Unit 2 Summative: There are four different parts that you will learn about: The Encounter Between...

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Unit 2 Summative: There are four different parts that you will learn about: The Encounter Between Two Worlds, Colonial Times, Latin American Independences and the Birth of New Nations. All the information will be pared according to which category they belong to. by Mind Map: Unit 2 Summative: There are four different parts that you will learn about: The Encounter Between Two Worlds, Colonial Times, Latin American Independences and the Birth of New Nations. All the information will be pared according to which category they belong to.

1. The Encounter Between Two Worlds: The Old World or Europe: You might have heard the phrase god, gold and glory before. That is because those are the main reasons the European Conquistadores came to the Americas. There are two main groups that came to the Americas to Conquer, Portugal and Spain. Although the French, English and Dutch also came to the Americas in search of land those two groups were the most influential groups in the end. The colonization started in the late 15th century and ended in the 18th century.

1.1. Many people also went to Latin America looking for glory. As many sons of nobility had a good education but were seeking more they used their studies to help guide them to find other places to add to the Kingdom and to provide sources for the kingdom as well as territory. They would be praised and rewarded with great titles and riches if they were to find these places and tell the king about it.

1.2. When I mentioned religion earlier what I meant was that at the time, religion was a very large aspect of their culture and it still is today. It was the belief of the King and the Church that Catholicism must be spread so that everyone could have the chance to practice and share the religion and its benefits. The church would also send missionaries to teach the indigenous people of the areas to practice Catholicism.

1.3. There were other reasons some Europeans went to find other countries as well. In 15th century Europe, the citizens lived under strict rule of the king and the church. Everything they said was to be followed or there would be strict punishments. Poverty was common and the civilizations were very unhygienic. Many people escaped or fled from this poverty or strict rule in search for freedom.

1.4. Europeans had nations with districts and strict boundaries. They relied upon their own agriculture to keep them alive and fed. This food was also meant to feed both people in Urban Communities and people in Rural Communities. The people living in Europe had more in common with each other than the indigenous in Latin America had with each other. There were generally very large civilizations with lots of people and often it would be overcrowded and people would starve to death because there was not enough food.

1.5. Europeans had social classes as well. There was the novelty which included the Kings men and many people from the church, the leaders which included the King and his family and the major religions figures and the commoners, the peasants who worked for these people because they could not afford such things themselves.

1.6. Finally, like I said before, at the time, money and glory was everything. If you have both, you had nothing to worry about. So many poor people or even nobility who wanted more money and had heard of places where there were plenty of riches went to these places to find more money for themselves to support their family and themselves.

2. The Encounter Between Two Worlds: The New World Or Latin America: Before the Europeans came to Latin America there were plenty of Civilizations that were actually thriving. Some examples include the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs. In 7,000 BC native americas began to cultivate agriculture. They also had religions and cultures of their own that were very complex as well.

2.1. When the Native Americans began to cultivate I mean they started cultivating many things. These things included corn, beans, squash and cotton. Those were the basis products of their agricultural style.

2.2. Some of their religions practices included blood letting. Which sometimes meant killing a person or sacrificing a person in the name of they god. They generally had many gods, not just one, for different things and prayers.

2.3. One of the largest civilizations at the time was Tiotiacan. It played a host to 150, 000 people and had huge monumental buildings, one was a temple to the sun god and its height was 216 ft tall! The Aztecs built it which was super impressive.

2.4. The indigenous communities generally had a super complex culture. Many had already developed a language and an elaborate writing one which was not so common at the time. The Incas had astronomy and were experts at math and the other indigenous communities were too. Their civilizations were very developed, even before the Spanish came and conquest their land.

3. The Encounter Between Two Worlds: Europeans conquered the Native Americans giving birth to a period known as: The Colonial Times

4. Colonial times: The colonial times were a large part of the history and development of Latin America. Here are some of the most important aspects to know about establishments and way of life at the time.

4.1. Mercantilism and how it worked: Mercantilism was an economic system that spain operated which held that national power and wealth were built by controlling trade and gathering gold and silver in big bunches or coins. Was both for the crown and the conquistadores. The goal they had was for the empire to sell more than they bought keeping with wealth with the king. As a result, as a colonial enterprise, the crown would try to strictly control trade through monopolies.

