endowed; and the number of brothers (and sisters) grew. Before long, the Brotherhood of Hospitallers, dedicated to St John the Baptist, assumed a military as well as a nursing character. The Knights, as well as tending to our lords the sick and the poor, served as armed guards for the Hospital and escorts for visiting pilgrims, in addition to fighting in support of the Crusader kings and princes. The Order was formally recognised in 1113. Pope Paschal II issued a Bull in that year establishing it as an independent religious Order with a legal status recognised and approved by the Holy See. Members of the Order (knights, clerics and serving brothers) took vows of chastity, obedience and personal poverty. By the middle of the twelfth century members were wearing on their black robes the eight-pointed cross of St John. The eight points were soon linked to the eight Beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mount; but were later linked to the eight tongues, or divisions of the knights into groups defined by language. The Order flourished and soon spread widely throughout Europe, where it was organised into Bailiwicks, Priories and Grand Priories. Their chief purpose was to channel recruits and funds to the headquarters in the East. Those brothers serving at the headquarters came themselves to be organised along roughly linguistic lines into collegiate bodies called Tongues: Provence, Auvergne, France, Italy, Aragon, Castile, England and Germany. Meanwhile, the Order had shifted its headquarters from the Holy Land to Cyprus; and then to Rhodes and later Malta, which it ruled for two centuries (1530-1798) and from which it took the name, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, by which the Roman Catholic Order is still known today.
Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Sovereign Military Order of Malta [SMOM], Order of Malta, Order of St Thomas of Acre
The Assassins (Arabic: الحشاشين Ḥashāshīn, also Hashishin or Hashashiyyin, Persian: حشیشیون / Hašišiyun (UniPers)) were an order of Nizari Ismailis, particularly those of Syria and Persia that existed from around 1092 to 1265. Posing a strong military threat to Sunni Saljuq authority within the Persian territories, the Nizari Ismailis captured and inhabited many mountain fortresses under the leadership of the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah. The name 'Assassins' comes from the Arabic Hashishin or "users of hashish" was originally derogatory and used by their adversaries during the Middle Ages; the modern word "assassin" is derived from this name, but Amin Malouf states that "The truth is different. According to texts that have come down to us from Alamut, Hassan-i Sabbah liked to call his disciples Asasiyun, meaning people who are faithful to the Asās, meaning "foundation" of the faith. This is the word, misunderstood by foreign travelers, that seemed similar to "hashish"".
The modern archives of the Holy See were established thanks to Paul V Borghese around 1610, but the roots of the history of the archives of the Roman Pontiffs reach way back in time, linking up with the very origin, nature, activities and development of the Roman Church itself. Right from the apostolic times, the Popes carefully preserved the manuscripts concerning the exercise of their activities. This collection of manuscripts was kept in the scrinium Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae that usually followed the Popes in their various residences, but the fragility of the papyrus, normally used at the papal chancery until the XI Century, the transfers and the political upheavals nearly caused the total loss of all the archival material preceding Innocent III. From the XI Century onwards, when the Roman Pontiff and his Curia gained a central role, the number of offices of the Curia grew, as well as the number of archives, and in the XV Century the most precious documents were taken to Castel S. Angelo. After several projects for the creation of a main archive of the Church, Paul V gave the order to transfer the registers of the Papal bulls and briefs, the books of the Camera and the collections of documents up to the papacy of Pius V included, to the three halls next to the Secret Library (the so-called Sale Paoline). This gave life to a new archive «pro privata Romanorum pontificum commoditate» and «ad publicam studiorum utilitatem», for a total of just over three thousand pieces, of which the most important part included the registers of the papal bulls from Innocent III onwards, (Registra Vaticana). The new archive was called «Vatican Secret Archives». During the XVII Century, the Archives increased considerably, especially under Urban VIII Barberini (the Bulls of Sixtus IV and Pius V; the papers of the Briefs Secretariat from Alexander VI to Pius V, the abundant documentation contained in the Armaria XXXIX-XLV; the books of the Apostolic Camera from Avignon, where they had remained after the end of the Scism; the papers of the Council of Trent), and under Alexander VII, who chose to place the diplomatic correspondence of the Secretariat of State on a specific floor of the Vatican Palaces.
Order of Cistercians; (O.Cist.)
