Neuron Communication

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Neuron Communication by Mind Map: Neuron Communication

1. Ion Movement During Post-Synaptic Potentials

1.1. Influx of Sodium

1.1.1. Depolarization

1.1.1.1. excitatory EPSP

1.2. Efflux of Potassium

1.2.1. Hyperpolarization

1.2.1.1. inhibitory IPSP

1.3. Influx of Clorine

1.3.1. Hyperpolarization

2. AP

2.1. Depolarization

2.1.1. Calcium Voltage Gated Channels

2.1.1.1. "Active Zones"

2.1.1.1.1. 3. Open

2.1.1.1.2. Increase with arrival of AP

3. Agonists and Antagonists

4. Ion Channel

4.1. Ionotropic Receptors

4.1.1. Ligand

4.1.1.1. Opens Na Chanel

4.1.1.1.1. Depolarization

4.1.1.2. Binding Sites

4.1.1.3. Agonists

4.1.1.3.1. endogenous

4.1.1.3.2. exogenous

4.1.1.4. Antagonists

4.1.1.4.1. binds receptors

4.1.1.4.2. fail to activate receptors

4.1.2. determine NTs actions

4.1.3. EPSP

4.1.4. IPSP

4.1.5. Glutamate Receptors

4.1.5.1. AMPA

4.1.5.1.1. extra binding site

4.1.5.1.2. more sensitive to glutamate

4.1.5.2. NMDA

4.1.5.2.1. calcium channel opens

4.1.5.2.2. in (axon) resting state, opening of channel is blocked by magnesium ions

4.1.5.3. Properties of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

4.1.5.3.1. allow passage of sodium and potassium ions

4.1.5.3.2. sometimes passage of Calcium ions

4.1.5.3.3. always produce EPSP

4.2. Opens Channels

4.2.1. Ions Flow

4.2.1.1. Signal Continues

5. Receptor Activation

5.1. Endogenous (made by body) Ligands

5.1.1. NT's

5.1.1.1. ACh

5.1.2. Hormones

5.2. Exogenous (outside of body)

5.2.1. Drugs

5.2.1.1. Nicotine

5.2.1.1.1. Activates Ach

5.2.2. Toxins

6. Metabotropic Receptors

6.1. 1. Molecule of NT binds w/ receptors

6.2. 2. Receptor activates G protein

6.2.1. 3, subunit breaks away, binds with ion channel and opens it

6.2.1.1. 4. ions enter cell

6.2.1.1.1. 5. post synaptic potential

6.2.2. 3. subunit breaks away, activates enzyme, which produces second messenger

6.2.2.1. 4. ion channel opens

6.2.2.1.1. 5. ions enter cell

6.2.2.2. second messenger

6.3. Glutamate Receptors

6.3.1. NMDAR

6.4. CAUSES structural changes in cell

7. Receptor Distribution

7.1. increase = up-regulation

7.2. decrease= down-regulation

8. "Timing of AP" (Total Refractory Period)

8.1. Absolute Refractory Period

8.1.1. Relative Refractory Period

8.1.1.1. short duration AP

8.1.1.2. long duration AP

9. Weak Stimulus

10. Short-Term Habituation

10.1. decreased NT release from Sensory Neuron

11. Strong Stimulus

12. Long Term Potentiation

12.1. Post Synaptic Neuron (PSN) depolarized

12.1.1. receives NT (Glutamate)