Seven Aspects of Civilization

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Seven Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: Seven Aspects of Civilization

1. Arts and Education

1.1. Used a lost-wax technique to create bronze jars and boxes

1.2. bronze was used to create designs on chariots

1.3. Jade, with bronze, is the highest achievement of Bronze Age material

1.4. Iron appeared in China toward the end of the period

2. Shang/Zhou

2.1. Government and Leaders

2.1.1. Monarchy governed by kings

2.1.2. Capital would move due to power struggles in family

2.1.3. Always at war with surrounding states

2.1.4. Confederation

2.2. Economy and Trade

2.2.1. Long extending trade routes

2.2.2. Cowry Shells used as currency

2.2.3. Economy centered around agriculture

2.2.4. population growth proposed more merchants and trader specialization

2.3. Science

2.3.1. Invented writing

2.3.2. bronze fur weapons or ceremonial vessels

2.3.3. stone and wood farming tools

2.3.4. roads and canals

2.4. Religion

2.4.1. Polytheistic

2.4.2. thought there was connection between people and higher beings

2.4.3. Happiness of dead ancestors affected well being of people

2.4.4. Prayers, offerings, human sacrifices

2.5. Geography and Agriculture

2.5.1. located in north east region of ancient china

2.5.2. Yellow River provided water and fertile soil

2.5.3. agriculture prospered off the abundance of loess

2.5.4. the main crops were a wide variety of cereals

2.6. Social Structure and Family Life

2.6.1. 4 classes:kings, military, craftsman, and peasants

2.6.2. slaves are the lowest class

2.6.3. with royalty of the king came the level of nobles in society

2.6.4. nobles included Gong (craftsman), Hou (social sciences and political theory), Bo, Zi, Nan

3. Sumerian

3.1. Economy and Trade

3.1.1. Trade centered around Persian Gulf

3.1.2. Slaves were not major part of economy

3.1.3. Needed to trade with other countries for necessary resources

3.1.4. Economy thrived on technological advancements in agriculture

3.2. Government and Leaders

3.2.1. Officials appointed for sorting out problems and projects

3.2.2. Kingdoms organized as city-states

3.2.3. Laws enforced by courts

3.2.4. Started as elected office, became permanent

3.3. Science

3.3.1. Boats made from animal skins and reeds

3.3.2. Invented the wheel

3.3.3. Invented the plow

3.3.4. Levees hold back floods and they poked holes in summer when land was dry; learned to control river

3.4. Religion

3.4.1. Universe consisted of heaven and Earth

3.4.2. Thought gods controlled nature

3.4.3. Dead descended to "nether world"

3.4.4. Gods could be hurt/killed

3.5. Geography and Agriculture

3.5.1. Located in Fertile Crescent

3.5.2. Very little rain

3.5.3. Located along Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

3.5.4. Depended on river floods for water

3.6. Arts and Education

3.6.1. Marble art was found

3.6.2. Usually used for religious purposes

3.6.3. Created first known formal education system

3.6.4. Priests were teachers as well

3.7. Social Structure and Family Life

3.7.1. Four classes: nobles, commoners, clients, and slaves

3.7.2. Men were considered superior to women

3.7.3. Nobles owned the most land

3.7.4. Family was considered important

4. Sumerian Images

4.1. Map

4.2. Technology

5. Shang/Zhou Images

5.1. Map

5.2. Technology