Culturally Responsive Teaching

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Culturally Responsive Teaching by Mind Map: Culturally Responsive Teaching

1. CRT

1.1. This framework is a pedagogy that strives to understand and respond to students' various cultures (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.).

1.2. Characteristics

1.2.1. 1.Positive perspectives on parents and families

1.2.1.1. Teachers must actively communicate with students' families to create a meaningful relationship. Teachers should ask parents about their hopes and aspirations about their child and ask for suggestions on how they can best support the student and family (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.).

1.2.1.1.1. Teachers should learn about the various cultures of their students and families in order to engage in meaningful conversation. This could be done by:

1.2.1.2. Teachers should keep parents informed about upcoming classroom and school events and activities.

1.2.1.2.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) suggests that teachers could send weekly or monthly newsletters, conduct parent meetings at parents' homes or community centers, and host family nights to introduce parents to concepts children are learning in school.

1.2.2. 2. Communication of high expectations

1.2.2.1. Teachers must make it clear that there are high expectations for all students. In doing so, teachers must create an environment that supports the growth of all students.

1.2.2.1.1. Expectations should be clear and consistent. Teachers should encourage students to keep working to meet these expectations.

1.2.3. 3. Learning within the context of culture

1.2.3.1. All children have a preferred learning method. For some children, their cultural identity could strongly influence how they prefer to learn and work in school. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) asserts that teachers must gain knowledge about students' culture and reflect on their classroom practices to ensure that all students are represented. Students' learning will be maximized by using varying teaching strategies.

1.2.3.1.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) suggests that teachers could create a discussion with students about cultural differences and how differences among students makes better learning.

1.2.4. 4. Student-centered instruction

1.2.4.1. In this model, students are the center of learning as they engage in collaborative, cooperative, and community-oriented learning (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.). Teachers should encourage students to demonstrate their learning on assignments or research projects. Assignments that are culturally and socially relevant to students' lives will give students confidence and motivate them to be proactive.

1.2.4.1.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) suggests that educators should:

1.2.5. 5. Culturally mediated instruction

1.2.5.1. "Instruction is culturally mediated when it incorporates and integrates diverse ways of knowing, understanding, and representing information" (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.)

1.2.5.1.1. Teachers should learn more about students' preferred learning styles and experiences in education. Teachers can ask students about their experiences, visit their community to learn more about their culture and meet with parents to ask about their child's experiences

1.2.5.1.2. Teachers should differentiate their instruction to support all students' learning needs. Teachers should also support students as they work to meet personal learning goals.

1.2.5.1.3. Teachers should create an environment that welcomes and encourages different cultures. Teachers can do this by encouraging students to share aspects of their culture, questioning and challenging beliefs and teaching students to question and challenge their beliefs.

1.2.6. 6. Reshaping the curriculum

1.2.6.1. Classroom instruction should be socially and culturally relevant to students. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) asserts that it should challenge students to develop higher-order thinking skills through meaningful, student-centered learning opportunities

1.2.6.1.1. Teachers should use more resources than just the textbook. Students could research a topic relevant to their community or interview community members as a source. Teachers must ensure that students are represented and thus should create learning that is reflective of students' backgrounds.

1.2.7. 7. Teacher as facilitator

1.2.7.1. The teacher should encourage cultural and social competence at home and at school (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.).

1.2.7.1.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (n.d.) suggests that teachers should serve as a facilitator by:

1.2.8. (Education Alliance, Brown University, n.d.)

2. The Knowledge Loom

2.1. Culture is critical to students' academic, social, and emotional success at school (Education Alliance, Brown University, 2008, p.3). There should be a connection between the classroom and students' culture in order to best support learning.

2.2. There are seven practices related to culturally resposnive teaching according to The Knowledge Loom (KLOOM):

2.2.1. Communication of High Expectations

2.2.1.1. Students consistently receive messages from teachers and the entire school that all students will succeed.

2.2.1.1.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (2008, p.6) notes that this might look like:

2.2.2. Active Teaching Methods

2.2.2.1. Students play an active role in developing learning activities. This serves to promote student engagement in learning.

2.2.3. Teacher as Facilitator

2.2.3.1. The teacher should be seen as the instructor as well as a guide and mediator for learning.

2.2.3.1.1. Students have a voice in the classroom and teachers are attentive listeners when students speak. Education Alliance, Brown University (2008) notes that students share in the decision making and construction of knowledge (p.8).

2.2.4. Positive Perspectives on Parents and Families of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

2.2.4.1. The teacher and the school work to constantly involve students, parents and community members in classroom activities and curriculum. There is an ongoing dialogue on issues important to the community along with students and their families.

2.2.5. Cultural Sensitivity

2.2.5.1. Teachers learn about various cultures to maximize learning and share their knowledge with their students.

2.2.5.1.1. Cultural sensitivity is not just about being knowledgeable about a culture's food, dress or art. Education Alliance, Brown University (2008, p.10) asserts that teachers must be aware of a students' culture to understand ways of communicating and learning.

2.2.6. Reshaping the Curriculum

2.2.6.1. Instruction is culturally responsive to students' background.

2.2.6.1.1. Education Alliance, Brown University (2008, p.13) tells how students' interest in learning about their peers backgrounds and cultures can help guide curriculum

2.2.7. Culturally Mediated Instruction

2.2.7.1. Instruction is socially and culturally relevant. Students engage in learning opportunities through culturally appropriate situations

2.2.8. Student-Controlled Classroom Discourse

2.2.8.1. Students have control and choice over some part of a lesson. This gives the teacher insight on how speech is used at home.

2.2.8.1.1. Teachers must understand how students communicate at home in order to support their learning in school. Education Alliance, Brown University (2008, p.15) notes that students cannot build on their prior knowledge if their preferred way of communicating is not allowed in school.

2.2.9. Small Group Instruction and Academically-Related Discourse

2.2.9.1. These student-controlled learning groups provide instruction in a low stress environment. This can be a great support for students that could benefit from academic language development.

2.2.9.1.1. This supports students that may be reluctant to speak whole-group. This gives students confidence to share their ideas and knowledge in a small, controlled environment.

2.2.10. Education Alliance, Brown University, 2008, p.3-4

3. Similarities

3.1. The two frameworks described in this mind map have many similarities, which can be seen by the green arrows. Both frameworks strive to learn more about students' culture, identity and background to encourage academic, social, and emotional growth. Both frameworks value the thoughts and input from students' families and the community when engaging in culturally responsive practices. Both frameworks note that all students must feel valued, respected, and accepted by the teacher and the school. This can be achieved by creating curriculum that is culturally and socially relevant to students; lives.