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Thyroid & Parathyroid Gland by Mind Map: Thyroid & Parathyroid
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Thyroid & Parathyroid Gland

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Parathyroid Gland


to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood.


rear surface of the thyroid gland: typically two, one above the other, on the left lobe of the thyroid and similarly on the right.

Regulation & Mechanism

Secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled mainly by serum [Ca2+] through negative feedback.


2 most common examples, hyperparathyroidism, Causes, One or more enlarged, overactive parathyroid glands secretes too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). In secondary hyperparathyroidism, a problem such as kidney failure causes the parathyroids to be overactive., Symptoms, kidney stones, frequent headaches, and depression, high blood pressure and the inability to concentrate, Transmission, None (not contagious), Treatments/Cures, Surgery, Diagnostics, Blood Analysis, compare Calcium amounts vs. hormone levels in blood, If the blood calcium level is too HIGH, it should be associated with a LOW parathyroid hormone level. A blood calcium level that is too HIGH, and is associated with a HIGH parathyroid hormone level MUST be due to a tumor in the parathyroid gland. That is, the high blood calcium is a result of the excess parathyroid hormone (PTH)., Urinanalysis, Calcium levels in urine, Imaging, ultrasound, MRI scan, CAT scan, PET scan, hypoparathyroidism, Causes, parathyroid glands do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, Blood calcium levels fall, and phosphorus levels rise., most commonly caused by injury to the parathyroid glands during head and neck surgery., Low blood Magnesium levels, Metabolic Alkalosis, Symptoms, Abdominal pain, Brittle nails, Cataracts, Dry hair, Dry, scaly skin, Muscle cramps/spasms (tetany), Pain in the face, legs, and feet, Seizures, Tingling lips, fingers, and toes, Weakened tooth enamel (in children), Transmission, None (not contagious), Treatments/Cures, restore the calcium and mineral balance in the body., calcium carbonate and vitamin D supplements, Diagnostics, Blood tests, to check calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and PTH levels., ECG, to check for abnormal heart rhythms., Urine test, to determine how much calcium is being removed from the body.


targets mostly bone and kidney cells

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Parathormone or parathyrin

Thyroid Gland


To regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body.


In the neck: starts just below Adam's apple, extends to the 5th/6th tracheal ring.

Regulation & Mechanism

The production of T3 and T4 is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by the anterior pituitary.

The thyroid and thyrotropes form a negative feedback loop: TSH production is suppressed when the T4 levels are high.


2 most common examples, Hypothyroidism, Causes, underproduction of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4; autoimmune disorders or removal of thyroid., Symptoms, abnormal weight gain, tiredness, baldness, cold intolerance, and bradycardia., Treatments/Cures, levorotatory forms of thyroxine (levothyroxine) (L-T4) and triiodothyronine (liothyronine) (L-T3), Transmission, None (not contagious), Diagnostics, Blood Tests, Thyroid Scintigraphy, involves two tests performed in connection with each other: an iodine uptake test and a scan (imaging) with a gamma camera., Hyperthyroidism, Causes, overproduction of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4; commonly caused by Graves’ disease., Symptoms, thyroid goiter, protruding eyes (exopthalmos), palpitations, excess sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, muscle weakness and unusual sensitivity to heat., Treatments/Cures, Thyrostatics (antithyroid drugs), Beta-blockers, Surgery., Transmission, None (not contagious), Diagnostics, Blood Tests, Radioactive Thyroid Scanning


triiodothyronine (T3)

thyroxine (T4)

targets virtually every cell in the body

activates mitochondrial energy metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, which increases basal metabolic rate (BMR), respiratory rate, and calorie generation.

upregulates gene expression of structural proteins for growth and dozens of enzymes needed for intermediator metabolism., metabolism, growth and functioning of other body systems