An Oil Refinery Walk-Through

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An Oil Refinery Walk-Through by Mind Map: An Oil Refinery Walk-Through

1. Crude Desalter

1.1. Refining Process

1.1.1. After it is received at the refinery oil is stored in large tank farms. 01 oil

1.1.2. Mixing the crude oil with water in the line upstream of the desalter vessel to dissolve salts

1.1.3. Salt and sediments are captured in the water

1.1.4. The desalter contains electric grids for an easier oil-water separation

1.1.5. Salts need to be removed from the crude oil to mitigate vessel and piping fouling and corrosion

1.1.6. Preheating the desalted oil before enters the atmospheric fractionator with heat exchangers and fired heaters (650-700°F)

2. Atmospheric Crude Fractionator

2.1. The primary objetive of the Atmospheric Crude Fractionator is to separate the desalted crude into fractions, based on the boiling point ranges of the components

2.1.1. Lighter Fractions come off the top of the column and progressively heavier components with higher boiling points are pulled off as draws down the tower

2.1.2. Each side-cut draw has a target initial boiling point and end boiling point (IBP and EBP) target cut-point ranges tipically don´t change 03 oil

2.1.3. Each side draw feeds a tripping column, which uses steam to establish the IBP of the material leaving the botom of the stripper

2.1.4. The bottoms draw, referred to as atmospheric residuum, is a heavy, high bioiling point oil which is sent to the vacuum column for further separation 04 oil

3. Vacuum Fractionator

3.1. Downstream of the Atm Crude Fractionator the vacuum fractionator further separates the heavy, higher boiling point components under a vacuun to prevent thermal cracking

3.2. Since boiling points decrease with lower pressure, these separations can be achieved without thermal cracking

3.3. The vacuum fractionator tend to be much larger in diameter than the atmospheric crude fractionator

3.3.1. 05 oil

4. Gas Concentration Unit

4.1. The light hydrocarbon gases that come off the top of the atmospheric crude unir are concentrated, separated and distributed where they are needed

5. Fluidized Catalytic Cracker

5.1. In the FCC the mixture of fluidized catalyst and feed is reacted at high temperatures (900-1000°F)

5.1.1. 06 oil

5.2. The cracking reaction is endothermic, and is fueled by the exothermic catalys-regeneration reaction

5.3. The catalyst flowrate is about 1 Ton per thousand barrels of oil feed

5.4. The heat removed from by the main column bottoms and the heavy oil is used for feed preheating, steam generation, and reboiler heating in the unsaturated-gas concentration unit or a combination of the three.

5.5. A series of distillation columns processes the liquids from the overhead receiver of the main fractionator to remove light gases from the gasoline cut, this gasoline intermediate product is known as cat gas

5.5.1. 07 oil