Reference: Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part i: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67. Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert techer's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study. ETR&D, 46(2), 37-64.
Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part i: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64
Educational Institutions, ICT in class, Partly e-Learning, Flexible Learning, Distance Education, Education Staff Development
Commercial Environment, Solve own training needs, Develop Digital Content for sale, Provide specialized e-Training, Develop Custom solutions for a client
Context of Development, Outsourcing, In-house, Buying existing products/instructinos
Examples, E-learning, Multimedia Packages, Educational Digital Video, Educational Websites, Blanded Learning Packages, Assessment Systems, Learning Objects, Educational Games, Educational Electronic Devices, Podcasts, iTuneU, E-books
Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576.
Analysis, Needs Analysis, Audience Analysis, Environment Analysis, Content Analysis, System Analysis, Feasibility Analysis, Risk Analysis, Project Proposal
Design, Specifying Objectives, Gathering Resources, Learning Content, Gathering Instructional Strategy, Content Flowchart, Functional Needs, Style Definition, Navigation Map, Interface Design, Prototype, Detailed Flowchart, Storyboards, Scripts, Design Specs
Production, A/V Production, Graphics Creation, Authoring, Manuals
Implementation, Delivery, Publishing
Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, Formative Evaluation
References: Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories. Available at: http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990). Second generation instructional design (ID2). Educational Technology, 30(2), 7-14. Available at: http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/ID1&ID2.PDF Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Instructional transaction theory: instructional design based on knowledge objects. Educational Technology, 36(3), 30-37. Available at: http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/TxBased_KO.PDF Merrill, M. D. (2002). Knowledge objects and mental models. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects (pp. 261-280). Washington DC: Agency for Instructional Technology & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Available at: http://mdavidmerrill.com/Papers/KOMentalModels.PDF Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc. Available at: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/ibs/solutions/.../el_cisco_rio.pdf
Drill and Practice
Intelligent tutorial systems
Gange's 9-event of instruciton, Gaining Attention, Reception of patterns of neural ipulses, Informing the Learner of the Objective, Activating a process of executive control, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Retrieval of prior learning to working memory, Presenting the stimulus material, Emphasizing features for selective perception, Providing learning guidance, Semantic encoding; cues for retrieval, Eliciting the performance, Activating response organization, Providing feedback about performance correctness, Establishing reinforcement, Assessing the performance, Activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible, Enhancing retention and transfer, Providing cues and strategies for retrieval
Reusable Learning Objects
Technology as a tool in a learning activity
Inquiries and problem solving
On-line collaboration and knowledge building
WebQuest and ActiveLesson
Interactive Learning Objects
References: Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139. Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64. Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T., & Macpherson, A. K. (1999). Learning by doing. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38 Jonassen, D. (2000). Towards design theory of problem solving. ETR&D, 48(4), 63-85 Grabinger, R. S., & Dunlap, J. C. (1995). Rich environments for active learning: a definition. Association for Learning Technology Journal, 3(2). 5- 34. Available at: http://repository.alt.ac.uk/11/1/CALT_A_00302005_O.pdf
Analysis of job description
Analysis of job-related documents
Observation of people at work, directly or via recording
Discussion with people about specific jobs
Extrapolation of tasks from a customer's started training needs
Specific instrucitonal objectives
Drill and Practice
Events of Instruction (Gagne, Briggs and Wager (1992))
Informing learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
Presenting the stimulus material
Providing learning guidance
Providing feedback about performance
Assessing the performance
Enhancing retention and transfer
Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.
Students build mental representations from words and pictures that are presented to them
Students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures.
Cognitive Theory, Selecting: Human possess separate information processing systems for visual and verbal representations (Paivio 1996, Baddeley 1992, 1998), Organizing: Build a coherent mental representation of the verbal material and a coherent mental representation of the viusal material., Integrating: Build connections between the verbal and pictorial models and with prior knowledge
Multimedia effect, Text-and-illustration, Less, Narration-and-animation, Greater
Coherence effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less
Spatial contiguity effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less
Personalizatoin effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less
Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64. Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T., & Macpherson, A. K. (1999). Learning by doing. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
Learning tasks, The backbone of every training program, Typicall performed in a real or simulated task environment and provide whole-task practice
Supportive information, Supports the learning and performance of non-recurrent aspects of learning tasks, consists of mental models, cognitive strategies and cognitive feedback
JIT information, prequisite to the learning and performance of recurrent aspects of learning tasks or practice items, consists of information displays, demonstrations and instances and corrective feedback
Part-task practice, provides additional practice for selected recurrent constituent skill in order to reach required level of automaticity, organized in part-task practice sessions, which are best intermixed with learning tasks
Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-3
Constructivism, Understanding is in our interactions with the environment., Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of indivudual understandings.
Instructinoal Principles, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem., Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task., Design an authentic task., Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning., Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution., Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking., Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts., Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process.
Processes, Learning goals, Problem generation, Problem Presentation, Facilitator Role
References: Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M. J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning. ETR&D, 49(3), 37-52. Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. Available at http://elrond.scam.ecu.edu.au/oliver/2002/TALO2.pdf Churchill, D. (2006). Student-centered learning design: key components, technology role!and!frameworks!for!integration.!Synergy,!4(1),!18;28.
Multimedia principle, Integrating visual and verbal information in the learning object
Split-attention principle, Physically and temporally integrating words and pictures.
Redundancy principle, Same information should not be presented in more than one format.