Papal Swiss Guard
Knights of Columbus
There are many historical accounts of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ, or Knights of the Temple, more commonly referred to as Knights Templar. They were formed as a result of the Crusades doing battle with the Moslems and the capture of Jerusalem around 1099. Jerusalem fell and the Holy City belonged to the Crusaders and all Christendom rejoiced. Most libraries and bookstores have many volumes on the Crusades and the Knights Templar and these writings are easily understood. The Internet today has an almost endless amount of information on Knights Templar and those interested can become well informed of the different versions relating to their history. Men, women and children pressed forward on their pilgrimage to the sacred city only to find that although Jerusalem was in Christian hands, the Moslems still controlled Palestine. The highways and byways leading to Jerusalem were unprotected. The ferocity of the Moslems seemed to increase with the fall of the city, and mutilated bodies and bleached bones of pilgrims soon became a common site along the roadways. To add to the vulnerability of the pilgrims, thousands of the Crusaders, their primary objective accomplished, returned to their own lands leaving the countryside to the Moslems uncontested. This was the circumstance that set the stage for Templary. A small band of Crusaders remaining after the conquest recognized the plight of the pilgrims and bound themselves in a holy Brotherhood in arms, entering into a solemn agreement to aid one another in clearing the highways, and in protecting the pilgrims through the passes and defiles of the mountains to the Holy City In short, the Knights Templar were laymen who protected and defended Christians traveling to Jerusalem. These men took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, and were renowned for their fierceness and courage in battle. In 1118 A.D., nineteen years after the successful Crusade, these Poor Fellow Soldiers of Jesus Christ, as they termed themselves, were officially recognized and sanctioned and were given for their headquarters, a building on Mount Moriah, the site of the former Temple of King Solomon. Consequently, they became known as the Knights of the Temple, or Knights Templar. This was the era of chivalric ascendancy. Much as outstanding athletes receive the hero worship and admiration of the public today, so did those Knights of old capture the hearts and the wealth of the public of their period. Their fame spread like wildfire. Rulers hastened to be identified with Knights Templar and to present gold and property to the Order. It is a matter of history that the warriors who fought for Christianity as Knights Templar had their vicissitudes with more downs than ups on the battlefield through the centuries. However, their wealth and their prestige remained undiminished. on the contrary their treasury became too large to escape the notice of some financially embarrassed rulers, especially Philip the Fair, King of France. Philip the Fair with Pope Clement (who Philip pretty well influenced) arranged for Convocation of the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, Jacques DeMolay, and his officers at Paris. The Convocation was held, but Grand Master DeMolay and his officers never left, at least not with their lives. In 1314 Jacques DeMolay was burned at the stake for alleged heresy and dozens of other accusations; all Knight Templar wealth was seized and Templary "moved underground." Some have written that after the death of Grand Master DeMolay there was an unbroken succession of the Grand Masters and a constant Templar organization without a lapse. This is difficult to believe and it is even more difficult to read the many treatises written to support or disprove the theory.
Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani; O.S.M.T.H., Knight Templars of Solomon Ha-Melech
One of the earliest records of Masonic lodges is found in the German city of Hirschau (now Hirsau) in the current state of Baden-Württenberg. Masonic lodges instituted in the city of Hirschau in the late 11th century worked under the Benedictine order of Germany and were the first to establish the Gothic style of architecture. As early as 1149 the first German Zünfte or stonemason unions developed in Magdeburg, Würzburg, Speyer and Straβburg. In 1250 the first grand lodge of Freemasons was formed in the city of Cologne (Köln), Germany. The grand lodge was formed as part of the immense undertaking to erect the cathedral of Cologne. The first Masonic congress occurred in the city of Straβburg, Germany in the year 1275. It was formed by Grand Master Erwin von Steinbach. This was also the earliest recorded use of the symbol of Freemasons, the square and compasses. Whilst Straβburg was considered the premier grand lodge of the day, other Great Masonic lodges had already been formed in Wien, Bern and the above mentioned Köln (Cologne); these were called Oberhütten or great lodges. Several Masonic congresses were held in the city of Straβburg, including the years 1498 and 1563. At this time the first recorded Arms of the Masons of Germany were recorded depicting four compasses positioned around a pagan sun symbol and arranged in the shape of a swastika or pagan / Aryan sun-wheel. The Masonic Arms of Germany also displayed the name of St John the Evangelist, the patron Saint of German Masons.
