Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t k...

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Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t know when a breakthrough will come" - Helen Keller by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t know when a breakthrough will come"  - Helen Keller

1. Support Students Emotional Well-Being

2. Understand theorists/concepts

3. Address Four Commonplaces

4. Growth Mindset

5. Multicultural

6. Research and Online Resources

7. Commitment

8. Encourage self-regulation and self-efficacy

9. Student Achievement and Success

10. Well-Structured and Engaging Curriculum

11. Safe Environment

12. Equality and Inclusive

13. Determination

14. Diverse Learning/Instructional Approaches

15. Caring

16. Week 1 - Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

16.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

16.1.1. ARTICLE: Learners in the driving seat (Chris Watkins’) Students must take responsibility for their own learning as it encourages "greater engagement and intrinsic motivation, students setting higher challenge, students evaluating their work, better problem-solving" (29).

16.1.2. VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXpbONjV1Jc&feature=youtu.be

16.2. Primary Topics

16.2.1. Reflective practice CHARACTERISTICS: Open-minded and amenable to change, embrace self-enquiry, ethical responsibility to best facilitate students’ learning, analyze and reflect on their practice, assess effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice GOAL: To become an effective teacher ("Effective teaching may be the hardest job there is." - William Glasser)

16.2.2. Four commonplaces of education Teacher, Topic, Setting, Student

16.2.3. Educational psychology DEFINITION: Uses knowledge and methods of psychology and related disciplines to study teaching and learning GOAL: To improve the teaching and learning processes INCLUDES: Learning and Cognition, Development, Social and Cultural Influences, Motivation, Behaviour/Classroom Management, Individual Differences, Assessment and Evaluation, Teaching and Instruction, Psychological Foundations of Curricula

16.2.4. Planning WHAT TO PLAN: What will be taught, When it will be taught, How and when learning will be assessed, What teaching methods and materials will be used, How to establish the type of learning environment needed HOW TO PLAN: Excellent instruction, Enhanced student learning, Exemplary environments

16.2.5. Research Findings (to instruction and learning) RESEARCH PROCESS: Observation of phenomena, formation of questions, application of research methods, development of guiding principles, development of theories RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH: course textbook, resources from Faculty of Education, journals/books from library, What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept. of Ed.), Google Scholar, research/subscription journals, Conferences, Professional Development Sessions

17. Week 2 - Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

17.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

17.1.1. VIDEO: The power of yet | Carol S Dweck | TEDxNorrköping

17.1.2. VIDEO: What adults can learn from kids | Adora Svitak

17.2. Primary Topics

17.2.1. Development CHARACTERISTICS: Physical/cognitive/social changes, Learning becomes more organized, Behaviours become more adaptive PRINCIPLES: Orderly progression/gradual process, Periods of rapid and slow growth, Quantitative and qualitative changes, Individuals develop at different rates, Genetics set developmental potential, Environment determines potential realized

17.2.2. Impact of development on learning PREFRONTAL CORTEX: Takes 20 years to become fully functional (Controls decision-making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and managing risk-taking)

17.2.3. Contributions of developmental theorists Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: https://www.google.ca/search?q=piaget%27s+development+stages&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi-yIqqkK3XAhUn3IMKHQ0xDuIQ_AUICigB&biw=1239&bih=585#imgrc=6SNmUc8zw3OCMM:

17.2.4. Developmental appropriateness SELF-REFLECT: Ideally, I would like to teach grade _____ because students at this developmental stage.... I am least interested in teaching grade _____ because students at this developmental stage...

17.2.5. Supporting students’ psychological well-being

17.3. Teachers Beliefs Survey

17.3.1. 1. Knowledge of the subject matter is the most important part of being an effective teacher. 2. Good teachers always know more than their students. 3. For effective learning, I need to be in control of the direction of learning. 4. I am responsible for what students learn and how they learn. 5. If I don’t prompt and provide direction for student questions, they won’t get the right answer.

