Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes

1.1.1. intellectual

1.1.1.1. to aid in the ability for critical thinking

1.1.2. economic

1.1.2.1. give the skills to work and be productive in 21st Century

1.1.3. social

1.1.3.1. aid in the ability to work with society

1.1.4. political

1.1.4.1. educate student to be engage in citizens

1.2. Perspective

1.2.1. Liberal Perspective

1.2.1.1. the role of schools

1.2.1.1.1. schools should be insuring the equity of education

1.2.1.2. explanation of unequal performance

1.2.1.2.1. the poor performance of education is founded on the unfair, unbalance system against lower socioeconomic groups

1.2.1.3. definition of educational problems

1.2.1.3.1. schools placing too much on discipline

1.2.1.3.2. limitation because of status of lower socioeconomic students

1.2.1.3.3. curriculum not being inclusive

2. Curriculum & Pedagogy

2.1. Curriculum Theory

2.1.1. Social Meliorist Curriculum

2.1.1.1. A progressive, reconstructive theory of curriculum in which the student is taught to result in societal change for the betterment; is the foundation for contemporary critical curriculum theory.

2.2. Traditions of Teaching

2.2.1. Mimetic

2.2.1.1. A tradition of teaching that results in specific knowledge being taught; uses didactic method of lectures and presentations

2.2.2. Transformative

2.2.2.1. A tradition of teaching that attempts to transform the students more than just the transmission of knowledge.

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. Element of Change

3.1.1. School Processes

3.1.1.1. Loyalty and Trust through communication

3.1.1.2. Developing Leaders

3.1.1.3. Working Together

3.1.1.4. Working Issues Out

3.1.2. School Cultures

3.1.2.1. Patience

3.1.2.2. Skill

3.1.2.3. Good Will

3.2. Major Stakeholders

3.2.1. Legislative

3.2.1.1. President: Donald Trump

3.2.1.2. Governor : Kay Ivey

3.2.1.3. US Senate: Richard Shelbey & Luther Strange (interim)

3.2.1.4. US Representative: Mo Brooks

3.2.1.5. State Senate: Paul Sanford

3.2.1.6. State Representative: Laura Hall

3.2.2. Education

3.2.2.1. District Board Member: Mary Scott Hunter (District 8)

3.2.2.2. Local Superintendent: Matthew A. Massey (Madison County Schools)

3.2.2.3. Board Representative: Angie Bates (District 2)

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notion

4.1.1.1. Progressive schooling that emphasizes better society by having better education.

4.1.2. Goal of Education

4.1.2.1. Works to improve the social order of society; growth

4.1.3. Role of the Teacher

4.1.4. Methods of Instruction

4.1.4.1. Lessons should be taught individually and in groups.

4.1.5. Curriculum

4.1.5.1. Working from the know to the unknown with a integrated curriculum.

4.1.6. Key Researchers

4.1.6.1. John Dewey

4.1.6.1.1. Introduced Instrumentalist and Experientialism

4.1.6.2. Jean- Jacques Rousseau

4.1.6.2.1. Believed that corruption from society ruin human natural good

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Theoretical Perspectives

5.1.1. Functionalism

5.1.1.1. Looks at education as a part/ whole, where the components work independently to function the whole.

5.1.2. Conflict Theory

5.1.2.1. Following the theories of Karl Marx, they see the education system as a caste struggle for power.

5.1.3. Interactionalism

5.1.3.1. Concrete thinking toward education that is a loose blend of Conflict Theory and Functionalism that stresses the link between school and society.

5.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.2.1. Knowledge and Attitude

5.2.1.1. Stresses that more years of education leads to more knowledge and skills to become a more productive member of society.

5.2.2. Employment

5.2.2.1. Believe that schooling does not produce the best job skills; the best job skills are learned on the job.

5.2.3. Education and Mobility

5.2.3.1. Emphasize a merit based system of achievement for mobility

5.2.4. Tracking

5.2.4.1. Program of segregating students based on success potential; easily manipulated by "elite parents".

5.2.5. De Facto Segregation

5.2.5.1. Believe that school choice would lead to better diverse schools; actually leads to more segregated schools.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Education for Women and African- Americans

6.1.1. Based on gender roles, it took over forty years for the Women's Education Movement in America; from girls in elementary schools to college to be accepted.

