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Rocket clouds

1. Plasma membrane

1.1. Structure

1.1.1. Phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in and attached to the inner and outer surfaces

1.2. Functions

1.2.1. Selectively permeable barrier: To ensure that the composition of extracellular fluid is not same as the composition of the intracellular fluid

1.2.2. Synthesizes cell wall components

1.2.3. Assists in DNA replication

1.2.4. Carries on respiration

1.2.5. Captures energy as ATP

1.3. Destruction

1.3.1. Disinefectants- alcohols and quaternary ammonium compounds

1.4. The movements

1.4.1. Passive process Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis

1.4.2. Active process Active transport moved by transporter proteins from low to high concentration Group translocation molecules are chemically modified during passage across cytoplasmic membrane, energy is expended

2. Cytoplasm

2.1. substance of the cell inside the plasma membrane

2.2. thick, aqueous, semistransparent and elastic

3. The nuclear area

3.1. Single long circular molecule of double-stranded DNA

3.2. Do not included histones and are not surrounded by nuclear envelope

4. Ribosome

4.1. Function as the sites of protein synthesis

4.2. 70S ribosomes

4.3. two subunits, (small subunits- 30S)large (50S)

4.4. each subunits consist of protein and RNA called ribosomal RNA or rRNA

5. Inclusion

5.1. Reserve deposits, can serve as a basis of identification

5.2. Type

5.2.1. Metachromatic granules Large inclusion stain red with certain blue dyes such as methylene collectively known as volutin also found in algae, fungi, protozoa

5.2.2. Polysaccharide granules consist of glycogen and starch differentiated by using iodine reddish brown indicates glycogen granules blue indicates starch granules

5.2.3. Lipid inclusions storage material revealed by Sudan dyes

5.2.4. Sulfur granules serve as an energy reserve derive energy by oxidising sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds

5.2.5. Carboxysomes contain enzyme ribulose 1,5 - diphosphate carboxylase used for carbon dioxide fixation during photosynthesis nitrifying bacteria, cynobacteria and thiobacilli- used carbon dioxide as sole source of carbon

5.2.6. Magnetosomes iron oxide that acts like magnets for downward movement until reaching suitable attachement site to protect the cell against hydrogen preoxide accumulation

5.2.7. Gas vacuoles Halow cylinders covered by protein Membrane bounded appeared bright, refractile areas with an irregular outlinein the phase microscope consists of thin membrane surrounding a hallow space

6. Endospore

6.1. formed by some bacteria for survival during adverse environmental conditions

6.2. germination results in leaving the dormant stage and once again becoming a typical, multiplying cell

6.3. the spore is formed within the cell

6.4. spore is very impermeable to dye. they can be stained with special dye, Malachite green

6.5. small acid-solub;e proteins

6.6. can remain dormant indefinetely but germinate quickly when the approriate trigger is applied.

6.7. infectious disease

6.7.1. Bacillus anthracis

6.7.2. Clostridium tetani

6.7.3. Clostridium botulinum

6.7.4. Clostridium perfringens