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1. Biology

1.1. Definitions

1.1.1. Stewardship: taking personal responsibility and good care of the enviroment.

1.1.2. Sustainability: in the environment, organisms continue to live for generations.

1.1.3. Biodiversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

1.1.4. Ecology: the study of organisms and their interactions.

1.1.5. Living and Non-living Biotic: living organisms; algae, animals, plants Abiotic: non-living things; rocks, soil, water

1.1.6. Groups Species: a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of multiplying. Population: a group of members of the same species that live in the same area. Community: a community is made up of populations of different species that live and interact in an area.

1.1.7. Niche: All the interactions of a given species with its ecosystem form the species' niche.

1.1.8. Habitat Habitat Change: when an entire habitat is changed by humans enough to make it inhabitable. Habitat Fragmentation: when parts of a habitat are altered by humans overtime.

1.1.9. Species Native Species: a species that is native to the habitat it is living in. Invasive Species: a species that is living in a habitat that it is not native to.

1.1.10. Limiting Factors: an environmental factor that prevents improvement within an ecosystem.

1.1.11. Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of organisms that a region can support.

1.2. Biosphere

1.2.1. Three major regions of the Earth Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surround the Earth. The upper half of the atmosphere is made up of ozone. (ozone protects Earth from the Sun's UV radiation) Lithosphere: Layer of solids. Earth's crust and upper mantle. Hydrosphere: Layer of liquids. All the water on Earth, 97% salt water and 3% freshwater.

1.3. Conservation

1.3.1. In-situ Conservation conserving species in their natural. Example: an american bunny being preserved in America.

1.3.2. Ex-situ Conservation conserving species, but not in their natural habitat. Example: an american bunny being preserved in Canada.

1.4. Pollution

1.4.1. The presence or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. Point Source pollution: when you are able to identify where the pollution is and where it is coming from. Non-point source pollution: when you are able to identify the general location of the pollution and the general area of where it came from.

1.5. Symbiosis

1.5.1. The interaction between two species and how they both benefit or do not benefit. There are three types of symbiosis. Mutualism: both species benefit from each other. Commensalism: one species benefits and the other does not get affected. Parasitism: one species benefits at the expense of the other species

1.6. Photsynthesis

1.6.1. The process of plants producing carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = glucose + oxygen

1.7. Growth Curves

1.7.1. J-curve: grows exponentially

1.7.2. S-curve: starts off slow then increases

1.7.3. Boom and Bust curve: grows exponentially at first, then declines after a while

1.8. Food Chains and Food Webs

1.8.1. Herbivores: only eats plants

1.8.2. Omnivores: eats plants and animals

1.8.3. Carnivores: only eats meat

1.8.4. Scavengers: carnivores that eat the remains of dead animals

1.8.5. Detritivores: consumers that feed on only organic matter

1.8.6. Decomposers: breaks down organic matter and release nutrients back into the ecosystem

1.9. Nutrients

1.9.1. Substances an organism uses to build/repair the cells of the body. Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle: How carbon enters the atmosphere and organisms Nitrogen Cycle: How nitrogen enters animals and plants and how it goes throughout the ecosystem Water Cycle: Water is moved throughout the whole biosphere

2. Chemistry

2.1. Periodic Table

2.1.1. Atomic Number = number of protons

2.1.2. Ion Charge = the electric charge that an atom takes on when it loses or gains electrons An atom or a group of atoms that has lost or gained electrons is called an ion. Electrons have a negative charge, and so an atom that loses electrons becomes a positive ion. For example, if an iron atom loses 3 electrons, it becomes an ion with A 3+ charge. If an iron atom loses 2 electrons it becomes an ion with a 2+ charge. Ionic Compounds: pure substances usually consisting of at least one metal and one non-metal. Molecular Compounds Metals generally lose electrons and become positive ions. Many non-metals can gain electrons and so become negative ions. some elements do not form ions, for these elements no ion charge is shown in their squares on the periodic table. Neutrons: to find the number of neutrons you subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass

2.1.3. Atomic mass = the average mass of an elements atoms

2.1.4. Atom The nucleus: The tiny part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons Electrons: Electrons exist in shells, or energy levels, surrounding the nucleus. the inner most shell can hold 2 electrons. Each of the next two shells can hold 8 electrons. Protons: positively charged atom Neutron: atom with no charge To find the number of neutrons you do atomic mass-atomic number= number of neutrons

2.1.5. Bohr Diagram Bohr diagrams show the number of electrons in an element The number of electrons are the same as the atomic number Because an electron has a negative charge, when you remove electrons, the ion becomes positive. When you add more electrons, the ion becomes negative. For example, N3- has a -3 charge while Ca2+ has a +2 charge. When an ion has a positive charge, the atom has lost electrons. To calculate the remaining number of electrons, you subtract the amount of extra charge from the atomic number. In the case of a positive ion, there are more protons than electrons. For example, Ca2+ has a +2 charge so it has lost 2 electrons from the neutral state. Calcium’s atomic number is 20, therefore the ion has 18 electrons.

