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CHAPTER 01 by Mind Map: CHAPTER 01

1. Categorizing & Classifying Drugs

1.1. Prescription

1.1.1. Prescribed Drugs

1.1.2. Non-prescribed Drugs

1.2. Name

1.2.1. Chemical Name : according to the chemical structure following the IUPAC rules.

1.2.2. Generic (Official) Name : Generally derived from its chemical structure & the name is chosen by official person.

1.2.3. Brand (Trade) Name : Chosen by the manufactures, it should be easy to pronounce and remembered.

1.3. Alternative Way

1.3.1. By the way they act against diseases or disorders or their effect on a particular area of the body or a particular condition e.g. Endocrine Drugs, Anti-Hypertensive Drugs etc.

2. Nature & Sources of Drugs

2.1. Plant Source e.g. Castor Oil (laxative).

2.2. Animal Sources e.g insulin from the pancreas of cattle & pigs, and Heparin which is obtained from liver and lung tissue and used as anticoagulants.

2.3. Mineral Sources e.g. Magnesium Sulphate & Iodine.

2.4. Microorganism : as fungi and bacteria are important souces of antibiotics e.g. penicillin

2.5. Synthetic Drugs : as many drugs nowadays are produced in the lab e.g. aspirin & sulphonamide.

2.6. Biotechnology : it's been recently introduces and it enabled us to prepare many of the drugs that have complex chemical structure e.g. Human Insulin, Vaccines, Antibiotics & Interferons.

3. Introduction

3.1. Pharmacy : The word is derived from the Greek word "Pharmakon" meaning medicine or drug, and it has been defined as that profession which is concerned with the art of science of preparing & dispensing medications.

3.2. Pharmacist : He is the one who is educated and licensed to dispense drugs & to provide drug information.

4. Pharmacy Terminology

4.1. Pharmacy Orientation : It means to be familiar with all aspects of pharmacy profession and pharmacy education.

4.2. Therapy : Treatment of a disease.

4.3. Pharmacotherapeutics : Application of drugs for treatment of disease.

4.4. Drug : It's a material that has a pharmacological effect.

4.5. Pharamacopoeia : An important reference which was put by highly specialized persons in pharmacy & medicine to give specs needed for ; raw materials, dosage forms, medicinal accessories, pharmaceutical process & analytical technique.

4.6. Medicine : When a drug is packed, labeled & dispensed.

4.7. Dosage Forms : Refers to the gross physical form in which a drug is used by the patient.

4.8. Drug Product : A dosage form containing one or more active ingredient along with other substances included during the manufacturing process.

4.9. Excipient : Anything other than the drug substance in the dosage form.

4.10. Active Ingredient : A material which has a therapeutic activity.

4.11. Inactive Ingredient : A material the has no therapeutic activity.

4.12. Strength : Concentration of the drug in the dosage form (or its potency).

4.13. Dose : Amount of drug which is taken each time, it should be safe & effective.

4.14. Dose Regimen : It's a systematized dosage schedule of the use of the drug.

4.15. Bioavailability : The rate & extent of absorption of the drug.

4.16. Quality : It is the intrinsic characters of the product which satisfy the user's need.

4.17. Quality Control : Physical or chemical test used to ensure the required specs of a raw material or a dosage form.

4.18. Stability : It can be defined as the ability of its formulation in a specific container or a closure system, to remain with in the defined physical, chemical, microbiological, toxicological & therapeutic specs till the end of the stated dating.

4.19. Expiration Date : It's the time at which 90% of the material to remain active.

4.20. Shelf-life : The period of time that a drug is expected to remain within the specs, it;s used to establish the expiration date of individual batches.

4.21. Shelf Stability : The stability of the drug product in the ambient room temperature.

4.22. Storage : It's used to describe safe keeping of starting materials, packaging ones & finished products in drug stores etc.

4.23. Storage Conditions : The conditions specified for storing the product, e.g. Temperature, moisture, container & light.

4.24. Storage Temperature : The actual storage temperature used during stability studies.

5. Name : Ahmed Ibrahim Ghazal No. 17011