The legend presented in the Manifestos has been interpreted symbolically (as were all hermetic and alchemical texts of those times). They do not directly state Christian Rosenkreuz's years of birth and death, but in two sentences in the second Manifesto the year 1378 is presented as being the birth year of "our Christian Father", and it is stated that he lived for 106 years, which would mean he died in 1484. The foundation of the Order can be supposed in similar terms to have occurred in the year 1407. The Rose-Croix made themselves known by publishing three now famous Manifestos: the Fama Fraternitatis, the Confessio Fraternitatis, and the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreuz, published respectively in 1614, 1615, and 1616.
Rosicrucian Order AMORC, Neophyte, I°, II°, III°, VI°, V°, VI°, VII°, VIII°, IX°
Although claiming roots in the founding of Solomon’s Temple, it wasn’t until June 24th, 1717 that four London lodges came together at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House in St Paul’s Churchyard, and formed themselves into a Grand Lodge and elected a Grand Master by the name of Anthony Slayer.
Blue Lodge 1°, 2°, 3°, Allied Masonic Degrees of the United States of America, Saint Lawrence the Martyr, Excellent Master, Knight of Constantinople, Master of Tyre, Grand Tilers of Solomon, Architect, Royal Ark Mariner, Grand Architect, Order of the Secret Monitor, Secret Monitor, Brotherhood of David and Jonathan, Supreme Ruler, Superintendent, Red Branch of Eri (Honorary), 1°. Man-at-Arms, 2°. Esquire, 3°. Knight, Ye Ancient Order of Corks, Allied Masonic Degrees of Nottinghamshire, Saint Lawrence the Martyr, Knight of Constantinople, Grand Tilers of Solomon, Red Cross of Babylon, Grand High Priest, Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Shrine (Shriners), Daughter of the Nile, High Twelve International, International Masonic Order of "Delphi", Masonic Medical Research Laboratory, Masonic Order of the Bath, Masonic Rosicrucianism, Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis, 1st Order, I° Zelator, II° Theoricus, III° Practicus, IV° Philosophus, 2nd Order, V° Adeptus Minor, VI° Adeptus Major, VII° Adeptus Exemptus, 3rd Order, VIII° Magister Templi, IX° Magus, Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 1st Order, I° Zelator, II° Theoricus, III° Practicus, IV° Philosophus, 2nd Order, V° Adeptus Minor, Red Branch of Eri (Honorary), 1°. Man-at-Arms, 2°. Esquire, 3°. Knight, VI° Adeptus Major, VII° Adeptus Exemptus, 3rd Order, VIII° Magister, IX° Magus, The American Rosicrucian Order - Lodge de Parfaits, 1st Order, I° Zelator, II° Theoricus, III° Practicus, IV° Philosophus, 2nd Order, V° Adeptus Minor, VI° Adeptus Major, VII° Adeptus Exemptus, 3rd Order, VIII° Magister Templi, IX° Magus, Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm (Grotto), National Sojourner, Heroes of '76, Operatives, I° Indentured Apprentice, II° Fellow of the Craft, III° Fitter and Marker, IV° Setter Erector, V° Intendant, Overseer, Super Intendant and Warden, VI° Passed Master, VII° Master Mason and Grand Master Honoris Causa, Order of Athelstan, Order of DeMolay, Order of DeMolay Alumni, Order of the Eastern Star, Rainbow Girl's, Job's Daughters, Order of the Eastern Star, Order of Amaranth, Order of the White Shrine of Jerusalem, Order of the Secret Monitor, Secret Monitor, Brotherhood of David and Jonathan (Prince), Supreme Ruler, Order of True Kindred, Philalethes Society, Phoenixmasonry, Prince Hall Grand Lodge, Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction, Lodge of Perfection, 4° Master Traveler, 5° Perfect Master, 6° Master of the Brazen Serpent, 7° Provost and Judge, 8° Intendant of the Building, 9° Master of the Temple, 10° Master Elect, 11° Sublime Master Elected, 12° Grand Master Architect, 13° Master of the Ninth Arch, 14° Grand Elect Mason, Council, Princes of Jerusalem, 15° Knight of the East, or Knight of