Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. 10. Educational Reform

1.1. School based reforms

1.1.1. Privatization the traditional distinction between public and private education became blurred, with private eductaion comanies increasingly becoming involved in public education in a variety of ways.

1.1.2. School-Business Partnership were concerned that the nation was not producing enough graduates necessary for the revitalization of the U.S, economy. The foundations fund charter schools and voucher initiatives. Bill and Melinda Gates cntributes hundreds of million to small schools and more recently to teacher effectiveness. When the partnerships were formed the cities promised to have test score raised. These partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that it has worked.

1.2. Reforms that impact education

1.2.1. School finance reforms

1.2.1.1. Abbott v. Burke school districts in New Jersey that are provided remedies to ensure that their students receive public education in accordance with the state constitution. series of decisions made over the past 30 years, Abbott remains the centerpiece of how the state funds its urban and suburban schools. Abbott's core principle is to ensure that schools in 31 of the New Jersey's poorest communities receive the "thorough and efficient" system of education guaranteed by the state constitution.

1.2.1.2. Harlem Children's Zone-plan to educate not only the child but the community as well. Schools service as community centers in the neighborhoods and are open extended hours to provide services like community centers and provide services for adult education, health clinics , recreation facilities, after school programs, mental health , drug and alcohol programs, and tutoring services. Targets and improves at risk neighborhoods.

2. 2. Politics of Education

2.1. Perspective

2.1.1. Role of School

2.1.1.1. Conservative perspective

2.1.1.1.1. Providing necessary educational training

2.1.1.1.2. socialize children into adult roles

2.1.1.1.3. transmitting cultural traditions through curriculum

2.1.2. Educational Problems

2.1.2.1. Radical

2.1.2.1.1. Failed the poor, minorities, women

2.1.2.1.2. stifled critical understanding

2.1.2.1.3. promotes inequality

2.1.3. Unequal Performance

2.1.3.1. Liberal

2.1.3.1.1. students begin school with different life chances- more advantages than others

2.2. Purpose of Education

2.2.1. Intellectual

2.2.1.1. Teach basic cognitive skills

2.2.1.1.1. Reading

2.2.1.1.2. Writing

2.2.1.1.3. Math

2.2.1.2. Students acquire higher order thinking skills

2.2.2. Political

2.2.2.1. Inculcate allegiance to existing political order

2.2.2.2. Prepare citizens to participate

2.2.2.3. Help assimilate culture groups in political order

2.2.2.4. Teach children basic laws

2.2.3. Social

2.2.3.1. Solve social problems

2.2.3.2. Work institutions to ensure social cohesion

2.2.3.2.1. Family

2.2.3.2.2. Church

2.2.3.3. Socialize children

2.2.3.3.1. Roles

2.2.3.3.2. Behaviors

2.2.3.3.3. Values

2.2.3.4. Key ingredient to stability

2.2.4. Economic

2.2.4.1. Prepare students for later occupational roles

2.2.4.2. Select, train, and allocate for division of labor

3. 3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Reform Movement

3.1.1. Progressive Movement

3.1.1.1. Government regulation on industry and commerce

3.1.1.2. Government regulation and conservation of natural resources

3.1.1.3. government responsible of welfare of citizens

3.1.1.4. child-centered reform

3.1.1.4.1. individualize instruction, tend to needs and interest of children

3.2. Historical Interpretation

3.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

3.2.1.1. progressive evolution, school committed to providing equal opportunities for everyone

3.2.1.2. Common School Era

3.2.1.2.1. first step in opening U.S. education to all

3.2.1.3. Lawrence A. Cremlin

3.2.1.3.1. popularization and multitudinousness

3.2.1.3.2. expansion of opportunity and purpose

3.2.1.4. U.S. educational system continue to move closer to ideas of equality and excellence

4. 4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. School and Society

4.1.1. Interactionalism

4.1.1.1. critiques and extensions of functional, conflict theories

4.1.1.1.1. functional and conflict theories-abstract, emphasize structure, process at a general level of analysis

4.1.1.2. attempt making the commonplace strange

4.1.1.2.1. turning on heads everyday, behaviors and interactions between students and students, and students and teachers

