Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Reform Movement

1.2. Horace Mann was the man that changed everything, he was the man that wanted public schooling, his concerned showed who much he wanted equality education for everyone

1.3. Historical Interpretation

1.4. Liberals have the view that each person should be given that same opportunities, they want to reform education and also expand education

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. Theoretical Perspectives:

2.2. Conflict Theory - is like a battlefield, you have students struggling against teachers and teachers struggling against the administrators

2.3. Interactional Theory - the big picture of education but also showing the levels of education, also shows how society and schools shape students

2.4. Functional Theory - is like a car, all the machine parts need to working to succeed, also is interdependence which means that you depend on other people to accomplish things

2.5. Five Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.6. Knowledge and Attitude - plays a very important role in shaping student and there success, consistent discipline also helps students in their academic level, Heyns made a great point about when students took summer school they read a lot like newspapers, going to the library, those students made a great gains in knowledge it shows that even summer school shapes a student's knowledge

2.7. Teacher Behavior - we are the the role models, instructional leaders, we make sure that we set standards that each child will reach with self-esteem, helping them be confident, and influence them

2.8. Employment - this shows student that completing the high school you can get a descent job but also when continuing your education leads you to greater employment opportunities

2.9. Inside the School- this displays the outcome of students; larger schools offer more resources as to small schools don't offer a lot of resources, private schools have smaller classes but also teachers have more freedom to teach; everybody isn't taught the same curriculum but also the curriculum can also tell if a student will attend college, the curriculum is very important and what the school system that you teach is very important

2.10. Student peer Groups and Alienation - when thinking about school you think about your friend group and all the groups that where formed; you people that are labeled nerds, athletic, cool kids, and etc. ; you have students that are labeled bad and now days it glorified; we also have once you leave high school you need to obtain a statues in college you have careerist, intellectuals, strivers, and unconnected; a students group plays an important role in shaping the student

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Pragmatism:

3.2. Key Researchers - John Dewey, William James, and Sanders Peirce

3.3. Generic Notions- better society through education; students will learn skills that they can use down the road; education should start with the needs of student and have students help us do lessons plan or what we should teach

3.4. Goal of Education - to balance the social role of the school with social, intellectual, and personal development

3.5. Role of Teacher - the one who encourages, questions, helps plan and teach the curriculum

3.6. Method of Instruction - students learn individually but also in groups; students should ask questions about what they want to learn; also students be able to do problem solving

3.7. Curriculum- teach all the basic subjects with investigation skills, problem solving of basic subjects; but also providing the basic subjects and the needs and interest of the students

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Federal Alabama Senators- Richard Shelby and Luther Strange

4.2. House of Representative- Mo Brooks

4.3. State Senator and House of Represenative- Larry Stutts and Phil Williams

4.4. State Superintendent-Resigned

4.5. Representatives on state board-Ella Bell

4.6. Local Superintendent- Dr. Jimmy Shaw

4.7. All members on local school board-Bill Griffin, Laura Hardeman, Vicky Kirkman, David Howard, Bill Gullett, Britton Watson

4.8. School Processes and School Cultures:

4.9. The school processes is one of those things that take a long time but it comes as time goes on. The school processes when wanting changes requires you to have patiences but also thinking outside of the box to allow the change to happen and to make sure that it benefits the students, community, faculty, and even parents. School culture is very important when it comes to schooling. When you see the definition of culture is something you take for granted. Changing the culture of the school takes a lot of hard work it requires the school to be more learner centered, time, effort, and intelligence, and good will. When changing the culture of a school it requires a new way of thinking but also how you view the school

5. Educational Reform

5.1. Two School- Based Reforms

5.2. School to work program is a partnership with the school and business. Bill Clinton passed a law that allowed school and business to partner together. This law brought together efforts of educational reform. This program has three elements. The first one is school based learning which means classroom instruction time. Second is work based learning which is work experience, career exploration, and even mentioning at the job site. Third is connecting activities which is like on the job instruction, matching students with employers, and building bridges between school and work.

5.3. Teacher education is is and educational problem. People feel that their is debate between the teacher education and when a school is failing. People feel that teacher programs lack intellectual demands but also a lack of strictness in the teacher program. Also, in the debate the topic that the teacher program should attract and have competent teachers in the program. Education cannot correspond changes until the changes in teacher education. One of the other problems is teaching certificates should be handed on a graduate level instead on undergraduate.

5.4. Impact Education

5.5. Community has impact on education. When students don't have support from the community or even parental involvement. It tears down the students and the students start to stop caring about the school

5.6. Economic also has impact on education. This has impact because when student are in lower part of district the students seem not to get much funding for the school. Parents aren't encouraging the student to succeed or in general just being support of the students.

