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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Fung Wing Ho (2009873254) by Mind Map: MITE6330 Learning Design and
Technology by Fung Wing Ho
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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Fung Wing Ho (2009873254)

Design of Learning/Instructional Products

Reference: Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part i: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67. Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert techer's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study. ETR&D, 46(2), 37-64.

Features of Instructional Design

Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part i: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64







Learning Technology Products

Educational Institutions, ICT in class, Partly e-Learning, Flexible Learning, Distance Education, Education Staff Development

Commercial Environment, Solve own training needs, Develop Digital Content for sale, Provide specialized e-Training, Develop Custom solutions for a client

Context of Development, Outsourcing, In-house, Buying existing products/instructinos

Examples, E-learning, Multimedia Packages, Educational Digital Video, Educational Websites, Blanded Learning Packages, Assessment Systems, Learning Objects, Educational Games, Educational Electronic Devices, Podcasts, iTuneU, E-books

Product Development Stages

Churchill, D. (2006). Teachers' private theories and their design of technology-based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 559-576.

Initial Meeting

Analysis, Needs Analysis, Audience Analysis, Environment Analysis, Content Analysis, System Analysis, Feasibility Analysis, Risk Analysis, Project Proposal

Design, Specifying Objectives, Gathering Resources, Learning Content, Gathering Instructional Strategy, Content Flowchart, Functional Needs, Style Definition, Navigation Map, Interface Design, Prototype, Detailed Flowchart, Storyboards, Scripts, Design Specs

Production, A/V Production, Graphics Creation, Authoring, Manuals

Implementation, Delivery, Publishing

Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, Formative Evaluation

Project Development Team

Project manager

Instructional designer

Interface designer

Multimedia designer


Video Producer


Graphics artist


Sound engineer

Instructional Design Models

References: Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories. Available at: Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990). Second generation instructional design (ID2). Educational Technology, 30(2), 7-14. Available at: Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Instructional transaction theory: instructional design based on knowledge objects. Educational Technology, 36(3), 30-37. Available at: Merrill, M. D. (2002). Knowledge objects and mental models. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects (pp. 261-280). Washington DC: Agency for Instructional Technology & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Available at: Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc. Available at:

Linear Model by Dick & Carey (1990)

Spiral Model by Romiszowski (1981)

Rapid Prototype Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)

Oval Model by Kemp (1985)

Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden (1996)

Technology Instructive Models

Drill and Practice

Computer-based Tutorials

Intelligent tutorial systems

Gange's 9-event of instruciton, Gaining Attention, Reception of patterns of neural ipulses, Informing the Learner of the Objective, Activating a process of executive control, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Retrieval of prior learning to working memory, Presenting the stimulus material, Emphasizing features for selective perception, Providing learning guidance, Semantic encoding; cues for retrieval, Eliciting the performance, Activating response organization, Providing feedback about performance correctness, Establishing reinforcement, Assessing the performance, Activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible, Enhancing retention and transfer, Providing cues and strategies for retrieval

Reusable Learning Objects

Technology Constructivist Models

Learning environments

Technology as a tool in a learning activity

Inquiries and problem solving

Cognitive tolls

On-line collaboration and knowledge building

WebQuest and ActiveLesson

Interactive Learning Objects

Designing Instruction/Learning Technology Product

References: Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139. Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64. Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T., & Macpherson, A. K. (1999). Learning by doing. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38 Jonassen, D. (2000). Towards design theory of problem solving. ETR&D, 48(4), 63-85 Grabinger, R. S., & Dunlap, J. C. (1995). Rich environments for active learning: a definition. Association for Learning Technology Journal, 3(2). 5- 34. Available at:

Define a Goal(s)

Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance, Task, Content Analysis)

Analysis of job description

Analysis of job-related documents

Observation of people at work, directly or via recording

Discussion with people about specific jobs

Extrapolation of tasks from a customer's started training needs

Task Analysis

Analyze Learners and Context

Writing Performance/ Learning Objectives

Performance objectives

Instructional objetives

Behaviouiral objectives

Specific instrucitonal objectives

Learning outcomes

Develop Assessment Strategy

Drill and Practice


Problem Solving


Develop Instructional Strategy

Arrange Instructional Events

Events of Instruction (Gagne, Briggs and Wager (1992))

Gaining Attention

Informing learner of the objective

Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

Presenting the stimulus material

Providing learning guidance

Eliciting performance

Providing feedback about performance

Assessing the performance

Enhancing retention and transfer

Multimedia Learning

Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.