the Sword, 16° Prince of Jerusalem, Chapter of the Rose Croix, 17° Knight of the East and West, 18° Knight of the Rose Croix de Heredom Council of Kadosh, Consistory, 19° Grand Pontiff, 20° Master ad Vitam, 21° Patriarch Noachite, 22° Prince of Libanus, 23° Chief of the Tabernacle, 24° Brother of the Forest, 25° Master of Achievment, 26° Friend and Brother Eternal, 27° Knight of Jerusalem, 28° Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept, 29° Knight of Saint Andrew, 30° Grand Inspector, 31° Knight Aspirant, 32° Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, 33° Inspector General, Southern Jurisdiction, Lodge of Perfection, 4° Secret Master, 5° Perfect Master, 6° Intimate Secretary, 7° Provost and Judge, 8° Intendant of the Building, 9° Elu of the Nine, 10° Elu of the Fifteen, 11° Elu of the Twelve, 12° Master Architect, 13° Royal Arch of Solomon, 14° Perfect Elu, Chapter of the Rose Croix, 15° Knight of the East, or Knight of the Sword, or Knight of the Eagle, 16° Prince of Jerusalem, 17° Knight of the East and West, 18° Knight Rose Croix, Council of Kadosh, 19° Grand Pontiff, 20° Master of the Symbolic Lodge, 21° Noachite, or Prussian Knight, 22° Knight of the Royal Axe, or Prince of Libanus, 23° Chief of the Tabernacle, 24° Prince of the Tabernacle, 25° Knight of the Brazen Serpent, 26° Prince of Mercy, or Scottish Trinitarian, 27° Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept, 28° Knight Commander of the Temple, 29° Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew, 30° Knight Kadosh, or Knight of the White and Black Eagle, Consistory, 31° Inspector Inquisitor, 32° Master of the Royal Secret, Court of Honor, 32° Knight Commander of the Court of Honor (KCCH), 33° Inspector General Honorary, Grand Cross of the Court of Honor, 33° Inspector General, Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Theosophical Society, York Rite, Capitular, Mark Master Mason, Royal Ark Mariner, Past Master (Virtual), Most Excellent Master, Royal Arch Mason, Order of Knight Masons of the USA, Order of the Red Cross of Constantine, Knight of the Holy Sepulcher, Knight of St. John the Evangelist, Order of High Priest, Cryptic, Royal Master, Select Master, Super Excellent Master, Order of the Silver Trowel, Chivalric, Illustrious Order of the Red Cross, Passing Order of St. Paul, or the Mediterranean Pass, Order of the Knights of Malta, or simply Order of Malta, Order of the Temple, Knights of the York Cross of Honor, Knight Crusader of the Cross
First Mentioned in 1492 per Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo; The 'Marrano' or 'Crypto-Jews' in Spain found the first known Illuminati Order; "Alumbrado". On May 1, 1776 Johann Adam Weishaupt (2.6.1748 in Ingolstadt - 11.18.1830 in Gotha) was a German philosopher and founder of the 'Order of Illuminati', a secret society with origins in Bavaria.
Bavarian Illuminati, Nursery, Preperation, Novice, Minercal, Illuminatus Minor, Masonry, Symbolic, Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, Illuminatus Major or Scotch Mason, Scotch, Illuminatus Dirigens or Scotch Knight, Mysteries, Lesser, Prince, Priest, Greater, Magus, King
Illuminati (Jonathan Barlow Gee), 1° Illuminatus Minor A: Apprentice, 2° Illuminatus Minor B: Fellow, 3° Illuminatus Minor C: Master, 4° Illuminatus Major: Scottish Novice, 5° Scots Major Illuminatus Dirigens, 6° Presbyter of a Prefect, 7° Priest of a Province, 8° Epopt of a Nation, 9° Prince or Regent, 10° Rex or King Man, 11° Magus Council of Arepoagites
In 1832 William Huntington Russell, founded Skull and Bones and the namesake of the society's corporate body, the Russell Trust Association.
Skull & Crossbones
Scroll and Key
Book and Snake
Aurelian Honor Society
Mace and Chain
Founded in 1872; “Weaving spiders come not here"—inscription surrounding an owl on a bronze bas-relief plaque built into the brick wall near the corner of Taylor and Post Streets in San Francisco.