4.2. The main source of Spanish wealth and where it was found mainly: Nueva Granada(Colombia) was the main source of gold in Spanish America. Also they got their gold from slave work making products and slaves mining. Additionally, most of spain's wealth was from silver rather than gold. They found their silver mainly in New Spain at Taxco, Zacatecas, Guanajuatoo and San Luis Potosi. The richest mine was in Potosi in Upper Peru or Bolivia. The crown really wanted gold and silver that they could trade for goods. Their goods included indigo coloring, deep red dye, cochineal, leather, cocoa beans for chocolate.

4.3. The obligations of both parts of the Encomienda system and what European system it is similar to: The encomienda, or entrustment, was once used to exploit the Moors. It required the Spanish encomendero to instruct the indigenous entrusted to the spanish guy in Christianity and to protect them. In return he could demand labor and tribute from the indigenous, it is sort off similar to the European Feudal system in the middle ages was based around the feudal system. Small communities were formed around the local lord and the manor. The lord owned the land and everything in it. He would keep the peasants safe in return for their service. The lord, in return, would provide the king with soldiers or taxes. This is similar to the encomienda system in many ways.

4.4. Why the Encomienda was weakened: The spanish used their influence and power as encomenderos and landowners to take more lands from the indigenous, increase taxes, and finally force the indigenous into slavery. Also the mistreating of the indigenous and the other negative influences of the European presence such as diseases of europe. Killing many natives and so on was a big part of the downfall of the encomienda. Also, a guy called Blasco Vela tried to enforce the New Laws. Many disagreed and revolted against him which was the beginning of the downfall of the encomienda.

4.5. Other two forced labor systems the Spanish used during the colonial times: They used repartimiento, which was temporary allotment of indigenous workers for a given task. The mita in Peru also made all adult males serve in the mita every 1 out of 7 years. They worked in dangerous mines and didn’t earn enough money.

4.6. Many Europeans justified slavery of Africans, how did they do it? It included the excise that slaves were captured just in wars, or that slavery was a small price to pay for Christianization.

5. Colonial times: The colonial times were a large part of the history and development of Latin America. Here are some of the most important aspects to know about establishments and way of life at the time.

5.1. The main source of wealth during colonial times and why it shifted from mining to land ownership: The plantations, ranches, and mines provided rich and varies sources of income or the monarchs, the capitalists and the merchants.

5.2. The goods that the New World and the Old World exchanged during the Columbian Exchange: Sugar, tobacco, cacao, indigo, woods, cotton, gold, silver, diamonds, and hides were among the natural products the colonies offered the Old World. The old world offered grains, livestock, sugarcane, diseases, onions, honey and more.

5.3. The Spanish monopoly meant that its colonies in Latin America could only exchange goods with them, but this system was not perfect. Which two things threatened the Spanish trading system:

5.3.1. Answer: Weather was a serious threat because on the ships to europe the ships and goods would be destroyed on the way in storms and such. There was also a contraband which made it almost impossible for spain to fully control colonial trade. Ships would put them in the many uncontrolled coves or would claim to be in distress which gave them the legal right to put in to port at other locations. Two thirds of the region's trade was illegal.

5.4. It was not easy for the monarchs of Spain and Portugal to rule their land overseas:

5.4.1. Answer: Of course not, in fact it was very difficult because communication was so slow because they were so far away from each other and for information to travel they would have to take the trip on boat for many months just to deliver the information. The monarchs could only hope that what they ordered their subjects to do was obeyed in the Americas, where the conquistadores were. However, it was super impressive how the Portuguese and Spanish empire or monarchs were able to keep control of the American colonies, which were made up of their own subjects. Why? Because the sizes and all was huge so it was amazing how long they kept control of these American colonies.

5.5. There were also different institutions implemented:

5.5.1. One Institution was called Consejo de Indias: It was located in Spain and what they did was that basically they controlled legislative, executive, and judicial decisions regarding the colonies.

5.5.2. Another Institution was called Casa de Contratación: It was located in Spain and they were in charge of colonial commerce regarding the colonies.