6. Politics of Education:

6.1. Perspective

6.1.1. Liberal- want equality for each student but also they want each student to have an opportunity to learn regardless of what disability, background, or ethic group the student comes from Conservative-feel that each student must compete but also the students have been given an opportunity and it is up to them to succeed Radical- say that the students are receiving something but honestly the students are receiving what has been promised

6.2. Purposes of Education:

6.2.1. 1. Intellectual Purposes- teaching the basic subjects reading, writing, and mathematics but also teaching students critical thinking skills 2. Political Purpose- to help students come together to learn how to work in groups with different cultural groups into a common order 3. Social Purpose- to help solve social problems such as student's family

6.3. The Role of the School:

6.3.1. Balancing the needs of everyone but also make sure that everyone has the same education opportunity almost like everyone being on the same playing field

6.4. Explanations of Unequal Performance:

6.4.1. Some students can not help the background they come from definitely economically ect. but they should be given the same opportunity even though some have a upper hand. Each student should be placed on the same level field

6.5. Definition of Educational Problems:

6.5.1. Schools put a limit on poor and ethic groups were student that fit this doesn't achieve academically, curriculum leaves diverse cultures, schools are very quick to show authority and discipline instead of trying to build up there character

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Developmentalist Curriculum:

7.2. This curriculum relates to the needs of the students rather than the needs of what society wants. This point of view comes from Dewey's writing. The curriculum focus of the students interest but also o the developmental stages of the student. It focus on relating life experiences to school which relates better with students and gives it more meaningful manner and education comes alive the student. The teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge but instead a facilitator of student's growth

7.3. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching:

7.4. 1.Mimetic Tradition- the purpose of education is transmit knowledge to the student's. Lecturing or presentation is best way to teach and communicate with students.. Stresses the importance of rational sequencing in the teaching and assessment.

7.5. 2. Transformative Tradition- believes that education should change students in some type of like the following intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. This tradition provides a multi-dimensional theory of teaching. This teaching style requires the use of questioning. This tradition rejects the scientific model of teaching but teaches in a very artistic manner

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Class:

8.2. Different social class go through different education experiences. Upper and middle class are more likely to finish school. In working class and underclass the expectations in school is very low. A study showed that when students have lots of books in there home relates to academic achievement of a student. Class also leads to teachers putting labels on students. Middle and Upper Class students are more likely to to graduate. Underclass students are more likely to dropout of school.

8.3. Race:

8.4. Race plays a big role and has an impact on how much education a students gets. In the United States it is very hard to separate class and race from each other. Minority receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students.

8.5. Gender:

8.6. Gender at times can be directly related to a persons education. Women are more likely exceed then men. Males have a lower level of reading proficiency. Males out perform women in mathematics. Males do better in math because teachers tend to assume that females will not do well. Society has discriminated agains women in the work force but also socially.

8.7. Coleman Study from 1982:

8.8. The first response included that private schools do it better for low income students. Public and Catholic private schools have a big difference between learning. Catholic private focus on students that are minority but also low income. The second response included that students school choice usually depends on race and socioeconomic background. Race and socioeconomic impacts a students success academically than race and class. We as people have to focus on not segregating students when it comes to schooling but wanting each student to have the same educational outcomes and goals.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Cultural Differences Theory

9.2. John Ogbu has a very different outlook on cultural differences. He feels that African American students do less because they feel oppressed in the class and caste structure. African American parents allow their children to deal with inferior life chances instead of being an encourager to them and teaching them skills. He also suggested that school success for African Americans are to deny their identity and take up the "burden of acting white" to succeed in school. The cultural differences has allowed changes to be made in the school curriculum and also in the pedagogy.

9.3. Bourdies outlook is the that concept of social and cultural capital make a cultural difference in students. Middle and Upper class parents give their children a cultural capital so that they can learn by traveling and visiting museums. Social capital allows is having a educational resources, college, and parents are involved with the student. He also feels that income and wealth helps students achieve in education because the students have an advantage to lower class students.

9.4. School Centered- Educational Inequality

9.5. Each student has a different intelligence or initiative. Each student has different academic performance

9.6. Differences that students have prior to entering the school. This always the case that students will have different backgrounds when entering the school

9.7. The school process is very important is the center of understanding the unequal educational performance

9.8. School financing can also be a educational inequality. When you have poor district they get less money but higher end district and middle class district get more money. There was case back in 1971 that stated it was unconstitutional when all schools regardless of the district and if it poor, middle class, or rich. Each district should get the same amount of money