Students build mental representations from words and pictures that are presented to them

Students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures.

Cognitive Theory, Selecting: Human possess separate information processing systems for visual and verbal representations (Paivio 1996, Baddeley 1992, 1998), Organizing: Build a coherent mental representation of the verbal material and a coherent mental representation of the viusal material., Integrating: Build connections between the verbal and pictorial models and with prior knowledge

Multimedia effect, Text-and-illustration, Less, Narration-and-animation, Greater

Coherence effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less

Spatial contiguity effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less

Personalizatoin effect, Text-and-illustration, Greater, Narration-and-animation, Less

Instruction Model (4C)

Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64. Schank, C. R., Berman, R. T., & Macpherson, A. K. (1999). Learning by doing. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp.397-424). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Learning tasks, The backbone of every training program, Typicall performed in a real or simulated task environment and provide whole-task practice

Supportive information, Supports the learning and performance of non-recurrent aspects of learning tasks, consists of mental models, cognitive strategies and cognitive feedback

JIT information, prequisite to the learning and performance of recurrent aspects of learning tasks or practice items, consists of information displays, demonstrations and instances and corrective feedback

Part-task practice, provides additional practice for selected recurrent constituent skill in order to reach required level of automaticity, organized in part-task practice sessions, which are best intermixed with learning tasks

Problem-based Learning Design

Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-3

Constructivism, Understanding is in our interactions with the environment., Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of indivudual understandings.

Instructinoal Principles, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem., Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task., Design an authentic task., Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning., Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution., Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking., Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts., Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process.

Processes, Learning goals, Problem generation, Problem Presentation, Facilitator Role

Development of a Product

References:   Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M. J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning. ETR&D, 49(3), 37-52.   Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. Available at   Churchill, D. (2006). Student-centered learning design: key components, technology role!and!frameworks!for!integration.!Synergy,!4(1),!18;28.  

Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003)

Multimedia principle, Integrating visual and verbal information in the learning object

Split-attention principle, Physically and temporally integrating words and pictures.

Redundancy principle, Same information should not be presented in more than one format.

Modality principle, Words should be spoken rather than written.

Segmenting principle, Multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments.

Pre-training principle, Names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students.

Coherence, Extraneous material should be excluded.

Singnaling, Cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material.

Learning by Doing/ Case-based Reasoning (Schank, Berman & MacPhersoon, 1999)



Cover story





Kolb Learning Cycle

Active Experimentation

Concrete Experience

Reflective OBservation

Abstract Conceptualization

Dufour's 'Learning by Doing'






Resource-based learning (Churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington, 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001)

Resources and Tools

Activity (Task)



Constructivist Learning Environment (Jonassen, 1999)








Activity/ Manipulative

Problems, Logical Problems, Algorithms, Story Problems, Rule-Using Problem, Decision-Making Problems, Troubleshooting Problems, Diagnosis-Solution Problems, Strategic Performance, Situated Case-Policy Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas

Designing for Concept Learning

References: Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Available at   Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D, 54(2), 177-196.   Jonassen, H. D. & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment. ERT&D, 47(1), pp. 61-99.

Concepts are mental representations of categories of objects, events, or other entities.

Concepts play essential roles in human reasoning

Implications for conceptual change for concept learning and assessment

Implications for Assessment: Propositions

Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word association, Similarity ratings, Card sort

Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps, Pathfinder networks, Concept Maps

Implications for Instruction: Propositions

Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving

Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use

Constructivist learning environments (CLE)

Problem-project space, captures the activity system that is embedded in a CLE., Must present learners with an interesting, relevant, and engaging ill-structured problem to solve or project to conduct., Must provide students with the opportunity to manipulate aspects of the problem in order to allow learners to make it more meaningful.

Related Cases, Students can draw on to represent that deficient experiences., Enable learners to examine prior experiences and relate them to the current problem, Help to represent complexity in learning environments by providing multiple perspectives or approaches to the problems or issues being examined by the learners.

Cognitive Tools, Replicate the mediation tools in any activity system, May be visualization tools that enable learners to see phenomena in different ways or tools for representing conscious models or phenomena that are being studied., Examples, Semantic organization, Dynamic modelling, Information interpretation, Knowledge building, Conversational tools

Conversation and Collaboration Tools, Uses a variety of computer-mediated communication methods to support collaboration among communities of learners.

