7 Aspects of Civilization

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7 Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilization

1. Government & Leaders

1.1. The Sumerians

1.1.1. Over time each city and the land it controlled formed a city-state, political within its own government.

1.1.2. Priests held a high statues and often governed city-states in the beginning.

1.1.3. As city-states battled, war chiefs started ruling over Priests.

1.1.4. As time prevailed dynasty formed. A dynasty is where one family rules over generations of time.

1.2. The Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. `The Zhou ruled by the idea of Mandate of Heaven which stated that the gods would support a just ruler and would not allow anyone corrupt to hold a position of power.

1.2.2. The Shang were overthrown by the Zhou.

1.2.3. Shang kings were surrounded by a court that performed rituals in an attempt to strengthen the kingdom and keep it safe.

1.2.4. During the Shang period China was ruled by a strong monarchy.

2. Religion

2.1. The Sumerians

2.1.1. The Sumerians practiced polytheism. They believed gods controlled as natural forces.

2.1.2. They thought a god protected each city-state.

2.1.3. They believed the gods were human in many ways. The gods ate, drank, fell in love, married and fought.

2.1.4. They build Ziggurants and tempels

2.1.5. Religious artifact

2.2. The Shang/ Zhou

2.2.1. The Shang religion was centered around the idea of ancestor worship.

2.2.2. The Shang had tombs which contained valuable items made of bronze and Jade.

2.2.3. Shang rulers would be buried with hundreds of sacrificed prisoners of war because they believed that the ruler would need riches and servants

2.2.4. They also prepared ritual meals for their ancestors and the steam from the meals was believed to nourish the ancestors spirits.

2.2.5. Religious Artifact

3. Geography & Agriculture

3.1. The Sumerians

3.1.1. Map of Sumeria

3.1.2. The civilization was on top of an oasis of fertile land called the fertile crescent.

3.1.3. The Sumerians were in between the Tigris and the Euphrates, this is called a Mesopotamia and has the most fertile soil because the rivers would often flood leaving behind silt.

3.1.4. The flat land and the swampy atmosphere made it great for agriculture.

3.1.5. The homes that the Sumerians built were made from mud bricks.

3.2. The Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. The Shang dynasty lived in the Huang He valley in Shang China.

3.2.2. In Huang He the climate was cooler and drier

3.2.3. The climate was suitable for grains such as wheat and millet.

3.2.4. China had many rivers for irrigation and fertile soil for planting.

3.2.5. The Zhou dynasy

4. Social Structure and Family Life

4.1. The Sumerians

4.1.1. Men held political power and made laws while women took care of the home and raised children.

4.1.2. A few upper class women got an education and served as priestesses in the town.

4.1.3. Trade and the way their social structure was shaped heavily effected the social structure of Sumerian socity.

4.1.4. In Sumerian life, Kings, priests, and their principal agents were on top of the social hierarchy, then large land owners and wealthy merchants, followed by the majority of the population artists, farmers and labors. Slaves were on the very bottom of the social hierarchy.

4.2. the Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. Most people during the Shang dynasty spent their time in the fields tending to crops

4.2.2. The elite had time to spend in pursuit of leisure activities such as hunting for sport while people in lower classes worked as slaves building and farming.

4.2.3. They ruled by kinship ties and kings passed down their position to sons.

4.2.4. The Shang created a social pyramid with the King at the top then military, priests, merchants and lastly, farmers.

5. Economy and Trade

5.1. The Sumerians

5.1.1. Traded with people across southwest Asia to get wood metals. They gave other woven textiles in exchange.

5.1.2. They lacked many raw materials, they obtained man things for their buildings through trade.

5.1.3. Trade led to a distinct social hierarchy.

5.1.4. They specialized in weaving so they traded woven textiles for things they needed.

5.2. The Shang/ Zhou

5.2.1. The Shang created one of the world’s first systems of money.

5.2.2. Before the Zhou, the shang made things out of bronze and jade.

5.2.3. Iron became the backbone of the Zhou economy because it was cheaper and quicker than bronze.

5.2.4. During the Zhou period goods circulated through gift and tribute rather than trade.

6. Arts and Education

6.1. The Sumerians

6.1.1. Sumerian writing is called cuneiform. They used sharp tools to make symbols on clay tables.

6.1.2. originally used cuneiform to keep records but eventually moved on to storied and poems.

6.1.3. Best known Sumerian story was Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a legendary king.

6.1.4. Sumerian art is often in architecture. They used ramps, acres and columns and are visible in Ziggurants.

6.1.5. Sumerian art

6.2. The Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. The Shangs bronze workings depicted taotie which was an animal like mask that had a prominent pair of eyes with a nose between the eyes at the base and can also include fangs horns ears and eyebrows.

6.2.2. The shang practiced the art of jade carving.

6.2.3. Many artists during the Shang period worked with bronze and jade and created pieces for religious rituals.

6.2.4. The earliest written record was that of text on Oracle bones which were used to answer questions asked of ancestors.

6.2.5. Taotie

7. Science & Technology

7.1. The Shang/Zhou

7.1.1. The Shang/Zhou had such advanced technology that they were able to create precise calendars based on the cycle of the moon.

7.1.2. They made items out of bronze by using piece mold casting a process in which you make a model of the object to be cast and clay mold is then taken of the model.

7.1.3. The Shang were masters of bronze technology and had domesticated the horse.

7.1.4. They were constantly at war which led to advances in technological advances in military weapons.

7.1.5. Shang Military weapons

7.2. The Sumerians

7.2.1. They made a math system based on the number 60. Because of the we divide an hour into 60 minutes and a circle into 360 degrees.

7.2.2. hey learned how to use geometry when they built elaborate structures and irrigation system.

7.2.3. They invented the wheel witch the used to make pottery ad many vehicles.

7.2.4. They collected an impressive amount of medical knowledge, they eve performed basic surgeries.

7.2.5. New technology