Ed 302 Foundations

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Ed 302 Foundations by Mind Map: Ed 302 Foundations

1. 6. Schools as Organizations

1.1. 1. Federal level- Luther Strange and Richard Shelby State Superintendent, Ed Richardson Local superintendent, Shane Barnette.

1.2. 2. Schools are separate social organizations because; They have definitive populations, They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”. They have their own special culture. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching. Communities are in conflict with administration. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of discipline. Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated.

1.3. assumptive- pen and paper test. formative- forming educated opinion on a students.

1.4. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

2. 7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

2.1. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge What is taught and how do we teach it? Social Influences Political influences Societies’ influences Cultural influences Special interests

2.2. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge Sociology of the curriculum Society influences the curriculum Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

2.3. 1. social efficiency the curriculum should be flexible to meet all needs.

2.4. 2. Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

3. 8. Equality of Opportunity

3.1. 1. Class Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. Race Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. Gender In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

3.2. 2. Differences in schools do make a difference. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students

3.3. Social stratification – three systems Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

3.4. PL 94-142 Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities.

3.5. IDEA 1996 Section 504 & Special Ed

3.6. RTI-Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming Lee Vs. Macon

4. 9. Educational Inequality

4.1. 1. John Ogbu argues that African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. Another type of cultural difference theory sees working class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the school. This point of view states that these students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success and embrace a different, often antischool culture.

4.2. 2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations. School Financing Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. Effective Schools, a climate of high expections for students by teachers and administrators, strong effective leadership by a principal or school head, accountability proccesses for students and teachers, the monitoring of student learning, a high degree of instuctional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning, felxibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems. Between School Differences points to how differences in what is often school climates affect academic performance. Most of this research looked at differences between schools in inner- city, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods in order to demomstrate that schools can ake a difference in these communities. Curriculum and Ability Grouping the fact that different groups of students in the same schools perform very differently suggests that there may be school characteristics affecting these outcomes.

5. 10. Educational Reform

5.1. 1. Chater Reform: The charter reform began in 1991 in Minnesota. After the movement began it sparked demand for more charter school throughout the nation. The charter reform basically demanded that more school become charter schools which means they are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools and in return is held accountable for student performance. School Business Relationships: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations contributes hundreds of millions of dollars to small schools and teacher effectiveness.

5.2. 2. School Finance reform- Abbott V: This reform required that poorer school receive funding to add preschool programs as well as whole school reforms; full day kindergarden, and funded facilities programs to correct code violations. Community Reform- Dryfoo's Model of Full Service Schools: This reform focuses on meeting student's and their families educational, physical, Psychological, and socal needs in a coordinated and collaborative way between school and community services.

6. 2. Politics of Education

6.1. 1. Intellectual – cognitive skills in math, reading, science , history, language Political – to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Social – to help people be socialable, productive members of society Economic – prepare students for their occupation

6.2. 2. Role of the school is directly concerned with the aims, purposes, and functions of education in a society, maximize economic and social productivity, and to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society. Explanations of unequal performance radicals and many liberals suggest schooling has not sufficiently provided a reduction in inequality of results, and as educational achievement is closely related to student socioeconomic backgrounds, certain groups from a lower socioeconomic background, perform less well in school is a crucial one. Definition of educational problems there is a decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values or civilization, and a decline of authority.

7. 3. The History of U.S. Education

7.1. Age of reform. The rise of the Common school. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the u.s. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education.

7.2. laws that effected educations Civil rights act 1963. Plessy vs. Ferguson of 1896 separate but equal. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954. desegregation was the mail focus, school and colleges opened doors for all.

7.3. 1. Progressive Movement: The curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to the human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society. P.71 John Dewey-Progressivism Embryonic Society – miniature community Dewey’s philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

7.4. 2. Conservative schools tend to be a lot more religious, is strict with regards to social behavior, less supportive of government's role in welfare and social programs, and more supportive of lowering taxes.

8. 4. Sociological Perspectives

8.1. Sociology- Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

8.2. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society?