5.5.3. The next Institution was called the Audiencia: It was located in Panama City, New Mexico, Santo Domingo, Guatemala and Lima. They had power to make political and administrative decisions and serve as final arbiter for civil and criminal complaints.

5.5.4. The last Institutuion was called the Cabildo: It was located in the colonies. How it worked was, there were white cabildos and indigenous cabildos. The white cabildos oversaw the ingenious work. Spaniards relied on the indigenous to collect tribute and organized labor for public works.

5.6. There were viceroyalties in Latin American as well: They were in 5 different places, there where the viceroys in the Indies, in New Spain, in Peru, Nueva Granada and Rio de La Plata.

5.7. What is the difference between a viceroyal and Captaincies- generals?Governor General and was selected by the Court of Directors and was incharge of the place he was designated and the people there as well. He was meant to administrate in other words. And the viceroy was elected by the crown or the monarchs, someone who they trusted to carry out their will or was responsible for instructing him on the exercise of his powers and the sovereigns that appointed him. The viceroys were in charge of representing the crown. A General is simply a Governor of high rank, while a Viceroy is a Governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his king or sovereign.

6. Colonial times: The colonial times were a large part of the history and development of Latin America. Here are some of the most important aspects to know about establishments and way of life at the time.

6.1. In what way did the Spanish monopoly benefit the city of Cartagena: It was the most prosperous commerce in the Caribbean, mostly because it was the largest slave market in the Americas. It was also where the Viceroys of Nueva Granada lived permanently, liking it by the ocean rather than the freezing capital city where the constant rain “disturbed their sense of reality”. Several times every year riches, gold, and other treasures came in from other places and the city lived on all the glory it gave them. It was a very rich city with nice temperatures and a great economy, that is why the Spanish found benefit in Cartagena.

6.2. The Columbian Exchange: The widespread transfer of plants, animals, human population, culture, technology and ideas between the Americas and the Old World or Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade. Some things that came from the old world or europe are lettuce, peaches, horses, rice and cattle. Some things that came from the New World or the Americas were tomatoes, potatoes, llamas and avocados.

6.3. Differences and similarities between the colonial economic system and the one used today in Latin America: One similarity there is between then and now is that Latin America still does transatlantic trade deals, just like they did in colonial times when they did it on ships. A difference is the economy from now is that the trade between countries is not reliant upon so many encomiendas and slaves or slave labor. Now, it can function without slave labor and rather with people working together. Also, there is far better technology so it is easier to transport things and less risky than it was then.

7. Latin American Independences after colonization: After colonization started to become a part of peoples lives, everyone got fed up with social inequality, power, systems, the monarchs, pretty much everything. If you are interested in reading more look to your left.

7.1. Latin America was a very diverse community and a large country as well. Napoleon had a large role in the independences of Latin America. Before Independence Latin American society was characterized by three institutions that helped control the population or exercise. The first was the Spanish crown or the Portuguese in Brazil. So for Spain, the colonies were there to pay taxes on everything that was called “The royal fifth”. So the government officials were pervasive and pretty efficient because they had to be to collect the taxes or the royal fifth. Then, there was the church.

7.2. The church had control or influence over the everyday lives of the citizens (More than the officials of the royal fifth). The church controlled time by ringing a bell every hour and by saying that people had to have a 7 day work week so that they could go to church on Sunday. Lastly, there was patriarchy. In other words husbands had complete control over their wives or whoever they were married to and any other affairs were punished very severely. Men could do whatever they wanted but the women could not in other words. Children could inherit their father's property.

7.3. Cultural Syncretism happened merging whites from spain called peninsulares, whites born in Latin America called creoles, Native Americans and African Slaves. They had a rigid social hierarchy and rich cultural diversity. Four racial categories: Mestizos, White, Black, Mulatto, people barely use these words anymore because they are highly offensive. They had a huge mix of diverse people and there were constant attempts to classify them and divide them into castes. People from lower races could become legally white if they were successful and by being granted gracias al sacar.

