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Soil Unit by Mind Map: Soil Unit

1. Nutrients

1.1. 3 Primary Macronutrients

1.1.1. Nitrogen

1.1.1.1. Deficiency- Yellowing on leaf starting on end and spreading toward stem. Growth is decreased

1.1.1.2. Used- plant growth, development, and photosynthesis

1.1.2. Phospherous

1.1.2.1. Deficiency- dark green/ purple color of leaves

1.1.2.2. Used- root development, production of fruit and flowers

1.1.3. Potassium

1.1.3.1. Deficiency- discoloration and scorching along out rim of leaves. Begins at tip of leaf

1.1.3.2. Used- disease resistance, reproduction

1.2. Secondary Macronutrients

1.2.1. Calcium

1.2.1.1. Deficiency- young leaves die back, delayed emergence of primary leaves

1.2.2. Magnesium

1.2.2.1. Deficiency- Loss of green leaf color starting with bottom leaves, reddish purple from edge inwards

1.2.3. Sulfur

1.2.3.1. Deficiency- young leaves light green with veins being lighter

1.3. Micronutrients

1.3.1. Boron, Copper, Chlorine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc

2. Soil Orders

2.1. Alfisols- High fertility, northeast Europe and coast of australia

2.2. Andisols- Volcanic activity, high water holding capacity, Caribbean and central mexico

2.3. Ardisols- Dry, low organic material, SW US, N Africa, Middle east, W australia

2.4. Entisols- Mostly A horizon, central africa, central australia

2.5. Gelisols- permafrost, canada, russia, alaska

2.6. Histosols- Mined for horticulture, central canada, russia

2.7. Inceptisols- largest in world, minimal horizon developement, southern alaska, europe, central russia

2.8. Mollisols- very fertile, high ag use, central canada and russia

2.9. Oxisols- tropical regions, low fertility, southern alaska, europe, central russia

2.10. Spodosols- acidic, coarse texture, coniferous forests, NE canada, norway, sweden

2.11. Ultisols- leached clay into subsurface, acidic, low fertility, china, SE US, N South America, Cantral Africa

2.12. Vertisols- High clay particles, shrinks and swells, India, E central africa, NE australia

3. Horizons

3.1. O Horizon

3.1.1. Organic Layer, Darkest

3.2. A Horizon

3.2.1. Plow layer, Surface Layer, Most fertile, Solum (Most Root Growth)

3.3. E Horizon

3.3.1. Subsurface Layer, Maximum Leaching (Drained away), Not always present

3.4. B Horizon

3.4.1. Subsoil, Illuviation (zone of accumulation), Solum

3.5. C Horizon

3.5.1. Substratum, parent material

3.6. R Horizon

3.6.1. Lowermost layer, Bedrock

4. Texture

4.1. 3 Particales

4.1.1. Sand

4.1.1.1. Largest particle

4.1.2. Silt

4.1.2.1. Medium sized Particle

4.1.3. Clay

4.1.3.1. Smallest Particle

4.2. Soil material makeup

4.2.1. 50% Air/Water

4.2.2. 45% Mineral

4.2.3. 5% Organic

4.3. Erosion

4.3.1. 2.5 Acres lost a year in IL

4.3.2. Erosion control

4.3.2.1. Contour Producing

4.3.2.2. Strip Cropping

4.3.2.3. Terracing

4.3.2.4. No till vs tilling

4.4. Ribbon

4.4.1. Fine Texture- Forms easily, long and flexible

4.4.2. Moderately fine texture- ribbon breaks at about 3/4 to 1 inch

4.4.3. Medium texture- No ribbon, breaks at less than 3/4 of an inch long

4.4.4. Moderately coarse texture- No ribbon, gritty and lacks smoothness

4.4.5. Coarse texture- No ribbon, entirely gritty, leaves no stain