BIOLOGY: Sustainable Ecosystems

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BIOLOGY: Sustainable Ecosystems by Mind Map: BIOLOGY: Sustainable Ecosystems

1. Elements of an ecosystem

1.1. Stewardship: Taking responsibility for something

1.2. Sustainability:

1.3. Biodiversity: Different types of organisms in an area.

1.4. Ecology: Study of the way in which organisms interact with each other and non-living things.

1.5. Biotic: Living - organisms such as animals, plants, mushrooms, bacteria and algae.

1.6. Abiotic: Non-living - physical things such as rocks, air and water, or things that can be measured: air temperature, hours of daylight, and salt concentration.

1.7. Species: Group of similar organisms that can reproduce with each other; so can their offspring.

1.8. Population: Members of the same species that live in the same area.

1.9. Habitat: Area where an organism lives.

1.10. Community: Populations of different species that live and interact in the same area.

1.11. Niche: All the interactions of a given species with its ecosystem.

2. Biomes & Biosphere

2.1. Biome: A large geographical region containing similar ecosystems.

2.1.1. Terrestrial: Canada's

2.1.2. Boreal Forests: Trees with cones and needles (spruce & fir). Most of northern Ontario is covered with boreal forests.

2.1.3. Tundra: No trees, only small, hardy grasses, mosses and lichens. Even flowers (crocuses)grow here.

2.1.4. Grasslands: Few trees but are covered in various kinds of grasses & shrubs. Ontario's few grasslands are found in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.

2.1.5. Temperate Coniferous Forests: Various needle-and cone-bearing trees: Douglas fir, sitka spruce & western hemlock. Most of western British Columbia is temperate coniferous.

2.1.6. Marine Biomes: Found in oceans; coral reefs, ocean floor, open ocean & intertidal zones. Ontario's marine biomes are along Hudson Bay & James Bay.

2.1.7. Freshwater Biomes: Include lakes, streams, rivers & wetlands. Ontario's freshwater biomes consist of the Great Lakes, St.Lawrence River, countless lakes, streams & wetlands.

2.2. Biosphere: All biomes in the world makeup the biosphere. It is the part of the planet including water, land & air; where life exists.

2.2.1. Atmosphere: Layer of gases surrounding E

2.2.1.1. Lower atmosphere contains oxygen for organisms to survive. Upper atmosphere contains ozone, which protects organisms from UV radiation.

2.2.2. Lithosphere: Earth's solid outer layer; rigid crust & upper mantle; which lies directly below crust. It extends 100km down surface & runs under continents & oceans. Includes soil; home to micro-organisms, plants, animals & fungi.

2.2.3. Hydrosphere: All of Earth's water. 97% is salt water (oceans) and 3% is fresh water (lakes, streams, ice & snow in glaciers.

3. Nutrient Cycles

3.1. Nutrients: Substances an organism uses to build/repair cells of its body. They provide energy; needed to grow/maintain bodies for reproduction. Animals eat food for nutrients while plants obtain it through the soil & air.

3.1.1. Nutrients cycle back & forth between biotic & abiotic parts of an ecosystem; necessary for sustainability.

3.2. Water Cycle

3.3. Nitrogen Cycle

3.4. Carbon Cycle

4. Energy Flow

4.1. Photosynthesis Equation: carbon dioxide gas + water + sunlight --> glucose + oxygen Cellular Respiration Equation: glucose + oxygen gas --> carbon dioxide gas + water + energy