17.4. Mindset

17.4.1. Growth v.s. Fixed: https://www.google.ca/search?biw=1239&bih=585&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=FwACWtygBYbMjwTq6LfwBA&q=growth+mindset&oq=growth+mindset&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0l10.122124.124642.0.124782.

18. Week 3 - Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

18.1. Types of Learning Theories

18.1.1. Cognitive Cognitive learning theorists Use a Learning Theory: Cognitivism DEFINITION: Learning occurs through internal processing of information (the Peak Performance Center) THEORIST/CONCEPT Piaget: Cognitive Stages of Development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational) PROCESSES 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Creating 6. Evaluating

18.1.2. Behavioural Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism DEFINITION: New behaviours or changes in behaviours are acquired through associations between stimuli and response (the Peak Performance Center) THEORISTS/CONCEPTS Pavlov: Classical conditioning (dogs) Skinner: Operant conditioning (rats)

18.1.3. Socio-Cultural / Constructivist Use a Learning Theory: Constructivism Constructivist Learning DEFINITION: We construct our own knowledge of the world based on individual experiences (the Peak Performance Center) THEORIST/CONCEPT Vygotsky: zone of proximal development

19. Week 4 - First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

19.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the classroom)

19.1.1. VIDEO: Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed

19.1.2. VIDEO: The Myth of Average: Todd Rose at TEDxSonomaCounty - YouTube

19.2. Primary Topics

19.2.1. Self-Regulation TASKS: complex CONTROL: Students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress

19.2.2. Self-Efficacy BUILD RESILIENCE: Good self-esteem, Sense of competence, Optimistic, Personal control, Feel connected, Motivated to learn, Self-disciplined SELF-EVALUATION: Students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goal COLLABORATION: Students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving. "You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink"

19.2.3. Communities of Learners CHARACTERISTICS: Job-embedded, Collaborative, Collegial, Ongoing, Student-centered REQUIRE: active learning, reflective dialogue, pedagogical content knowledge, socially constructivist learning process, student achievement

19.2.4. Exemplary Learning Environments "School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge." - Carnegie Council Task Force (1989) SELF-REFLECT: What makes a positive environment? (general atmosphere, teaching style, class rules, types of discipline, frequency of disruptive behaviour)?  WHAT DOES IT ACHIEVE? academic success, good planning and classroom management, optimum learning opportunities (especially important for students with exceptionalities)

19.2.5. Well-Being in the Classroom DO YOU PROVIDE: opportunities for social interaction, positive classroom culture, challenges, opportunities for experiential learning, flexibility and control

19.2.6. Social Emotional Learning HOW TO: deal with problematic behaviours, teach students with behavioural disorders, implement classroom management program CONSIDER: Maslow's hierarchy of needs (ex: safety and security, love and belonging)

19.2.7. Effective Teaching Cannot take place in a poorly structured classroom Primary factory of improving education quality is teacher effectiveness, such that all students will achieve adequate progress regardless of their academic achievement Positively affect student achievement: 1. Design classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning. 2. Make wise choices about effective instructional strategies 3. Make use of classroom management techniques (ex: (Proximity, Touch, Student’s Name, Gesture, The Look, The Pause, Ignore, Signal to Begin/for Attention) Use researched strategies (Cooperative learning, Graphic organizers, Homework and questions)

20. Week 5 - Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

20.1. Primary Topics

20.1.1. Student Motivation NEED: Challenging and meaningful tasks , Effective learning strategies, Teacher support , To demonstrate knowledge , To know the teacher cares for them

20.1.2. Constructivism VIEWS OF LEARNING: Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge (actively seek meaning), Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction/learning, Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views, Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development APPLICATION: Dialogue & Instructional Conversations, Inquiry Learning, Problem-based Learning, Teacher and Peer Learning, Cognitive Apprenticeships, Collaborative Learning CREATE: Complex, challenging learning environments, Real world situations, Social negotiation (collaborative work), Multiple representations of content, Making students aware of the knowledge construction process (becoming self-regulated learners), Student-centered instruction (student ownership of learning)

20.1.3. Bloom’s Taxonomy Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives : 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

