Motility VIIb: Nystagmus in infants

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Motility VIIb: Nystagmus in infants by Mind Map: Motility VIIb: Nystagmus in infants

1. What is the next step if the eye exam of an infant with nystagmus is normal?

1.1. Do an electroretinogram (ERG).

1.1.1. If ERG is normal too, what are the possible types of nystagmus then?

1.1.1.1. Typical. What are the types of typical nystagmus with normal exam and normal ERG?

1.1.1.1.1. Idiopathic motor nystagmus. What are the features that characterize this type of nystagmus?

1.1.1.1.2. Latent nystagmus. What are the features that characterize this type of nystagmus?

1.1.1.2. Atypical such as spasmus nutans. What is spasmus nutans?

1.1.1.2.1. Spasmus nutans classically is a triad of disconjugate nystagmus, head nodding, and torticollis. What is the next step when you diagnose an infant with this condition? and what is the prognosis.

1.1.2. What are some possible etiologies of normal eye exam but abnormal ERG in an infant with nystagmus? ie sensory nystagmus

1.1.2.1. Lebers congenital amaurosis

1.1.2.2. Congenital stationary night blindness

1.1.2.3. Cone dystrophies

2. What are some abnormal eye exam findings that can cause nystagmus in an infant?

2.1. Anterior segment anomalies such as congenital cataracts

2.2. Albinism

2.3. Optic atrophy. What is the next step if you see atrophy?

2.3.1. Get MRI to look for compressive lesion

2.4. Optic nerve hypoplasia. What is the next step if you see hypoplasia?

2.4.1. Get MRI and endocrine evaluation looking for midline defects.