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn) was a magical order active in Great Britain during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which practiced theurgy and spiritual development. It has been one of the largest single influences on 20th-century Western occultism. Concepts of magic and ritual at the center of contemporary traditions, such as Wicca and Thelema, were inspired by the Golden Dawn. The three founders, William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers were Freemasons and members of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.). Westcott appears to have been the initial driving force behind the establishment of the Golden Dawn. The Golden Dawn system was based on hierarchy and initiation like the Masonic Lodges, however women were admitted on an equal basis with men. The "Golden Dawn" was the first of three Orders, although all three are often collectively referred to as the "Golden Dawn". The First Order taught esoteric philosophy based on the Hermetic Qabalah and personal development through study and awareness of the four Classical Elements as well as the basics of astrology, tarot divination, and geomancy. The Second or "Inner" Order, the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (the Ruby Rose and Cross of Gold), taught proper magic, including scrying, astral travel, and alchemy. The Third Order was that of the "Secret Chiefs", who were said to be highly skilled; they supposedly directed the activities of the lower two orders by spirit communication with the Chiefs of the Second Order.
First Order, Introduction—Neophyte 0=0, Zelator 1=10, Theoricus 2=9, Practicus 3=8, Philosophus 4=7, Intermediate—Portal Grade
Second Order, Adeptus Minor 5=6, Adeptus Major 6=5, Adeptus Exemptus 7=4
Third Order, Magister Templi 8=3, Magus 9=2, Ipsissimus 10=1
Although officially founded at the beginning of the 20th century e.v., O.T.O. represents a surfacing and confluence of the divergent streams of esoteric wisdom and knowledge which were originally divided and driven underground by political and religious intolerance during the dark ages. It draws from the traditions of the Freemasonic, Rosicrucian and Illuminist movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, the crusading Knights Templars of the middle ages and early Christian Gnosticism and the Pagan Mystery Schools. Its symbolism contains a reunification of the hidden traditions of the East and the West, and its resolution of these traditions has enabled it to recognize the true value of Aleister Crowley's revelation of The Book of the Law. Carl Kellner The Spiritual Father of Ordo Templi Orientis was Carl Kellner (Renatus, Sept. 1, 1851 - June 7, 1905), a wealthy Austrian paper chemist. Kellner was a student of Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism and Eastern mysticism, and traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia Minor. During his travels, he claims to have come into contact with three Adepts (a Sufi, Soliman ben Aifa, and two Hindu Tantrics, Bhima Sena Pratapa of Lahore and Sri Mahatma Agamya Paramahamsa), and an organization called the Hermetic Brotherhood of Light.
The Third, or Man of Earth, Triad, 0° Minerval, I° Man and Brother Woman and Sister, II° Magician, III° Master Magician, IV° Perfect Magician and companion of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch; Perfect Initiate, or Prince of Jerusalem
Outside all Triads, Knight of the East and West
The Second, or Lover, Triad, V° Sovereign Prince Rose-Croix, and Knight of the Pelican and Eagle; Knight of the Red Eagle, and Member of the Senate of Knight Hermetic Philosophers, VI° Illustrious Knight (Templar) of the Order of Kadosch, and Companion of the Holy Graal; Grand Inquisitor Commander, and Member of the Grand Tribunal; Prince of the Royal Secret, VII° Theoreticus, and Very Illustrious Sovereign Grand Inspector General; Magus of Light, and Bishop of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica; Grandmaster of Light, and Inspector of Rites and Degrees
The First, or Hermit, Triad, VIII° Perfect Pontiff of the Illuminati; Epopt of the Illuminati, IX° Initiate of the Sanctuary of the Gnosis, X° Rex Summus Sanctissimus, XI° Initiate of the Eleventh Degree (This degree is technical, and has no relation to the general plan of the Order), XII° Frater Superior, and Outer Head of the Order
