My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual

1.1.1.1. to teach basic cognitive skills like reading, writing & math

1.1.1.2. to transmit specific knowledge like literature, history & the sciences

1.1.1.3. to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills like analysis, evaluation & synthesis

1.1.2. 2. Political

1.1.2.1. to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism)

1.1.2.2. to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order (democracies)

1.1.2.3. to help assimilate diverse culture groups into a common political order

1.1.2.4. to teach children the basic laws of the society

1.1.3. 3. Social

1.1.3.1. to help solve social problems

1.1.3.2. to work as one of many institutions like family & church to ensure social cohesion

1.1.3.3. to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors & values of the society

1.1.4. 4. Economic

1.1.4.1. to prepare students for their later occupational roles

1.1.4.2. to select, train & allocate individuals into the division of labor

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. 1. The role of the school

1.2.1.1. conservative

1.2.1.1.1. provides the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented & hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic & social productivity

1.2.1.1.2. to socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maintenance of the social order

1.2.1.1.3. to transmit the cultural traditions through what is taught (the curriculum)

1.2.1.1.4. essential to both economic productivity & social stability

1.2.1.1.5. should ensure that all students have the opportunity to compete individually in the educational marketplace

1.2.1.1.6. should be meritocratic to the extent that individual effort is rewarded

1.2.1.2. liberal

1.2.1.2.1. provides necessary education to ensure that all students have equal opportunity to succeed in society

1.2.1.2.2. to teach to respect cultural diversity so they understand & fit into diverse society

1.2.1.2.3. to enable the individuals to develop their talents, creativity & sense of self

1.2.1.2.4. balancing the needs of society & the individual in a manner that is consistent with a democratic & meritocratic society

1.2.1.2.5. to ensure that equality of opportunity exists

1.2.1.2.6. that inequality of results be minimized

1.2.1.3. radical

1.2.1.3.1. to eliminate inequalities in educational results

1.2.1.3.2. to perpetuate the society & to serve the interests of those with economic wealth & political power

1.2.1.3.3. to prepare children from different social backgrounds for different roles within the economic division of labor

1.2.1.3.4. to reproduce economic, social & political inequalities within society

1.2.1.3.5. provide upward social mobility

1.2.1.3.6. to remain limited vehicles for addressing problems of inequality

1.2.2. 2. Explanations of unequal performance

1.2.2.1. conservative

1.2.2.1.1. students rise & fall on their own intelligence, hard work & initiative

1.2.2.1.2. achievement is based on hard work & sacrifice

1.2.2.1.3. if students do not succeed, it may be because they are deficient in some manner or because they are a member of a group that is deficient

1.2.2.2. liberal

1.2.2.2.1. individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances & some have significantly more advantages

1.2.2.2.2. society must attempt to equalize playing field so students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance

1.2.2.3. radicals

1.2.2.3.1. students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities

1.2.2.3.2. the conditions that result are caused by the economic system, not the education system

1.2.2.3.3. can only be ameliorated by change in the political-economic structure

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems

1.2.3.1. conservative

1.2.3.1.1. the decline of standards is from schools systematically lowering academic standards & educational quality in the 60s & 70s

1.2.3.1.2. the decline of cultural literacy is where schools watered down the traditional curriculum & thus weakened the school's ability to pass on the heritage of American & western civilizations to children

1.2.3.1.3. the decline of values or of civilization is where schools lost their traditional role of teaching moral standards & values

1.2.3.1.4. the decline of authority is where schools lost their traditional disciplinary function & often became chaotic

1.2.3.2. liberal

1.2.3.2.1. schools limit the life chances of poor & minority children & the problem of underachievement is critical

1.2.3.2.2. schools place too much emphasis on discipline & authority which limits their role in helping students develop as individuals

1.2.3.2.3. the differences in quality & climate between urban & suburban schools, & between schools with students of low socioeconomic background & high socioeconomic backgrounds

1.2.3.2.4. traditional curriculum leaves out diverse cultures of groups that comprise the pluralistic society

1.2.3.3. radical

1.2.3.3.1. has failed the poor, minorities & women through classist, racist, sexist & homophobic policies

1.2.3.3.2. have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum & teaching practices that promote conformity

1.2.3.3.3. traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist & homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, & voices of the oppressed

1.2.3.3.4. promotes inequality of both opportunity & results

2. Chapter 3: History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. The Progressive Movement

2.1.1.1. The period between 1900 & 1914

2.1.1.2. transformation in rapidly changing technology, altered lifestyles, and massive waves of immigrants

