Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

1.1. Theoretical Perspectives

1.1.1. Functional Theory: Believed that education was a huge part of creating ones morality. A huge emphasis was put on social cohesion and values.

1.1.2. Conflict Theory: Conflict sociologists emphasize struggle. A direct correspondence between organization of school and society. Being able to understand the impacts of culture and the lives of people.

1.1.3. Interactional Theory: Extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. Can help understand the "big picture" of education.

1.2. Effects of Schoolig

1.2.1. Knowledge: Consistant discipline and achievement levels go up. The actual amount of time spent at school is a direct line to how much is learned.

1.2.2. Gender: Schools should not be held accountable for gender discrimination. The gender education gap in education has closed.

1.2.3. Tracking: Students placed in programs based on their abilities. Tracking directly affects cognitive development.

1.2.4. De Facto Segregation: Racially mixed schools benefit minorities and DO NOT suppress white achievemnt

1.2.5. Teacher Behavior: They must act as the role of many things. Teacher attitude has a direct influence on students.

2. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

2.1. Pragmatism

2.1.1. Generic Notion: John Dewey believed this meant the attachment of a better society through education.

2.1.2. Key Researchers: John Dewey, Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Francis Bacon, John Locke

2.1.3. Goal of Education: Democratic views of society should be instilled into students.

2.1.4. Role of Teacher: Teacher not the authoritarian. Teacher encourages, questions, and plans actions of study

2.1.5. Method of Instruction: Problem solving or inquiry method. Children learn individually and in groups.

2.1.6. Curriculum: Changes as social order changes and as children interests change.

3. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

3.1. Governance

3.1.1. Federal AL Senator: Richard Shelby, House of Representatives: Mo Brooks, State Senator: Richard Shelby, State Superintendant: Michael Sentance, Representative on State Board: Mary Scott, Local Superintendent: Matt Massey, Members on School Board: Dr. Nathan Currry, Angie Bates, Luise Stowe, Dave Wels, Shere Ruder

3.2. School Processes and Culture

3.2.1. School processes are organized by a series of contradictions that can develop cultures that are conflictual and stagnant.

3.2.2. School culture has definite population and defined political structure arising from the mode of social interaction.

4. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

4.1. Class: leads to labeling children, direct correlation between parents income and childs performance, children in underclass families are stereotyped not to succeed; Race: Minorities have a lower, on average, SAT score than white students, minorities do not receive the same academic opportunity as whites, education is lacking for minorities; Gender: Males do better in math, gender differences in education have declined, females are less likely to drop out of school.

4.2. Response 1 to the Coleman Study: Catholic schools versus public schools. Jnecks used Coleman's findings to compare academic achievements.

4.3. Response 2 to the Coleman Study: Individuals and race/socioeconomic background effect student achievement more than race and class according to Borman and Dowling.

5. Educational Reform Chapter 10

5.1. Reforms

5.1.1. Reform 1: School based reforms involve school choice, charter schools, and tuition vouchers. Some research tried to claim private schools were more effective. Public schools DO need improvement.

5.1.2. Reform 2: School to work programs in place. School bases learning incorporated with work based learning is important. The youth should be prepared at a young age.

5.2. Educational Impacts

5.2.1. Charter school are becoming popular. Charter schools are basically public schools with lesser regulation to meet. The school is held accountable for student performance.

5.2.2. Vouchers give chances to those in need. Low income parents get the same opportunity as middle class parents. The leads to positive attitude toward schools and parents.

6. Politics of Education Chapter 2

6.1. Purposes

6.1.1. Intellectual: Basic skills taught to help students acquire higher thinking skills

6.1.2. Political: To teach children basic laws of society and to teach students political order

6.1.3. Social: To teach basic problem solving and to teach students basic socializtion skills in society

6.1.4. Economical: To train students for their later occupational roles; prepare students for work

6.2. Perspectives

6.2.1. Conservative Role of School: Talented and hard working students receive resources necessary to maximize productivity; culture is transmitted through curriculum

6.2.2. Conservative Explanations of Unequal Performance: Students rise and fall at their own hard work and initiative; school gives students tools to success

6.2.3. Conservative definition of Educational Problems: decline of standard, define of cultural literacy, decline of values, decline of authoirty

7. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

7.1. Education Reform

7.1.1. When Horace Mann went to battle for public education. Mann made sure teachers were trained and the children attended school, regularly. Mann made education available to more children.

7.2. Historical Interpretations

7.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School: Equality opportunity for all. The US education system sit migrate toward equality and excellence- neither should be sacrificed.

8. Curriculum & Pedagogy Chapter 7

8.1. Knowledge

8.1.1. I advocate for the developmentalist curriculum theory. This is a student centered theory. The needs of the students are put before the needs of society, flexibility is offered. Relating school curriculum to life experience is adamant.

8.1.2. Two dominant traditions of teaching are repetition of knowledge and student centered leaning, such as centers or hands on assignments.

9. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

9.1. Difference in Theory

9.1.1. Difference 1: John Ogpu argues African Americans do less in school because they adapt to the oppressed position. African Americans have been given a "job ceiling" that keeps them from moving up in position or obtaining certain working skills.

9.1.2. Difference 2: Working class and non white students are resisting the dominant culture of the schools. Students reject white-middle class. Students choose a more anti- social environment. This is a negative impact.

9.2. School Centered Explanations

9.2.1. School Financing: Major funds come from local state and local taxes and local property taxes. School research: Flexibility for teachers, strong and effective leadership, and high expectations for students. Curriculum: Track placement and student centered learning. Gender: An argument that females don't have an equal opportunity and gender gap achievement has diminished greatly.