2.1.6. Lewis Structure contains the number of electrons on the valence shell of the bohr diagram in a "dot diagram" form

2.1.7. Atomic Theory All matter is made up of small, indivisible particles All the atoms of an element are identical in properties such as size and mass Atoms of different elements have different properties Atoms of different elements can combine in specific ways to form new substances

2.2. Matter

2.2.1. Particle Theory of Matter all matter is composed of very tiny objects called particles. these particles are to small to be seen, even with a powerful light microscope all particles have spaces between them. The distance between the spaces depends on the state of matter. Particles present in matter are always in motion. The amount of movement depends on the state of matter. the particles in a substance attract each other. The amount of attraction is different for different kinds of particles

2.2.2. Changes of State melting: solid-liquid evaporation: liquid- gas condensation: gas-liquid freezing: liquid-solind sublimation: solid-gas deposition: gas-solid

2.2.3. Substances pure substance: only made up of one kind of matter and has unique properties such as colour, hardness, boiling point, and melting point a pure substance is either an element or a compound. (for example gold is an element and sugar is a compound)

2.2.4. Mixture mechanical mixture: the different substances that make up the mixture are visible. suspension: a cloudy mixture in which tiny particles of one substance are held with another. solution: the different substances that make it up are not individually visible.

2.2.5. Physical Properties of Matter colour and lustre the light a substance reflects gives it shine and colour conductivity the ability of a substance to conduct electricity or heat. density the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance ductility any solid that can be stretched into a long wire is said to be ductile hardness a substances ability to resist being scratched malleability a substance that can be pounded and rolled into sheets is said to be malleable viscosity the resistance of a fluid to flow

3. Physics

3.1. Electrically Charges Particles

3.1.1. Protons: Positive electric charge

3.1.2. Neutrons: no electric charge

3.1.3. Electrons: negative electric charge

3.2. Static Charges

3.2.1. Objects can become charged when one objects moves to another

3.2.2. the electric charge that builds up on the surface is called a "static charge" or "static electricity" the charges are "static because they remain very nearly fixed in one location on the surface of the object until they are given a path to escape an object with more electrons than protons is negatively charged an object with more protons than electrons are positively charged

3.3. Current Electricity

3.3.1. The continuous flow of electrons in a circuit

3.3.2. Electric circuits always include an energy source, a conductor and a load . Many circuits also include a switch A switch is a device that turns the circuit on or off by closing or opening a circuit Current: the measure of the amount of electrical charge per second Current is measured in amperes (A) To measure current, use an ammeter

3.4. Potential Difference

3.4.1. the energy stored in an object the difference in potential energy is called the potential difference or voltage potential difference between 2 locations in a circuit is measured with a voltmeter. for example you can place the connecting wires of the voltmeter across the positive and negative terminals or a battery. this difference causes current to flow in a closed circuit. the higher the potential difference in a circuit, the greater the potential energy of each electron

3.5. Electron Affinity

3.5.1. the tendency of a substance to hold on to electrons

3.5.2. for example if you rub nylon and steel together, the nylon will become positive and the steel will become negative. The will lose electrons because it is higher in the table. the electrons from the nylon are transferred to the steel making the steel negative.

3.6. Laws of Attraction and Repulsion

3.6.1. when a positively charged object is brought close to a negatively charged object, the two objects attract.

3.6.2. When two objects with the same charge are brought close to each other they repel.

3.7. Electrical Insulators and Conductors

3.7.1. Conductivity is the ability of materials to allow to move freely in them. Materials that hold onto their electrons and do not allow them to move easily are called electrical insulators. An electrical insulator is a solid, liquid, or gas that resists or blocks the movement of electrons. Conduction is the movement is or transmission of electrons through a substance.

3.8. Electrochemical Cells

3.8.1. converts chemical energy to electrical energy. A simple electrochemical cell uses one electrolyte and two electrodes Electrolyte is conductive liquid or paste Dry cell uses electrolyte paste Wet cell uses electrolyte liquid Electrodes are metal strips that react to electrolyte

3.9. Ohm's Law

3.9.1. Ohm’s Law: V=IR (Voltage = Current * Resistance) This equation helps you find the values of one variable if the other two variables are provided.