7.4. By 1800 on the eve of Latin America's independence movements a quarter of the people were of mixed race. In brazil the creoles wanted to remain their privilege while also achieving independence from the peninsulares. Many Latin American revolutions featured Napoleon. When Napoleon took over portugal in 1807 the entire royal family and the royal court went to brazil and they loved it. The King Joao loved brazil so much that after he beat napoleon in the battle of waterloo he stayed in Brazil. In 1821 he moved back in need of ruling his old country again and left his son Prince Pedro behind in Rio.

7.5. Meanwhile brazilian creoles were having the idea that they were culturally different from portugal and formed a Brazilian Party to gain independence. Then they convinced Pedro to become the king of Brazil rather than just a prince of Portugal So then Pedro and independent constitutional monarchy with himself as king. So Brazil managed to achieve independence with not that much bloodshed and onto a social hierarchy where the plantation owners were on the top which explains why Brazil was the last knew world country to get rid of slavery, in 1888. So even when napoleon was not forcing the royal family and officials into an awesome place he was still having an impact in Latin America.

8. Latin American Independences after colonization: After colonization started to become a part of peoples lives, everyone got fed up with social inequality, power, systems, the monarchs, pretty much everything. If you are interested in reading more look to your right.

8.1. Latin America's independence movements started in Mexico rather than Brazil when Napoleon put his brother on the throne of Spain in 1808 because he wanted to institute liberal principles of the French revolution. This angered the ruling elite of the Peninsulares in what was called knew spain at the time. They were aristocrats that wanted to go back to a divine right monarchy with a strong church involved so the mexican creoles which were eager to expand their opportunities and their own power and the Peninsular elite saw an opportunity there

8.2. They offered their loyalty to the french or spanish king. Then a peasant or commoner uprising began led by a priest named Padre Hidalgo who was supported by the creoles because it was aimed at these elite Peninsulares even though they weren't actually supporting Spain. The mestizo peasants led by Hidalgo and the peninsulares acted and looked identical since they were both white and imperious so the peasants often attacked the creoles who were on their side and also trying to overthrow the peninsulares. It had many supporters but eventually it didn't work out so another peasant revolt came along and this one was led by Father Morelos and it was much more revolutionary.

8.3. In 1813 he declared independence but the revolt lasted until his death in 1815 Since he was a mestizo he did not gain much support from the creoles the revolutionary so the independence and the revolt began to fade. Then spain was under the rule of the spanish again and a real revolution came along with a new constitution that happened to limit the power of the church. So in the wake of this liberal movement the Mexican elites who had supported spain started to help the creoles with the hope that they could hold on to the privileges they had. Getting independence together and working as a team worked well, the leader of the Mexican elites and the leader of the creoles joined forces and won independence with most of the peninsulares returning to Spain.

8.4. The leader of the Mexican elite who was whiter than the creole became king of Mexico. It is weird because the revolution was against monarchy but eventually ended with a monarchy in the end. WIthin a year the king was overthrown by the military and finally a republic was declared. It was sort of victorious not to the peasants who made independence possible in the first place. There was an alliance between the conservative spanish elites and the army especially in the face of calls for land reform or economic justice would happen over and over again in america for a century and a half. Venezuela had a good amount of well trained creole revolutionaries.

8.5. By 1811 they had formed revolutionary conjunto that had taken power over caracas and formed what we now call a republic. The interior had a population of mixed raced cowboys called llaneros who supported the king of Spain. They kept the caracas revolutionary from extending their power and territory in land. That is where Simon Bolivar comes in. He realized that that the only way to overcome the various classes of class divisions like the one between the llaneros and the caracas revolutionaries was to appeal to a common sense of South Americanness since all of them were pretty much born in South America in the first place rather than Spain.

8.6. Crossing flooded plains and sleepless nights Bolivar convinced the llaneros to stop fighting for spain and start fighting against them. He captured the viceregal capital at Bogota and by 1822 his forces had taken over Caracas and Quito. An argentinian guy also helped, a lot.They worked together and then the whole Latin America was free from Spain. By 1825 almost the entire western hemisphere was free from european rule Most of the territory had been under spanish and portuguese rule for almost 300 years.

9. Latin American Independences after colonization: After colonization started to become a part of peoples lives, everyone got fed up with social inequality, power, systems, the monarchs, pretty much everything. If you are interested in reading more look to your left.