Modality principle, Words should be spoken rather than written.
Segmenting principle, Multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments.
Pre-training principle, Names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students.
Coherence, Extraneous material should be excluded.
Singnaling, Cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material.
Resources and Tools
Problems, Logical Problems, Algorithms, Story Problems, Rule-Using Problem, Decision-Making Problems, Troubleshooting Problems, Diagnosis-Solution Problems, Strategic Performance, Situated Case-Policy Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas
References: Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Available at http://www.publicationshare.com/docs/Bon02.pdf Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D, 54(2), 177-196. Jonassen, H. D. & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment. ERT&D, 47(1), pp. 61-99.
Implications for Assessment: Propositions
Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word association, Similarity ratings, Card sort
Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps, Pathfinder networks, Concept Maps
Implications for Instruction: Propositions
Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving
Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use
Problem-project space, captures the activity system that is embedded in a CLE., Must present learners with an interesting, relevant, and engaging ill-structured problem to solve or project to conduct., Must provide students with the opportunity to manipulate aspects of the problem in order to allow learners to make it more meaningful.
Related Cases, Students can draw on to represent that deficient experiences., Enable learners to examine prior experiences and relate them to the current problem, Help to represent complexity in learning environments by providing multiple perspectives or approaches to the problems or issues being examined by the learners.
Cognitive Tools, Replicate the mediation tools in any activity system, May be visualization tools that enable learners to see phenomena in different ways or tools for representing conscious models or phenomena that are being studied., Examples, Semantic organization, Dynamic modelling, Information interpretation, Knowledge building, Conversational tools
Conversation and Collaboration Tools, Uses a variety of computer-mediated communication methods to support collaboration among communities of learners.
Step 1: Clarify purpose of activity system, Understand relevant context(s) within which activities occur, Understand the subject, his or her motivations and interpretations of perceived contradictions in the system
Step 2: Analyze the Activity System, Define the subject, Define the relevant community-communities, Define the object
Step 3: Analyze the Activity Structure, Define the activity itself, Decompose the activity into its component actions and operations
Step 4: Analyze Tools and Mediators, Tool mediators and mediation, Rule mediators and mediation, Role mediators and mediation
Step 5: Analyze the Context, Internal or subject-driven contextual bounds, External or community-driven contextual bounds
Step 6: Analyzing Activity System Dynamics, What are the interrelationships that exist within the components of the system?, How formally established are those relationships?, How have those interrelationships changed over time?
References: Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.
User control of information
New forms of expressions
Web as a point of presence, e.g. Second Life
Internet-mediated social/collective activities, e.g. Facebook
Web as a platform, e.g. Moodle, e.g. Blogs
Rich user experiences
Blogs, Web-based publications, No technical skills required, Can contain text, media, links, e.g. Blogger, Picasa
Wikies, Social software that allows collaborative development of an article of common interest to its authors, e.g. Wikipedia
Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories, Allows book marking and sharing resources collaboratively, e.g. Risal, YouTube
RSS Feeds and Podcasting, RSS - Really Simple Syndication, RSS Feeds provide an updated list of content from a site, Podcasting is a method of distributing audio programs or video over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers., e.g. Yahoo! News RSS, iTunes
"Web as a platform" applications, Provide an online platform for communication and collaborative learning, e.g. ZOHO, Google Doc
Mashups and Open Source, Open source, free for everything to download and edit the content, e.g. SourceForge.net
Social Networking, Provide online platform for sharing resources, e.g. Facebook
References: Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46(3), 294-308.
Become more and more important and affordable in future
Price of Mobile Learning devices are lower and lower
A variety of Mobile Learning devices like notebook computer, mobile phone, tablet PC, PDA, etc.
Reading materials in Word document, PDF files and web pages.
PowerPoint presentation slides
Interactive learning objects
IR, Bluetooth, WiFi
Phone, MMS, SMS
Skype, MSN, Facebook and other kind of connections via Internet
Take images and short video
Statistical software (e.g. SPSS)
Sketch diagrams (e.g. DIA)
Sketching information on the captured images (e.g. Photoshop)
Drawing mind maps (e.g. XMind, Mindmeister)
Collaborative, Aim to encourage knowledge sharing while making use of the learner's physical context and mobility.
Location Aware, Aim to contextualize learning activities by enabling the learners to interact appropriately with their environment
Data Collection, Record data and information about their environment, Scientific, Reflective, Multimedia
Administration, Focuses on information storage and retrieval are widely available.
Referential, Allows for the accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur by making use of the portability and mobility of handheld devices
Intereactive, Focusing on engaging users through a 'response and feedback' approach.
Microworld, Allows learners to construct their own knowledge through experimentation in constrained models of real world domains., Provide tasks within real world settings
Context sensitive dynamic content
Balancing of perspectives, possibilities and predictions
Learners as Designer
Collective Design, Blogs, e.g. Blogger, Wikies, e.g. Wikipedia, Web-as-a-platform applications, e.g. Google Docs, Podcasting and Videocasting, e.g. Gcast, Youtube, Digital Storytelling, e.g. Voicethread, GoAnimate, Interactive representations, e.g. Scratch, Mashing
The future is a mobile world. It requires appropriate design and technology support in order to fully utilize the advantages of using mobile device for learning. Different approaches have their own different set up and characteristics. I think the most important thing is to fit the design with the actual using environment. It should undergo analysis, designing, testing, reflecting and improving in order to produce a successful and perfect learning design.