6.1.2. For African Americans, the set back from the Jim Crow era produced hardships for integration of schools; but also produced the first Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

6.2. The Democratic- Liberal School

6.2.1. Committed to equal education, they believe in a progressive schools. They also encourage diversity in the schools demographics.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Demographic Impact on Education

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Differences in Expectations: Lower class families tend to have lower expectation for children than the expectations for middle and upper class families

7.1.1.2. Teachers Mentality: Teachers tend to have higher appeal towards higher class students than lower class students; this may the result of the proper English spoken by middle and high class students.

7.1.1.3. College Enrollment Discrimination: College are more willing to accept students from higher socioeconomic classes;

7.1.2. Race (White vs. Minority

7.1.2.1. Minority students are more likely to not do as well as white students on standardized test; therefore, it results in less scholarships and enrollment.

7.1.2.2. Minorities mostly do not receive the same educational opportunities as white students; consequently, minority students do not reap the benefits of academic success.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Females are less likely to drop out and have more and better scholastic skills than boys.

7.1.3.2. Males are more likely to score higher than females on standardized test, mostly because of females anxiety based on gender stereotypes and stigmas.

7.2. Coleman Study from 1982

7.2.1. Resonses

7.2.1.1. The findings are disputed as being insignificant; plus private schools that service lower income families are becoming more elite and can eventually become more selective. These schools may not educate lower income families in the future.

7.2.1.2. The findings are disputed based on the fact that results are not adequate because of the racial and socioeconomic status of the students is of greater impact on achievement.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences Theory

8.1.1. Adaptaion

8.1.1.1. Theory in which working class and/ or non white students are "forced" to adapt to the white middle class codes and language as a standard for schooling. These students are rewarded for conforming to the standard of the white middle class society as evaluation of achievement.

8.1.1.1.1. Their cultural styles, language and codes are rejected as bieng deficient.

8.1.2. Resitance

8.1.2.1. Theory in which students reject schooling as a resistance to the dominant culture; mostly rejecting school because they do not see the need or benefit of schooling in their career future. These students may see dropping out as a means to fulfill expectations as a working class citizen.

8.1.2.1.1. They reject school because of the school does not match the cultural expectations.

8.2. School Centered Explanations for Education Inequality

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Current school financing by property tax

8.2.1.1.1. Higher income communities are able to provide better educational opportunities and resources than lower income communities.

8.2.2. Within School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.2.1. Tracking

8.2.2.1.1. Individual schools discriminating because of race and socioeconomic status. Different groups ending up with different educations from the same school. The system also enables those with social capital or elite status to maintain the status quo within the same school.

8.2.3. Gender and Schooling

8.2.3.1. Women/ Female Discrepencies

8.2.3.1.1. Charges that schools have hindered the educational opportunities for women; mostly, this has been done by the re-enforcement of gender roles.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reform

9.1.1. Charter Schools

9.1.1.1. Charter schools are public schools, paid with tax dollars, that are not restrained to the standards of state public schools.

9.1.1.2. Those schools can offer an alternative for low income families that can benefit the student, providing better schooling for lower costs.

9.1.1.3. Charter schools must display achievement in order to remain open. These schools can be an alternative for other public schools to boost their achievements by recommending lower achieving students to charter schools.

9.1.2. School to Work Programs

9.1.2.1. School to Work programs are a collaboration with the schools and businesses to allow for students to get job skills for work after graduation.

9.1.2.2. Benefits Include: Allowing students to interact with other career opportunities, obtainment of skills, and relevant school learning to career skills.

9.1.2.3. Students may end up with inadequate liberal arts skills needed for critical thinking.

9.2. Societal, Community, and Political Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1.1. A program that aims to educate the entire community, as opposed to just the child(ren).

9.2.1.2. Programs are designed to make the school a center for the community, providing resources that benefit the community.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.2.1. Founded by Geoffrey Canada, the program aids in the need to keep children schooling in the community, as opposed to children leaving to obtain better educational opportunities.

9.2.2.2. The program promotes educating parents before the child is born so that the parent is skilled at a level comparable to middle class parents. The program also gives parents the tools to provide a stable and nurturing environment.