3.10. Resistance

3.10.1. the measure of how resistant something is to electron flow Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω) Factors Affecting Resistance in a wire To measure resistance, use an ohmmeter

3.11. Circuits

3.11.1. Series Circuit closed circuit with one path Voltage (EQUAL) Vs = V1 = V2 = V3 Current (ADD) Is = I1 + I2 + I3

3.11.2. Parallel Circuit closed circuit with multiple paths Current (EQUAL) Is = I1 = I2 = I3 Voltage (ADD) Vs = V1 + V2 + V

3.12. Electricity Consumption

3.12.1. Kw (kilowatts) per hour (Kwh)

3.13. Efficiency

3.13.1. E output / E input * 100% = electrical efficiency

4. Astronomy

4.1. Solar System

4.1.1. Inner Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars

4.1.2. Outer Planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

4.2. Spin-off Products

4.2.1. A product that was intended for space use but being used on Earth Example: fire detector was originally made for spacecraft but is used in regular households

4.3. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

4.3.1. Colour Blue stars on the left, Red stars on the right

4.3.2. Luminosity(Brightness) Brightest stars on the top, Darkest at the bottom White dwarfs, such as the Procyon B are white because they are hot , but dim because they are small. White dwarfs are cooling, and will eventually become black At the top of the diagram there are red giants the outer layers of these stars are cool and appear red, but they are bright because they are so large All of these giants will eventually explode.

4.3.3. Surface temperature Hotter stars on the left, cooler stars on the right

4.4. Galaxies

4.4.1. Galaxies contain stars, planets, and dust A black hole is a region in space where gravity is so strong that not even light can escape At least one supermassive black hole is at the centre of a galaxy. Supermassive black holes are made when two black holes merge together slowly in a course of hundreds of millions of years

4.5. Dark Matter

4.5.1. refers to the matter in the universe that is invisible because it does not interact with light. 25% of the universe may be dark matter It is said that Dark Matter keeps galaxies together with its gravitational force

4.6. Stars

4.6.1. How a star is born All stars form inside a collapsing nebula, a cloud of dust and gases. A nebula's collapse can be triggered by a disturbance such as gravitational attraction of nearby star or the shockwave from an exploding star.

4.6.2. Protostar A star in its first stage of formation eventually the temperature of the spinning protostar rises to millions of degrees celsius this is hot enough for nuclear reactions to start over tens of thousands of years the energy from the core gradually reaches the star's outside when that occurs, the fully formed star switches on and begins to shine

4.6.3. Low mass stars Low mass stars use their nuclear fuel much more slowly than more massive stars do low mass stars burn much more slowly than more massive stars do

4.6.4. Supernovas when a star explodes. Stars might live for millions of years and suddenly come to an end Neutron Stars Black Holes

4.6.5. Sun The layers of Sun, going from the inner to the outer layer: Core, Radiative Zone, Convective Zone, Photosphere and Chromosphere. Sunspot: is a region on the sun’s surface that is cooler than than usual. Solar flares: is a massive explosion at the surface of the sun. It originates when its magnetic field breaks out of the sun’s surface and interacts with the chromosphere and corona Coronal Mass Ejection: An extremely powerful kind of flare If a coronal mass ejection were to head towards Earth, our magnetic field deflects and protects Earth sending the plasma to our North and South poles creating auroras.

4.7. Measured Distances In Space

4.7.1. Astronomical Unit (AU): Average distance between Sun and Earth 1 AU = about 150 000 000 km

4.7.2. Light year (LY): How far light can travel in one year 1 LY = 63 000 AU

4.8. Spacecrafts

4.8.1. Four main types of spacecraft Rockets carry crew, equipment, small capsules or satellites beyond orbit Probes carry instrumentation for robotic exploration Space station orbiting spacecraft that provide human needs and have living quarters Space shuttles carry personnel and equipment to orbiting spacecraft

4.8.2. ISS (International Space Station) is the largest spacecraft ever built Canada contributed a robotic arm to help astronauts work outside of the space station

4.9. Artificial Satellite

4.9.1. a satellite. An orbital device that receives and sends data

4.9.2. Geostationary when a satellite stays at the exact location when looking at it from the ground. The satellite syncs its movement with Earth’s rotation

4.10. Challenges Of Living in Space

4.10.1. Physical environment No air, no water Cosmic rays and solar radiation Space debris Temperatures can be unimaginably cold or hot

4.10.2. Confined living Long trips that last up to years Every minute in the same place with the same people and same food

4.10.3. Microgravity Effects on the body The Heart does not pump as hard in low gravity which weakens when on Earth The Muscles does not work as hard in low gravity which weakens them when on Earth Immune System red blood cells don’t produce making our immune system weaker making us more vulnerable to infections and diseases Bones have less pressure in space than on Earth. This causes them to lose minerals that weakens the bones

4.10.4. How it can be reduced Microgravity can be reduced by Astronauts exercise in space to help keep them fit.