In 17th Century England, people were facing a lot of challenges. Life was tough, often lawless and desperate. Medicine was still crude and in a primitive stage. Life expectancy was about 45 to 50. There were lots of sickness, orphaned kids, widowed mothers and many people cannot afford to pay a descent burial for the dead. So, ordinary people from different trades and walks of life found it necessary to group together as brothers and sisters and contribute some of their hard-earned wages to a common fund which they could use for unfortunate times such as sickness, losing a job and even death. They would work together to help each other and the unfortunate families back on their feet, whether it was rebuilding a barn that had burned or putting in a new crop after a devastating season. Such altruistic and friendly society came to be known as "Odd Fellows" because it was odd to find people organized for the purpose of giving aid to those in need and of pursuing projects for the benefit of all mankind. It was believed that they were "an odd bunch of fellows" who would behave in such a selfless and seemingly impractical fashion. Odd Fellows are also known as "The Three Link Fraternity" which stands for Friendship, Love and Truth. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded on the North American Continent in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819 when Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England. At that time, the city was suffering both a yellow fever epidemic and mass unemployment so they dedicated the organization to "Visit the sick, relieve the distress, bury the dead and educate the orphans." Odd Fellowship became the 1st national fraternity to include both men and women when it adopted the beautiful Rebekah Degree on September 20, 1851. This degree is based on the teachings found in the Holy Bible, and was written by the Honorable Schuyler Colfax who was Vice President of the United States during the period 1868-1873. Odd Fellows and Rebekahs were also the first fraternal organization to establish homes for our senior members and for orphaned children. Today, Odd Fellows and Rebekahs continue to exist with nearly 10,000 lodges in approximately 26 countries consisting of men and women who united together for mutual aid and conviviality, providing social and practical support for each other and their communities in every way possible. Even though we have come a long way now, there are still more needs to be done. Working together to achieve these goals and help our fellow men creates a bond that cannot be described – a brotherhood and sisterhood of benevolence that can only be felt as an active participant. Working together, we can really help make a difference!
According to the "prieure documents," a conclave of Calabrian monks who left from the Belgian Abbey of Orval in 1090 helped secure the election of Godfroi de Bouillion as de facto king of Jerusalem during the First Crusade (but as is well known, he refused the title, accepting only Defender of the Holy Sepulchre), based on their belief that he was a descendant of the Merovingians, and by that fact, according to these documents, also a descendant of King David through Jesus and Merovech. In return, Godfroi secured their installation into an Abbey on Mount Sion. These documents also claim that the Ordre of Sion and the Order of the Temple (officially, the Poor Knights of the Temple of Solomon, later known as the Knights Templar, and officially recognized as such in 1118) were, until 1188, one unified organization with the same leadership.
The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. The Society is notable chiefly as the organization that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), which was later transformed by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party). There is no evidence that Hitler ever attended the Thule Society. But there was great enthusiasm among Thule members for Hitler, most notably Rudolf Hess and Dietrich Eckart. The occultists believed Hitler to be the prophesied “redeemer of Germany”. They were Hitler’s first “disciples” and as such were crucial to his meteoric rise. The Thule Society was originally a "Germanic study group" headed by Walter Neuhaus, a wounded World War I veteran turned art student from Berlin who had become a keeper of pedigrees for the Germanenorden (or "Order of Teutons"), a secret society founded in 1911 and formally named in the following year. In 1917 Nauhaus moved to Munich; his Thule-Gesellschaft was to be a cover-name for the Munich branch of the Germanenorden, but events developed differently as a result of a schism in the Order. In 1918, Nauhaus was contacted in Munich by Rudolf von Sebottendorf (or von Sebottendorff), an occultist and newly elected head of the Bavarian province of the schismatic offshoot, known as the Germanenorden Walvater of the Holy Grail. The two men became associates in a recruitment campaign, and Sebottendorff adopted Nauhaus's Thule Society as a cover-name for his Munich lodge of the Germanenorden Walvater at its formal dedication on 18 August 1918.
Vril is a substance described in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's 1871 novel The Coming Race, which was later reprinted as Vril: The Power of the Coming Race. The novel is an early example of science fiction. However, many early readers believed that its account of a superior subterranean master race and the energy-form called "Vril" was accurate, to the extent that some theosophists accepted the book as truth. Furthermore, since 1960 there has been a conspiracy theory about a secret Vril Society.