2.1.1.3. bathing became part of the school curriculum in certain districts because of problems of putative uncleanliness

2.1.1.4. teachers began to teach basic socialization skills

2.1.1.5. child centered reform

2.1.1.5.1. children, in their development, reflected the stages of development of civilization

2.1.1.5.2. schools should tailor curriculum to the stages of child development

2.1.1.5.3. traditional schools stifled the child's natural impulses & should individualize instruction & attend to the needs & interests of the children

2.1.1.6. social engineering reform

2.1.1.6.1. emphasis on the organism's response to its environment

2.1.1.6.2. human nature could be altered for better or worse, depending on the education to which it was ubjected

2.1.1.6.3. schools should change human beings in a positive way & the methods & aims of pedagogy to achieve this would be scientifically determined

2.1.1.6.4. to be socially efficient in the way they went about educating students

2.1.1.6.5. schools should be a meaningful experience & should prepare students to earn a living

2.1.1.6.6. schools should begin to educate students based on their abilities or talents

2.1.1.6.7. to create a curriculum that would include the full range of human experience & prepare students for life

2.2. Historical interpretation

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1.1. the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all

2.2.1.2. each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population & to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the privileged

2.2.1.3. Cubberly & Curti portrayed the Common School Era as a victory for the democratic movements & the first step in opening U.S. education to all

2.2.1.4. as more students from diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time, the goals of education became more diverse, with social goals becoming more important than intellectual ones

2.2.1.5. the U.S. education system must continue to move closer to equity & excellence without sacrificing one or the other too dramatically

3. Chapter 4: Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives Concerning the Relationship Between School & Society

3.1.1. 1. functionalism

3.1.1.1. In a highly integrated, well-functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values, & sort & select students according to their abilities.

3.1.1.2. Educational reform from a functional point of view, is supposed to create structures, programs, & curricula that are technically advanced, rational, & encourage social unity.

3.1.2. 2. conflict theory

3.1.2.1. Schools are similar to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators & so on.

3.1.2.2. Schools promote learning & sort & select students according to their abilities & not their social status.

3.1.3. 3. interactionalism

3.1.3.1. Make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors & interactions between students & students, and between students & teachers.

3.2. Five Effects of Schooling on Individuals That Have Greatest Impact on Students

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge & Attitude

3.2.1.1. At schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects & where there is consistent discipline, Student achievement levels go up.

3.2.1.2. The more education an individual receives, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, & magazines and to take part in politics & public affairs.

3.2.1.3. Education is also related to individuals' sense of well-being & self-esteem.

3.2.2. 2. Education & Mobility

3.2.2.1. Americans believe that more education leads to economic & social mobility.

3.2.2.2. The number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility.

3.2.2.3. To the middle class, increased education may be directly linked to upward occupational mobility, but to the poor & the rich, education may have little to do with mobility.

3.2.3. 3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Teachers are models for students, they set the standards for students & influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy.

3.2.3.2. Teachers' expectations of students directly influence student achievement.

3.2.4. 4. Student Peer Groups & Attention

3.2.4.1. Student culture plays an important role in shaping students' educational experiences.

3.2.4.2. Schools are more than mere collections of individuals.

3.2.4.3. Schools socialize, sort, and select students to reproduce society.

3.2.5. 5. Gender

3.2.5.1. Although girls start school cognitively & socially ahead of boys, girls have lower self-esteem & lower aspirations.

3.2.5.2. Studies show that boys get more teacher attention than girls do.

3.2.5.3. The gender gap in academic achievement has almost disappeared.

3.2.5.4. The consequences of certain school policies & processes may reproduce inequalities.

4. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, & the philosophy of pragmatism

4.1.1.2. Influenced by the theory of evolution & an 18th-century optimistic belief in progress

4.1.1.3. This meant the attainment of a better society through education

4.1.1.4. the school became an embryonic community where children learned skills experimentally and from books to enable them to work cooperatively in a democratic society

4.1.1.5. educators start with the needs & interests of the children in the classroom

4.1.1.6. allowed the child to participate in planning the course of study

4.1.1.7. employ project method or group learning

4.1.1.8. depend heavily on experiential learning

4.1.1.9. rested on the notion that children were active, organic beings, growing & changing and required a course of study that would reflect their particular stages of development