4.1.2. Conflict Theory

4.1.2.1. Sees no relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward

4.1.2.2. Schools are like social battlefields

4.1.2.2.1. students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators

4.1.3. Functionalism

4.1.3.1. Stresses interdependance

4.1.3.2. Views society like a machine

4.1.3.2.1. One part articulates with another to produce dynamic energy to make society work

4.2. 5 effects of schooling

4.2.1. Teacher Behavior

4.2.1.1. teachers have huge impact on student learning, behavior

4.2.1.2. instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator

4.2.1.3. set standards fro students

4.2.1.4. influence self-esteem

4.2.1.5. the more a teacher praises a student the more they learn and feel better about them selves

4.2.2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

4.2.2.1. labels

4.2.2.1.1. athletic ability

4.2.2.1.2. looks

4.2.2.1.3. coolness

4.2.2.1.4. nerdy

4.2.2.2. adult culture in conflict with student culture

4.2.2.2.1. leads to alienation and violence

4.2.2.3. Student culture plays important role in shaping students educational experiences

4.2.3. Gender

4.2.3.1. Men and woman are different in the U.S. society

4.2.3.1.1. men paid more than women

4.2.3.1.2. women have fewer work opportunities

4.2.4. Employment

4.2.4.1. students believe graduating from college will produce more employment opportinites

4.2.4.1.1. large corporations require high levels of education

4.2.4.2. amount of education is weakly related to job performance

4.2.5. Knowledge and Attitude

4.2.5.1. Differences in schools are related to differences in student outcomes

4.2.5.1.1. Academically oriented schools have higher rates of learning

4.2.5.2. Education related to an individuals well being and self esteem

4.2.5.3. more schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

5. 5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Key Researchers

5.1.1.1. John Dewey (1859-1952), George Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), William James (1842-1910)

5.1.2. Curriculum

5.1.2.1. core curriculum and integrated curriculum

5.1.2.2. curriculum changes as social order changes, and children's needs change

5.1.2.3. Dewey thinks integrated curriculum was most effective

5.1.3. Method of Instruction

5.1.3.1. children learn individually and in groups

5.1.3.2. ask questions: problem solving or inquiry

5.1.4. Generic Notions

5.1.4.1. Dewey's form of pragmatism: instrumentalism and experimentalism

5.1.4.2. better society through education

5.1.4.3. "embryonic community"- children learn skills experientially and from books

5.1.4.4. School should reflect the community, and children required a coarse of study for the different stage of development

5.1.5. Role of Teacher

5.1.5.1. Teacher is not authoritarian figure, teacher peripheral position of facilitator

5.1.5.2. encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps implement course of study

5.1.5.3. writes curriculum and implements curriculum

5.1.6. Goal of Education

5.1.6.1. Philosophy has a responsibility to society, and school was a place where ideas could be implemented, challenged, and restructured

6. 6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Stakeholders

6.1.1. Alabama Senators

6.1.1.1. Richard Shelby and Luther Strange

6.1.2. Alabama House of Representatives

6.1.2.1. Ritchie Whorton

6.1.2.2. Tommy Haynes

6.1.3. State School Board

6.1.3.1. Kay Ivey, Jackie Zeigler, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Yvette Richardson, Ella Bell, Cynthia Sanders McCarty, Jeffery Newman, Mary Scott Hunter

6.1.4. State Superintendent

6.1.4.1. Ed Richardson (Interim)

6.1.5. Jackson County Superintendent

6.1.5.1. Kevin Dukes

6.1.6. Jackson County Board of Education Members

6.1.6.1. Cecil Gant, Chad Gorham,Dr. Angela Guess, Kenneth Story, Charles West

6.2. Elements of Change

6.2.1. School Processes

6.2.1.1. Team building must extend to the entire school. Shared decision making must consciously work out and give on-going attention to relationships within the rest of the school's staff. Otherwise, issues of exclusiveness and imagined elitism may surface, and perceived " resistance to change" will persist.

6.2.1.2. New behaviors must be learned. Because change requires new relationships and behaviors, the change process must include building communication and trust, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution.

6.2.1.3. Process and content are interrelated. The process a team uses in going about its work is as important as the content of educational changes its attempts. The substance of project often depends upon the degree of trust and openness built up within the team and between the team and the school. At the same, the usefulness and the visibility of the project will influence future commitments from and the relationships among the staff and other involved.