9.1. They added the idea of popular sovereignty in the new world. They quickly made territories to the countries of latin America showed how quickly the people developed a sense of their own culture and the regions developed a sense of themselves being an individual nation entirely apart from Europe. Latin america is the leader of 19th century world history. The peninsulares were gone, yes but the rigid social hierarchy with the wealthy creoles at the top remained there The catholic church remained very powerful whereas in other countries it did not.

9.2. Many women took up arms in the independence patriarchy remained strong in latin America. Women were not allowed to vote in national affairs in Mexico until 1953, in Peru until 1955. Their revolutionary wars were both long and bloody, 425, 000 people died in Mexico's war for independence and they didn't always lead to stability. In Venezuela they experienced wars for much of the 19th century and millions of people died There have been many military dictatorships. Fighting for freedom does not always end in freedom.

10. The Birth of New Nations: After the Independences in Latin America they faced some struggles while trying to form their own independent nation. Here you can read about the things they went through as they began to shape their nation.

10.1. Most of the countries had independence by the 19th century. Independence was still a problem since close to nothing had changed since the high creoles still had most of the political power. Independence was still a theoretical issue because the creole elite continued to have political power which was only 5% of the nation.

10.2. A problem they faced was who would govern and how they would govern because monarchy harmonized with the past so relating the political doctrines of the enlightenment and the example of the US seemed like the best choice. The question of the main idea was not asked before or during independence so they were lost. In mexico they still had a monarchy but it did not last very long.

10.3. Most of spanish america opted for republics rather than monarchies the question was who should rule, that is the main idea of this paragraph. Most countries chose independence heroes to rule them but after their governing time was over they did not know what to do. The two main structures for their government was between federalism and centralism and these two political idea became aligned with the political ideas that currently dominated Latin american politics during the 19th century which was liberalism and conservatism.There was a large debate because there were many different opinions. It was difficult to come to an understanding between the two The elites had more in common than the opposition.

10.4. Generally, liberals like federalism Federalism. That included ending the Church's power to the new national governments. They embraces laissez faire which is a french saying that mainly supports the idea of supporting the change and going with the flow and also an economic belief that encourages experiment and knew ideas or methods.

10.5. Conservatives supported the idea of centralism. Centralism supports hierarchical society like it was before in Latin America. They thought that the privileges and the powers and beliefs of the church had were to be encouraged. More regulated or controlled economic system including things such as forced labor. They feared openness would lead to chaos. Belief that they should limit political participation.

10.6. The debates between Liberals and Conservatives about the Church would come to dominate the first fifty years of political life. Liberals and conservative agreed on most issues. They wanted economic transformation and neither of them wanted to give up their power to the masses. Church was the biggest issue Liberals criticized the church not because of religion but because of the power and influence it had on the institution and it's servants. They thought that the existence of their newly found nation was threatened because of it's immense power and argued on many different things and their ways in general.

10.7. The wars of independence were led by the elites who mobilized masses. There was lots of tension in this scenario though. The elites did not want to give up their privileges and power but the masses wanted their voices to be heard and their interests to be valued.

10.8. Elections were routinely held, indicating it was an important aspect of legitimation, but only some people could vote and it was very corrupt. Voting rights were restricted. Elite wrote and rewrote constitutions often based off of North American and French constitutions. There was a struggle between self governance and unifying Latin America and it was a constant challenge to latin american leaders.

10.9. The new nations were fragile constructions, and their leaders faced multiple threats to their continued existence. From the start, the new leaders feared that Spain or Portugal, might try to recapture the former colonies. Spain invaded Mexico and Central America in 1829 and 1832 and made a way with Peru and Chile. France also blocked Mexico and Argentina to force them to pay their own debts. Mexico faced problems with the US too.

10.10. The threats were not only external, the new nations were very fragile and geography was a huge obstacle for unity. Internal communication was very hard because of distances, difficult geography and transportation, local rivalries, this encouraged a regionalism hostile to national unity. Experiment with ideas like federalism and regionalism made sure that there was still loyalty to the local communities. Because of that, after independence the territories that had belonged to the Viceroyalties was divided into different nations to form what we now call Latin America.