4.1.1.10. he advocated freedom & responsibility for students

4.1.1.11. school should reflect the community in order to enable graduating students to assume societal roles & to maintain the democratic way of life

4.1.2. Goal of Education

4.1.2.1. a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, & restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order

4.1.2.2. should provide conjoint, communicated experience & should function as preparation for life in a democratic society

4.1.2.3. must be understood as part of the larger project of social progress & improvement

4.1.2.4. should balance the needs of society & community on one hand & the needs of the individual on the other

4.1.2.5. play a key role in creating a modern form of cohesion by socializing diverse groups into a cohesive democratic community

4.1.2.6. to integrate children into a democratic type of society

4.1.2.7. to instill democratic & cooperative values to prepare them as adults to transform the social order into a more democratic one

4.1.2.8. growth leading to more growth

4.1.2.9. to be a lever of social reform

4.1.3. Role of the Teacher

4.1.3.1. no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows

4.1.3.2. assumes the peripheral position of facilitator

4.1.3.3. encourages, offers suggestions, questions, & helps plan and implement courses of study

4.1.3.4. writes curriculum & must have a command of several disciplines in order to create & implement curriculum

4.1.4. Methods of Instruction

4.1.4.1. should start mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know

4.1.4.2. children learn in groups & individually

4.1.4.3. books written by teachers & students together were used

4.1.4.4. field trips & projects that reconstructed some aspect of the child's course of study

4.1.4.5. tables & chairs that could be grouped together

4.1.4.6. children could talk together quietly, could stand up & stretch and could pursue independent study or group work

4.1.5. Curriculum

4.1.5.1. a core or an integrated

4.1.5.2. a particular subject matter under investigation by students to yield problems to be solved using math, science, history, reading, writing, music, art, wood or metal working, cooking & sewing

4.1.5.3. start with contemporary problems & working from the known to the unknown

4.1.5.4. changes as the social order changes & as children's interests & needs change

4.1.6. Key Researchers

4.1.6.1. George Sanders Pierce

4.1.6.2. William James

4.1.6.3. John Dewey

4.1.6.4. Francis Bacon

4.1.6.5. John Locke

4.1.6.6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

5.1. Tuscumbia City Schools

5.1.1. Senators

5.1.1.1. Federal

5.1.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.1.1.2. Luther Strange

5.1.1.2. State

5.1.1.2.1. Larry Stutts

5.1.2. House of Representatives

5.1.2.1. Federal

5.1.2.1.1. Bradley Byrne

5.1.2.1.2. Martha Roby

5.1.2.1.3. Mike Rogers

5.1.2.1.4. Robert Aderholt

5.1.2.1.5. Mo Brooks

5.1.2.1.6. Gary Palmer

5.1.2.1.7. Terri Sewell

5.1.2.2. State

5.1.2.2.1. Marcel Black

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Ed Richardson-interim

5.1.4. State School Board Representative

5.1.4.1. Jeffrey Newman

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Darryl Aikerson

5.1.6. Local School Board Members

5.1.6.1. Fred Williams

5.1.6.2. Mark McIlwain

5.1.6.3. Troy Youngblood

5.1.6.4. Betsy Gardiner

5.1.6.5. Buddy Whitlock

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. 1. School Processes

5.2.1.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

5.2.1.1.1. Efforts to democratize schools do not create conflicts, but allows previously hidden problems, issues, and disagreements to surface.

5.2.1.2. New behaviors must be learned.

5.2.1.2.1. The change process must include building communication & trust, enabling leadership & initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication, collaboration, & conflict resolution.

5.2.2. 2. School Cultures

5.2.2.1. Team building must extend to the entire school.

5.2.2.1.1. Issues of exclusiveness & imagined elitism may surface if shared decision making and on-going attention to relationships is not worked out.

5.2.2.2. Process and content are interrelated.

5.2.2.2.1. The substance of a project depends upon the trust & openness built up within the team & between the team and the school.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. related to the needs and interests of the student instead of the needs of society

6.1.2. emanated from the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum

6.1.3. emphasized the process of teaching as well as its content

6.1.4. student centered

6.1.5. concerned with relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages

6.1.6. stressed flexibility in what was taught & how it was taught with an emphasis on the development of each student's individual capacities

6.1.7. stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner

6.1.8. from this perspective, the teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge but a facilitator of student growth

6.1.9. from this perspective, the teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge but a ficilitator