20.1.4. Universal Instructional Design Accessible and effective instructions and learning for all students

20.1.5. School Types Developmentally appropriate schools Metaphor: Child as Explorer, active learners, playful learning (guided play), Whole child approach (brains and heart), Integrated curricula Direct instruction schools Metaphor: Child as empty vessel, passive learners, compartmentalized learning

20.1.6. Instructional Learning Approaches Inquiry-Based KEY ELEMENTS: Exploration, Invention, Application TEACHER ROLE: Leader STUDENT ROLE: designing and directing own tasks, sharing authority for answers SPECIFIC OUTCOMES: Understand principles, nature of inquiry and application of knowledge Problem-Based KEY ELEMENTS: Identification Problems, Activating/elaborate prior knowledge TEACHER ROLE: Facilitator/Coach STUDENT ROLE: determining problem, Identifying information, data and learning goals SPECIFIC OUTCOMES: Effective problem-solving skills, self-directed, lifelong learning skills, effective collaborations HOW WE LEARN: Knowledge-Centeredness, Learner-Centeredness, Community-Centredness , Assessment-Centredness

20.1.7. Critical Thought Process 1) Ask "what", “how” and “why”, 2) Examine “facts”(find evidence for support), 3) Argue reasonably (no emotions), 4) Recognize there's 1+ right answer, 5) Compare answers (determine the best), 6) Evaluate/question what others say, 7) Ask questions

20.1.8. Universal Design for Learning Three Primary Principles 1) Provide Multiple Means of Representation (Perception Language, expressions, and symbols: Comprehension), 2) Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression (Physical action, Expression, and communication: Executive function), 3) Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (Recruiting interest, Sustaining effort and persistence: Self-regulation)

20.2. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

20.2.1. VIDEO: Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan

21. Week 6 - Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

21.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

21.1.1. VIDEO: What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

21.1.2. ARTICLE: Capacity Building Series (Integrated Learning in the Classroom) Common Approaches to Curriculum Integration: "an emphasis on backward planning from student needs/interests , a combination of subjects , a focus on relationships among concepts , an emphasis on projects/tasks , flexible scheduling/flexible student groupings , use of authentic sources that go beyond textbooks" (1)

21.2. Primary Topics

21.2.1. Learning Approaches Learner-Centered Children construct new knowledge by building upon their prior knowledge and experiences Knowledge-Centered Teacher's help students "build a bridge" between prior knowledge to the new topics they are learning Assessment-Centered Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts

21.2.2. Critical Thinking CONSCIOUSNESS CHARACTERISTICS: Political values and beliefs, ideological clarity, socio-cultural consciousness

22. Week 7 - Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

22.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

22.1.1. VIDEO: Do schools kill creativity?

22.1.2. ARTICLE: Including Students with Exceptionalities (Dr. Sheila Bennett) EXCEPTIONAL CATEGORIES: Behaviour, Communication (autism, deaf or hard of hearing, language impairment, speech impairment, learning disability), Intellectual (giftedness, mild intellectual disability, developmental disability), Physical disability (blindness, low vision), Multiple combination of above

22.2. Primary Topics

22.2.1. Instructional Approaches EFFECTIVE: close the achievement gap (the disparity in achievement between groups of students. (Factors include: gender, ethno-cultural background, socio-economic status, special education needs, language proficiency, or number of credits accumulated) TYPES: Universal Design for Learning (UDL), differentiated instruction, and tiered approach to prevention and intervention. CORE CONCEPTS OF UDL: Universality and equity, Flexibility and inclusiveness, An appropriately designed space, Simplicity, Safety CORE CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION: safe and non-threatening learning environment, appropriately challenge learners, learners must make meaning of new ideas and skills through prior knowledge/experience CORE CONCEPTS OF TIERED: facilitate early identification of both students who may be at risk and students who may be in need of greater challenges, ensure appropriate and timely intervention to address these students’ needs and significantly reduce the likelihood that they will develop more intractable problems in the future.