Founded May 29, 1952; The Bilderberg Group, Bilderberg conference, or Bilderberg Club is an annual, unofficial, invitation-only conference of approximately 140 guests, most of whom are people of influence in the fields of politics, banking, business, the military and news media. The original conference was held at the Hotel de Bilderberg, near Arnhem in the Netherlands, from 29 May to 31 May 1954. It was initiated by several people, including Polish politician Józef Retinger, concerned about the growth of anti-Americanism in Western Europe, who proposed an international conference at which leaders from European countries and the United States would be brought together with the aim of promoting Atlanticism – better understanding between the cultures of the United States and Western Europe to foster cooperation on political, economic, and defense issues.
The super Congress, officially titled "The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction," consists of 12 lawmakers -- six from each party and each chamber -- who have been given nearly unprecedented power to cut projected deficits by $1.5 trillion over 10 years.
Democrat, Chris Van Hollen, James Clyburn, John Kerry, Max Baucus, Patty Murray, Xavier Bacerra
President of the United States
Republican, Dave Camp, Fred Upton, Jeb Hensarling, John Kyl, Pat Toomey, Rob Portman
Founded July 23, 1952; The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental made decisions negotiated by the member states.
Founded April 4, 1949; NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty.
The Partnership for Prosperity and Security in the Caribbean (PPS) is a regional-level dialogue with the stated purpose of providing greater cooperation on security and economic issues. The Partnership was founded in Bridgetown, Barbados on March 10, 1997 by the Governments of the United States of America, Antigua and Barbuda, the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the Commonwealth of Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Haiti, Jamaica, the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the Republic of Suriname and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partnership_for_Prosperity_and_Security_in_the_Caribbean
Established in the spring of 1997, the Project for the New American Century is a non-profit, educational organization whose goal is to promote American global leadership. The Project is an initiative of the New Citizenship Project (501c3); the New Citizenship Project's chairman is William Kristol and its president is Gary Schmitt.
The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP) was a region-level dialogue with the stated purpose of providing greater cooperation on security and economic issues. The Partnership was founded in Waco, Texas on March 23, 2005 by Paul Martin, Prime Minister of Canada, Vicente Fox, President of Mexico, and George W. Bush, President of the United States. It was the second of such regional-level agreements involving the United States of America following the 1997 Partnership for Prosperity and Security in the Caribbean (PPS). Since August 2009 it is no longer an active initiative of any of the original dialogue partners.
Founded June 26, 1945; The League of Nations (LON; founded June 28, 1919) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, and it was the precursor to the United Nations. The League was the first permanent international security organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
Standard & Poor's
The International Monetary Fund was conceived in July 1944 originally with 45 members and came into existence in December 1945 when 29 countries signed the agreement with a goal to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world's international payment system.
The World Bank is one of five institutions created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. The International Monetary Fund, a related institution, is the second. Delegates from many countries attended the Bretton Woods Conference. The most powerful countries in attendance were the United States and United Kingdom, which dominated negotiations.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American nonprofit nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. Founded in 1921 and headquartered at 58 East 68th Street in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C., the CFR is considered to be the nation's 'most influential foreign-policy think tank'.
The Commission was originally created in 1973 to bring together experienced leaders within the private sector to discuss issues of global concern at a time when communication and cooperation between Europe, North America, and Asia were lacking.
Central Security Service
Xe Services, LLC, U.S. Training Center
East India Company
Dutch East India Company
Danish East India Company
Portuguese East India Company
French East India Company
The Committee of 300 - "The Olympians"
Swedish East India Company
Transportation Security Administration
"Yes, this includes WikiLeaks and Mr. Assange, whether originally Federal or Co-Opted."
Dictatorship, Right-Wing Dictatorship, Military Dictatorship, Military Junta
Monarchy, Absolute Monarchy, Constitutional Monarchy, Duchy, Grand Duchy, Diarchy, Enlightened Absolutism, Elective Monarchy, Hereditary Monarchy, Non-Sovereign Monarchy, Popular Monarchy, Principality, New Monarchs, Self-Proclaimed Monarchy, Regent
Oligarchy, Saeculum Obscurum
Totalitarian Democracy, Dictatorship of the Proletariat
Open Source Governance
Representative Democracy, Parliamentary System, Consensus Government, Westminster System, Polyarchy, Triarchy, Tetrarchy, Pentarchy, Heptarchy, Presidential System, Semi-Presidential System
Soviet Republic (system of government)