4.2. Food Chain & Food Webs

4.2.1. Food Chain: A way of showing feeding relationships among organisms.

4.2.2. Food Web: Many food chains put together.

4.2.3. Energy Pyramid: Amount of energy available for next animal decreases (used or lost) as you go up the pyramid.

5. Biotic Interactions

5.1. Mutualism: Both species benefit from benefit from symbiotic partnership.

5.2. Commensalism: One species benefits but does not harm the other species.

5.3. Parasitism: One species benefits at the expense of the

6. Physics: Characteristics of Electricity

6.1. Elements of a Circuit

6.1.1. Static: Charges are fixed in one location on surface of an object until given a path to escape.

6.1.2. Conductor: Materials that allow electrons to change positions.

6.1.2.1. Good - Copper & Aluminum Fair - Water with dissolved minerals & Most air

6.1.3. Insulator: Materials that hold onto their electrons & do not allow them to move easily.

6.1.3.1. Rubber & Wood

6.1.4. Circuit: Path for electrons to flow; energy source, electrical load & conducting wires

6.1.4.1. Direct Current: Flows in one direction.

6.1.4.2. Alternating Current:

6.1.4.3. Measured in ampere (A) by an ammeter.

6.1.5. Current Electricity: continuous flow of electrons in a circuit.

6.1.6. Battery: Combination of electrochemical cells.

6.1.7. Load: Device converting electrical energy to another form of energy.

6.1.8. Electrochemical cell: Package of chemicals that convert chemical energy into electrical energy that is stored in charged particles.

6.1.8.1. Electrolyte: Liquid or paste that conducts electricity bc it contains chemicals that form ions.

6.1.8.1.1. Uses a liquid = wet cell

6.1.8.1.2. Uses a paste = dry cell

6.1.8.2. Electrodes: Metal strips that react with the electrolyte.

6.1.8.3. Fuel cell: Electrochemical cell that generates electricity directly from a chemical reaction with a fuel; hydrogen.

6.1.9. Potential Energy/Voltage: Difference in electrical potential energy between 2 points in a circuit.

6.1.10. Resistance:

6.1.10.1. Multimeters can be used to measure potential difference (

6.1.10.2. Measured in Ohm.

6.2. Ohm's Law & Equations

6.2.1. Law: As long as the temperature stays the same, V = IR

6.3. Ohm's Law Equations

6.3.1. V = IR = (1.5A) (30 ) = 45V

6.3.2. R =

6.3.3. GIVEN:

7. Chemistry: Atoms, Elements and Compounds

7.1. Atomic theory

7.1.1. Nature of Matter: - All matter is made up of small invisible particles called atoms. - All the atoms of an element are identical in properties; size & mass. - Atoms of different elements have different properties. - Atoms of different elements can combine to form new substances.

7.1.2. J.J. Thomson's Discovery: Bc he had detected negatively charged particles, he reasoned that atoms, which have no over all charge, must also contain positive charges.

7.1.3. Ernest Rutherford's Discovery: The nucleus is located in the centre of the atom. This tiny positively charged part of the atom also contains most of the atom's mass. So, it is a positive charge.

7.1.4. James Chadwick's Discovery: The nucleus contains neutral particles (neutrons) as well as positive particles (protons). Each neutron is the same mass as each proton in the same atom, but carries no electrical charge.

7.1.5. Neils Bohr's Discovery: Electrons are arranged by hydrogen & magnesium. Electrons surround the nucleus in energy levels; shells. Electrons jump between these shells by gaining/losing energy. Each shell can contain a specific number of electrons.

7.2. Elements

7.2.1. Element Classes

7.2.1.1. Alloy: A mixture of two or more metals.

7.2.1.2. Metal properties: excellent conductors of electricity & heat, malleable & ductile, moulded & shaped easily. ex. silver, sodium, platinum, mercury

7.2.1.3. Non-Metal properties: do not resemble metals. ex. gases, solids, bromine, sulphur

7.2.1.4. Metalloids: elements w/ metallic & non-metallic properties, conducts energy but not well; semiconductors. ex. sillicon

7.3. Ionic Compounds

7.3.1. Properties: - Have high melting points - Form crystals, which are very regular arrangements of particles - Dissolve in water

7.3.2. Formulas (ex.) : Aluminum Sulfide & Boron Phosphide Al3+ S2- B P3- Al3+ Al3+ B S2- S2- S2- P3- Formula: A2S3 BP

7.4. Periodic Table

7.4.1. Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom of an element.

7.4.2. Atomic mass: Average mass of an element's atom.

7.5. Laws of Attraction

7.5.1. Laws: - Particles with opposite charges attract each other - Particles with like charges repel each other