8.3. 1. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Education creates the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony. Conflict is a breakdown of shred values. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement

8.4. 2. Knowledge and Attitude; can have an influence on a student because different social classes and schools that are academically oriented can have an effect on student achievement and educational achievement. Employment: Having an education can result in better jobs and opportunities Teacher Behavior: Teachers will have thousands of interactions with students daily. It is important that the time students share with their teacher is a positive interaction this shows a student how much the teacher cares. These interactions influence a student's success. Student Peer Groups and Alienation The pressure for a student to feel like they fit in sometimes can be challenging. Some students will be labeled as nerds, jocks, and depending on social and economic status this can really affect students learning. If a student does not feel like they belong or feels like they have all this pressure on them to never fail, it can be a lot for a student to carry. De facto Segregation Students tend to segregate themselves into their comfort zone, so they will not feel the need to overstep their boundaries and branch out to find something else because they fear they will not be accepted.

9. 5. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism

9.2. Generic Notations Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results

9.3. Key Researchers John Dewey George Sanders Pierce William James John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau

9.4. Role of a teacher The role of a teacher should be to be a role model to students, students learn better when they feel that they can count on their teacher to encourage them and help their developmental growth and learning. The role of a teacher also should be a source of knowledge students will count on their teacher to know and understand which subject or topic they are learning so that students will become better learners.

9.5. Goal of Education The goal of education is to educate our future members of society, by doing this we are insuring that students will become successful. It is important to instill in students that learning how to work in groups is a good start. Their education is vital to help them to truly become an active member of society. Another goal of education is to perpetrate our heritage, by teaching students about the past we can better prepare them for the future.

9.6. Methods of instruction Some of the methods of instruction that can be used in teaching include projects. Whether this be group or individual work projects are beneficial for a student. Another instruction is lecturing, while this is helpful students tend to learn better doing things hands on. Filed trips are also a great method of instruction. Field trips do not always have to occur by leaving the classroom, a field trip can be learning by going outside, or by setting up stations in class that allow a student to use their imagination to learn something new.

9.7. Curriculum It is important that what is being taught to students is going to be beneficial to them in the future. First and for most the four course subject (math science history and language), should be taught because they set up the beginning of learning. Also life skills such as what must be done in daily living. Physical education should be taught as well because it helps keep students active and healthy. Finally music and fine arts should be taught because it challenges all aspect of learning and it helps to excel in all other subjects as well.

10. Limits and Promises of Education Chapter 1

10.1. Achievement Gap: . The Elementary Secondary Education act 1965. 2. Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities. 3. NCLB re- established these efforts in 2001. 4. because of testing, teaching gaps. 5. causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality parents, etc..

10.2. Crisis in Urban Education: 1. Demographic trends. 2. social stratification. 3. socioeconomic/ Academic Achievement. 4. Inequalities in school systems. 5. School Choice is an issue.

10.3. Decline of Literacy 1. basic skills of fundamentals. 2. teaching to the test. 3. pass them on due to age and no place to go. 4. schools become over- crowded. 5. Raising Academic Standards (for whom).

10.4. Assessment Issues 1. teaching to the test. 2. Authentic/true Assessments Questions to ask ourselves; What have we measured? How do we use our data? What does the curriculum look like?

10.5. The Four Elements of Foundations of Education: History of Education Philosophy of Education Politics of Education Sociology of Education

10.6. History of Education: 1. Our Purpose then; To read the Bible to save our souls( Old Deleuter Act 1642) 2. Our Purpose Now Transmit culture Prepare for a global economy Prepare for the workforce Become a productive citizen Become a social citizen Pursuit of happiness Pursuit of freedom Pursuit of knowledge Pursuit of life

10.7. Philosophy of Education:Questions to ask yourself; 1.How will you teach? 2.What is in the curriculum? 3.Who are you as a teacher ? 4.Who are your students? 5.What does your classroom look like? 6.How will you assess students?

10.8. Sociology of Education: 1. Are schools a reflection of our society/community? 2. How does the impact of social expectations drive decision making socially? 3. Are schools perpetuating the social class/community it serves?

10.9. Foundations of Your Personal Education: Questions to ask yourself; Why am I a teacher? what kind of influence will I be, to instill values into my studetns? What accomplishments do I want to achieve?