6.1.10. stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner

6.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. 1. Mimetic

6.2.1.1. it gives a central place to the transmission of factual & procedural knowledge from one person to another, through an essentially imitative process

6.2.1.2. knowledge "presented" to a learner, rather than "discovered" by him or her

6.2.1.3. can be passed from one person to another or from a text to a person

6.2.1.4. it is detachable by being preserved in books & films so that it can "outlive" all who originally possessed it

6.2.1.5. it is detachable by being forgotten by those who once knew it

6.2.1.6. it can be shown or displayed as objective knowledge

6.2.1.7. crucial property is its reproducibility

6.2.1.8. it is transmitted from teacher to student or from text to student

6.2.1.9. it can be judged right or wrong, accurate or inaccurate,correct or incorrect on the basis of comparison with the teacher's knowledge or with some other model as found in a textbook or other instructional materials

6.2.1.10. the chief criterion by which learning is measured

6.2.1.11. is not limited to "bookish" learning

6.2.2. 2. Transformative

6.2.2.1. a qualitative change often of dramatic proportion, a metamorphosis

6.2.2.2. such changes would include all traits of character & of personality most highly prized by society at large

6.2.2.3. includes the eradication or remediation of a corresponding set of undesirable traits

6.2.2.4. transformations are typically conceived as being more deeply integrated & ingrained within the psychological makeup of a student & more enduring

6.2.2.5. is usually treated as more exalted or noble

6.2.2.6. the superiority of the teacher's knowledge is not so nearly clear-cut

6.2.2.7. teachers are trying to bring about changes in their students that make them a better person

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. directly related to achievement & to educational attainment

7.1.1.2. a direct correlation between parental income & children's performance on achievement tests & placement in ability groups & curriculum track

7.1.1.3. is related to achievement on reading tests & basic skills tests

7.1.1.4. working-class & underclass are more likely to underachieve, drop out & resist school curriculum

7.1.1.5. little doubt that the higher the social class, the more likely they will enroll in college & receive degree

7.1.1.6. the more elite colleges enroll upper-class & upper-middle class students

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. extremely difficult to separate race from class

7.1.2.2. minority students receive fewer & inferior educational opportunities than white students

7.1.2.3. minorities underachieve compared to whites based on that they don't receive the same educational opportunities & their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. gender differences in terms of educational attainment have reduced in the last 20 years

7.1.3.2. Girls have caught up to boys in almost all measures of academic achievement

7.2. 1982 Responses to the Coleman Study

7.2.1. 1. Jencks found that the differences that do exist between public & Catholic schools are statistically significant but in terms of differences in learning, the results are negligible.

7.2.2. 2. Alexander & Pallas state that they agree with the claim that trivial advantage of Catholic schools have but judged against reasonable benchmarks, there is little basis for the conclusion.

8. Chapter 9: Educational Inequality

8.1. Types of Cultural Differences Theory

8.1.1. 1. African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class & caste structure

8.1.1.1. African-American families & schools socialize their children to deal with their inferior life chances rather than encourage them to internalize those values & skills necessary for positions that will not be open to them

8.1.2. 2. Working-class & non-white students resist the dominant culture of the schools

8.1.2.1. the students reject the white middle-class culture of academic success & embrace a different anti-school culture

8.2. School-centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Vast differences in funding between affluent & poor districts

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research

8.2.2.1. While comparing schools in different socioeconomic communities, lower socioeconomic communities need to be included.

8.2.3. 3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum & Pedagogic Practices

8.2.3.1. Schools in working-class neighborhoods are far more likely to have an authoritarian & teacher-directed pedagogic practices and to have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level

8.2.4. 4. Within-School Differences: Curriculum & Ability Grouping

8.2.4.1. Elementary students receive a similar curriculum in the different groups, but may be taught at a different pace or the teachers in the various groups may have a different expectation for each student

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform

9.1. Two School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1. Privatization

9.1.1.1. for-profit companies took over the management of failing schools & districts

9.1.1.2. for-profit companies have the majority of contracts for supplemental tutoring under NCLB

9.1.2. 2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. School improvement reformers have stressed the existence of teacher tenure & seniority based transfers & layoff provisions in union contracts

9.2. Two Reforms That Impact Education

9.2.1. 1. In 1998, the state was required to implement a package of supplemental programs, including preschool, as well as a plan to renovate urban school facilities

9.2.2. 2. In 2009, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled as constitutional a new funding formula, SFRA, that eliminated the Abbott remedies & implemented a formula for allocating funds to all districts based on student needs