My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Sociology Perspectives Chapter 4

1.1. Functionalism - the interdependence of the social system

1.2. Conflict theory - the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulations

1.3. Interactionalism - critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives

1.4. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

1.4.1. Employment - Higher education leads to better employment opportunities and higher income but does not directly relate to job performance.

1.4.2. Teacher behavior - Teachers wear many hats which can be stressful, it is important not be aware of your actions and not show negative behavior to the students.

1.4.3. Student peer groups and alienation - Peer groups have an affect on individuals, some groups are made based on intellectual ability while others are based on social status or athletic ability.

1.4.4. Tracking - Tends to alienate lower class students and don't give equal opportunities.

1.4.5. Inadequate schools - It is more of a challenge to urban schools to give a high quality education than private or suburban schools.

2. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

2.1. Pragmatism - a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends

2.1.1. Key researchers - Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who "placed an emphasis on environment and experience" (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013, p. 187). John Locke "believed that people can have ideas, that people can obtain these ideas through their senses but that never verify them through the material or natural world" (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013, p. 186). John Dewey "viewed schools as vehicles for improving and changing society" (Sadovnik, Cookson, & Semel, 2013, p. 187).

2.1.2. Generic Notation - Dewey believed the school is where students learn skill to prepare them to be part of a democratic society. He viewed school as progressive.

2.1.3. Goal of Education - growth

2.1.4. Role of Teacher - encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and help plan and implement courses of study

2.1.5. Methods of Instruction - individual and group learning with problem solving and inquiry methods

2.1.6. Curriculum - child-centered curriculum

3. Educational Reform Chapter 10

3.1. Privatization

3.1.1. For-profit companies took over failing schools.

3.1.2. The success of this reform was mixed.

3.2. School-to-work

3.2.1. Schools and businesses partnered to create vocational schools for non-college bound students.

3.2.2. They would learn the skill they need for employment and transition to a job.

3.2.3. These programs often failed and remain a second-class educational track.

3.3. School Finance Reforms

3.3.1. Several court cases came about to gain more money for low income schools to give students more educational equality.

3.3.2. Some schools received supplemental programs to help.

3.4. Full Service and Community Schools

3.4.1. Schools and community services collaborate to meet the needs of students and their families.

3.4.2. They help with tutoring, job placement, health care, and other services.

4. Politics of Education Chapter 2

4.1. Four purposes of education

4.1.1. Definition of educational problems - Conservative Prospective: 1. Decline of standards - reduced educational quality in response to liberal and radical demands for equality in the 1960's and 1970's. 2. Decline of cultural literacy - watered down curriculum weakening that ability to pass down American Heritage in response to multicultural education. 3. Decline of values or of civilization - lost traditional role of teaching moral standards and values. 4. Decline of authority - lost traditional disciplinary function and often became chaotic due to individuality and freedom reforms. 5. Because schools are state controlled they are immune from laws of a competitive free market so they are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

4.1.2. Social - help solve social problems, work as family or church to ensure social cohesion,, socialize children into various roles of behaviors and values of society

4.1.3. Economic - to prepare students for occupational roles; select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

4.1.4. Intellectual - teach basic cognitive skills such as reading and writing, transmit specific knowledge, help students acquire high-order thinking skill such as analysis and evaluation

4.2. Role of the School - Conservative Perspective: provide education to maximize economic and social productivity, socialize children into adult roles necessary to maintain social order, essential to to economic productivity and social stability

4.2.1. Role of the School - Conservative Perspective: provide education to maximize economic and social productivity, socialize children into adult roles necessary to maintain social order, essential to to economic productivity and social stability

4.3. Explanations of unequal performance - Conservative Prospective: Students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and sacrifice. School is designed to give students the opportunity to succeed.

4.4. Definition of educational problems - Conservative Prospective: 1. Decline of standards - reduced educational quality in response to liberal and radical demands for equality in the 1960's and 1970's. 2. Decline of cultural literacy - watered down curriculum weakening that ability to pass down American Heritage in response to multicultural education. 3. Decline of values or of civilization - lost traditional role of teaching moral standards and values. 4. Decline of authority - lost traditional disciplinary function and often became chaotic due to individuality and freedom reforms. 5. Because schools are state controlled they are immune from laws of a competitive free market so they are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

5. History of U. S. Education Chapter 3

5.1. Education for women and African-American has had the most influence on education. Prior to the 1800's only men were allowed to receive an education. It was believed that education and literacy led to insubordination and revolution. The first female secondary education facility opened in 1821. African-Americans were forbade to learn to read and write until 1846. Even then they were encouraged to establish their own educational facilities. There are still issues of discrimination in education systems today.

6. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

6.1. US Senators and House of Representatives

6.1.1. US Senators: Richard Shelby and Luther Strange

6.1.2. US House of Representatives: Robert Aderholt (District 4)

6.1.3. For a list of all Federal Alabama Senators, House of Representative, and map of congressional districts go to govtrack.us

6.2. State Senator and House of Represetatives

6.2.1. State Senator: Clay Scofield (District 9)

6.2.2. State House of Representatives: David Standridge (District 34)

6.2.3. For a list of all State Senators, House of Representatives, and map of districts go to legislature.state.al.us

6.3. State Superintendent of Education and State Board of Education representative

6.3.1. State Superintendent of education: Ed Richardson

6.3.2. State Board of education: Cynthia Sanders McCarty (District 6)

6.3.3. alsde.edu

6.4. Local Superintendent of Education and Board Members

6.4.1. Superintendents: Rodney Green

6.4.2. Board Members: Ken Benton (District 1), Jackie T. Sivley (District 2), Bruce McAfee (District 3), William Ferry (District 4), Chris Latta (District 5)

6.4.3. blountboe.net

6.5. 4 Elements of Change

6.5.1. Conflict

6.5.1.1. doesn't create them

6.5.1.2. allows them to surface and resolve

6.5.2. Learn New Behaviors

6.5.2.1. build communication and trust

6.5.2.2. collaboration

6.5.2.3. conflict resolution

6.5.3. Team Building

6.5.3.1. share decision making with all staff

6.5.4. Process and Content are Interrelated

6.5.4.1. openness and trust within the team and between the team and school

7. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

7.1. John Ogbu

7.1.1. African Americans have adapted to a life of oppression and therefore don't do as well in school.

7.1.2. They don't encourage their children to achieve more because they think those higher positions will not be open to them.

7.2. Bourdieu

7.2.1. Affluent families give their children more opportunities for culture and economic capital which in turn gives them an educational advantage. They also encourage children to participate in activities.

7.3. School Financing

7.3.1. Schools receive revenue based on property tax of the area therefore the affluent areas have more money per student than the poorer areas.

7.4. Between-School Differences

7.4.1. Schools of high and low socioeconomic status have different cultures and climates.

7.4.2. High socioeconomic status student achieve more.

7.4.3. Researchers can't explain why or how these differences affect students.

7.5. Within-school Differences

7.5.1. Students in different groups perform differently due to various factors such as the pace they are taught or teacher expectations.

7.6. Gender and Schooling

7.6.1. "Boys and girls are socialized differently through a variety of school processes" (Sadovnik, Cookson, and Semel, 2013, p. 431).

7.6.2. Curriculum portrays gender roles in stereotypical ways.

7.6.3. Curriculum silences women.

7.6.4. Reinforcement of gender roles.

7.6.5. Schooling limits opportunities for women.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

8.1. "The Developmentalist curriculum is related to the needs and interest of the student rather that society" (Sandovnik, Cookson, and Semel, 2013, p. 284)

8.1.1. child centered

8.1.2. relates to each individual child

8.1.3. relates school to life experiences

8.1.4. makes education meaningful

8.1.5. teachers facilitate learning

8.2. 2 Dominant Traditions of Teaching

8.2.1. Mimetic

8.2.1.1. purpose is to transmit knowledge to students

8.2.1.2. uses lecture or presentation

8.2.1.3. uses measurable goals and objectives

8.2.2. Transformative

8.2.2.1. purpose is to change the student in some meaningful way

8.2.2.2. rejects authoritarian relationship between teacher and student

8.2.2.3. teaching and learning are inexctricably linked

9. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

9.1. Class

9.1.1. Upper and middle class students are more likely to be high achievers and finish or stay in school than lowers class due to family and financial support.

9.2. Gender

9.2.1. Females are more likely to have a higher level of achievement in all areas except math.

9.2.2. Male ACT scores are usually higher.

9.2.3. Gender differences are decreasing, women are catching up.

9.3. Race

9.3.1. "Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites and their rewards for educational attainment are significantly less" (Sandovnik, Cookson, and Semel, 2013, p. 343)

9.3.2. Dropout rates: white 5.2%, African American 9.3%, and Hispanic 17.6%.

9.4. Coleman Study 1982

9.4.1. Private school students scored higher than public school students in all academic areas.

9.4.2. After introducing statistical controls on family background the differences in private and public schools decreased some. However, private schools still came out ahead especially Catholic schools.