6.2.1.4. Conflict is necessary part of change Efforts to democratize schools do not create conflicts, but they allow ( and to be successful, require ) previously hidden problems, issues, and disagreements to surface. Staff involvement in school restructuring must be prepared to elicit, manage, and resolve conflicts.

6.2.2. School Cultures

6.2.2.1. Changing the cultures of school requires patience, skill, and good will.

6.2.2.2. Culture of any one particular school is the product of the political compromises that have been created in order for the school to be viable.

6.2.2.3. School Culture is exactly that which one takes most for granted.

7. 7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Social Efficiency

7.1.1. Philosophically pragmatist approach

7.1.2. Created to address secondary education

7.1.3. Believes different groups of students, receive different types of schooling

7.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

7.2.1. Transformative Tradition is learning information that makes the student different than he or she was before, this model defines the function of education more broadly and, according to some, more ambiguously. Proponents of this tradition believe that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually. and emotionally.

7.2.1.1. The teaching process involves not just the didactic transfer of information but the conversation between teacher and student in such a way that the student becomes an integral part of the learning process. Lecture may be used in this tradition, the dialectical method, which involves the use of questioning, is at the core of its methodology. Educators believe that all teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results in some form of growth. What kind of growth is desired varies with the specific goals of the classroom, but broader spectrum of goals is outlined. It tends to reject the scientific model of teaching and instead views teaching as an artistic endeavor.

7.2.2. Mimetic Tradition is based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. Method of doing this through what is termed the Dialactic method.

8. 8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Class

8.1.1. Education is expensive

8.1.1.1. favors wealthy families

8.1.2. Related to achievement on reading test and basic skills test

8.2. Race

8.2.1. direct impact on how much education is received

8.2.2. 5.2% whites drop out of school, 9.3% of African Americans drop out

8.2.3. Minorities do not receive same educational opportunities as whites

8.3. Gender

8.3.1. women are better students than men, but less likely to attain same level of education

8.3.2. Males outperform females in mathmatics

8.3.3. Males are more likely to score higher on SAT than females.

8.4. Coleman Study 1982

8.4.1. Borman and Dowling

8.4.1.1. Where someone goes to school is related to their race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition has a greater effect on the students achievement than race and class.

8.4.2. Jencks estimated that the annual increment attributable to Catholic schooling was tiny. The differences that are there between Catholic schools are statistically significant, but the results are negligible.

9. 9. Educational Inequality

9.1. School Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

9.1.1. School Financing- Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. Property taxes are a significant source. Families in more affluent communitites have higher incomes and are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poor districts, often at a proportionately less brdensome rate than in poorer communities. Poorer communities with lower property values are not able to raise as much funding.

9.1.2. Gender and schooling- their are significant differences in how women and men see the world. Schools are part of the process which groups maintain their advantages. Females have a higher level of college attendance and graduation, boys are signifacantly over represented in special education classes.

9.1.3. Effective School Research- School centered processes tht exhibit the following a climate of high expectations for students and admimistrators, Strong and effective leadership by the principal. Accountibility processes for students and teachers, Monitioring students, A high degree of instructional time on task. ( Teachers teach and students learn the majority of the time) Flexibility for teachers and adminstrators to experiment and adapt to new situations.

9.1.4. Curriculum & Pedagogic practices-Differences in schools dtermine the climates for learning, effects educational outcomes. Discrepancies in tracks are partly responsible for the amount of instruction and quality of instruction. Practices have a significant effect on lower academic achievement. The degree of such placement is unfair, but not sure to what extent. Lowere tracts of learning are likely yo have didactic, teacher directed practices. Higher tracks are more likely yo have more dialectical, student-centered practices, discussion and thinking based evaluation.

9.2. Cultural Differences Theory

9.2.1. John Ogbu

9.2.1.1. African-American children do not do as well in school because they adapt to their position in their class and caste structure.

9.2.1.2. "Job ceiling" for African-Americans

9.2.1.3. Burden of "acting white" to succeed

9.2.2. Bernstein

9.2.2.1. Cultural deprivation theorist

9.2.2.2. Working class students in England have different language and communication code

9.2.2.2.1. Disadvantage in school

9.2.2.3. denies working class language is deficient

9.2.2.4. cultural and class differences happen because of a unequal economic system

9.2.2.4.1. schools reward middle class communication codes , not working class