22.2.2. Common Classroom Strategies Cooperative learning, project-based instruction, problem-based instruction, explicit instruction ALL support UDL and DI

23. Week 8 - Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

23.1. Primary Topics

23.1.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook) VIDEO: How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim VIDEO: Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv VIDEO: The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

23.1.2. Diversity Every child learns differently FACTORS: Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender Universal Design for Learning NETWORKS: 1) Recognition learning: Representation (WHAT we teach/learn), 2) Strategic learning: Action and expression (HOW we learn/express what we know), 3) Affective learning: Engagement (Generating and sustaining motivation, the WHY of learning) HOW TO ENCOURAGE: Languages spoken, Aboriginal students, One-parent families, Same-sex couples, Newcomers to Canada, Religions practised 

23.1.3. Equality and Inclusive Education "Teacher’s attitudes and expectations, as well as their knowledge of how to incorporate the cultures, experiences, and needs of their students into their teaching, significantly influence what students learn..." Banks et al. (2005)

23.1.4. Influences of individualism and collectivism Individualism: Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose Collectivism: Act within a shared identity and common purpose

23.1.5. Disparate educational opportunities

23.1.6. Stereotype threat CHARACTERISTICS: Fear that one’s behaviour will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group, those with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable, can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

23.1.7. Relationship between SES and education STATUS: greatest impact on scholastic achievement LOW SES: Development is at risk, Economic hardships, Scarcity of resources, More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

23.1.8. Multicultural education PRACTICE Culturally Responsive: Broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes. DIFFERENT VIEWS Diversity valued: No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed: Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture: Valued striking a balance DIMENSIONS Content integration, Equity pedagogy, Empowering school culture and social structure, Prejudice reduction, Knowledge construction process

23.1.9. Aboriginal Education RISK FACTORS Early school failures, Moving from school to school, Lack of parent support, Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies, Living in remote communities, Lack of resources, Special needs PROTECTIVE FACTORS Early intervention, Resiliency, Positive self-image, Family engagement, Community involvement, Relevant programming, Aboriginal role models

24. Week 9 - End of School Year

24.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

24.1.1. VIDEO: How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

24.1.2. ARTICLE: Standardized Testing: Fair or Not? (Dr. John Poulsen and Kurtis Hewson) "These once-a-year tests are not likely to be of much value...They are assessments OF learning that are too infrequent, broad in focus, and slow in returning results to inform the ongoing array of daily decisions" (p. 347).

24.1.3. ARTICLE: The Facts on Education What is the Value of Standardized Testing? AGAINST: "There is a tendency to “teach to the test”, which results in narrowing of the curriculum" FOR: "The opportunity for comparison of educational outcomes across schools, provinces, or countries."

24.1.4. ARTICLE: EQAO and 21st century skills 21ST-CENTURY LEARNING OUTCOMES Communication Numeracy Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Personal Management: Attitudes and Behaviours

24.2. Primary Topics

24.2.1. Standardized Tests DESCRIPTION Contain same questions for all test-takers, administered to all test-takers in same fashion, scored in systematic and uniform manner, different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests IN CANADA Federal: Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science) Provincial/Territorial: Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams STAKEHOLDERS' VIEWS WELL-DESIGNED CHARACTERISTICS Enhance teaching and learning, Improve curricular design, Be minimally intrusive PREPARATION Convey positive attitudes about testing, Teach test-taking skills, Simulate use of time limits during testing, Familiarize students with types of questions used, Involve students in marking questions of each type REFERENCED Criterion-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria Norm-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students CRITICISMS Biased tests, Stressful for students and teachers, Results in teaching to the test, Takes up too much time, Does not enhance student learning, Content of tests does not reflect instruction

24.2.2. Standardized Achievement RESULTS SHOULD: Be based on the same curriculum framework, Address the same cognitive demands, Incorporate similar tasks, Use common standards for judging quality of work, Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time INTERPRETING RESULTS: Does the student’s score make sense? How does the score compare to the student’s other achievement indicators? Does the score reveal growth in learning? Did the student just have a bad day?