Process for designing CLEs

Step 1: Clarify purpose of activity system, Understand relevant context(s) within which activities occur, Understand the subject, his or her motivations and interpretations of perceived contradictions in the system

Step 2: Analyze the Activity System, Define the subject, Define the relevant community-communities, Define the object

Step 3: Analyze the Activity Structure, Define the activity itself, Decompose the activity into its component actions and operations

Step 4: Analyze Tools and Mediators, Tool mediators and mediation, Rule mediators and mediation, Role mediators and mediation

Step 5: Analyze the Context, Internal or subject-driven contextual bounds, External or community-driven contextual bounds

Step 6: Analyzing Activity System Dynamics, What are the interrelationships that exist within the components of the system?, How formally established are those relationships?, How have those interrelationships changed over time?

Web 2.0-based Learning Technologies

References: Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

What is Web 2.0?

User control of information

New forms of expressions

Web as a point of presence, e.g. Second Life

Internet-mediated social/collective activities, e.g. Facebook

Web as a platform, e.g. Moodle, e.g. Blogs

Rich user experiences

Media revolutions


Blogs, Web-based publications, No technical skills required, Can contain text, media, links, e.g. Blogger, Picasa

Wikies, Social software that allows collaborative development of an article of common interest to its authors, e.g. Wikipedia

Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories, Allows book marking and sharing resources collaboratively, e.g. Risal, YouTube

RSS Feeds and Podcasting, RSS - Really Simple Syndication, RSS Feeds provide an updated list of content from a site, Podcasting is a method of distributing audio programs or video over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers., e.g. Yahoo! News RSS, iTunes

"Web as a platform" applications, Provide an online platform for communication and collaborative learning, e.g. ZOHO, Google Doc

Mashups and Open Source, Open source, free for everything to download and edit the content, e.g.

Social Networking, Provide online platform for sharing resources, e.g. Facebook

Designing Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

References: Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46(3), 294-308.

Mobile Technogies

Become more and more important and affordable in future

Affordances of Mobile Technology for Education

Price of Mobile Learning devices are lower and lower

A variety of Mobile Learning devices like notebook computer, mobile phone, tablet PC, PDA, etc.

Multimedia Assess Tool

Reading materials in Word document, PDF files and web pages.

PowerPoint presentation slides


Video, Audio

Interactive learning objects

Connectivity Tool

IR, Bluetooth, WiFi

Phone, MMS, SMS

Skype, MSN, Facebook and other kind of connections via Internet

Capture Tool

Take images and short video

Audio notes

Audio recording


Analytical Tool


Excel Spreadsheet

Statistical software (e.g. SPSS)

Representational Tool

Sketch diagrams (e.g. DIA)

Sketching information on the captured images (e.g. Photoshop)

Drawing mind maps (e.g. XMind, Mindmeister)

Access anytime in anywhere

Functional Framework for designing for mobile learning (Byran Pattern, Sa'nchez, & Tangney, 2006)

Collaborative, Aim to encourage knowledge sharing while making use of the learner's physical context and mobility.

Location Aware, Aim to contextualize learning activities by enabling the learners to interact appropriately with their environment

Data Collection, Record data and information about their environment, Scientific, Reflective, Multimedia

Administration, Focuses on information storage and retrieval are widely available.

Referential, Allows for the accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur by making use of the portability and mobility of handheld devices

Intereactive, Focusing on engaging users through a 'response and feedback' approach.

Microworld, Allows learners to construct their own knowledge through experimentation in constrained models of real world domains., Provide tasks within real world settings

Intelligent design of the future

Context sensitive dynamic content

Multiple senses

Balancing of perspectives, possibilities and predictions

Super-intelligent design

Learners as Designer


Collective Design, Blogs, e.g. Blogger, Wikies, e.g. Wikipedia, Web-as-a-platform applications, e.g. Google Docs, Podcasting and Videocasting, e.g. Gcast, Youtube, Digital Storytelling, e.g. Voicethread, GoAnimate, Interactive representations, e.g. Scratch, Mashing

My Reflection

The future is a mobile world. It requires appropriate design and technology support in order to fully utilize the advantages of using mobile device for learning. Different approaches have their own different set up and characteristics. I think the most important thing is to fit the design with the actual using environment. It should undergo analysis, designing, testing, reflecting and improving in order to produce a successful and perfect learning design.