Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t k...

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Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t know when a breakthrough will come" - Helen Keller by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development - "Everyone wants to be successful - never give up - you don’t know when a breakthrough will come"  - Helen Keller

1. Support Students Emotional Well-Being

2. Understand theorists/concepts

3. Address Four Commonplaces

4. Growth Mindset

5. Multicultural

6. Research and Online Resources

7. Commitment

8. Encourage self-regulation and self-efficacy

9. Student Achievement and Success

10. Well-Structured and Engaging Curriculum

11. Safe Environment

12. Equality and Inclusive

13. Determination

14. Diverse Learning/Instructional Approaches

15. Caring

16. Week 1 - Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

16.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

16.1.1. ARTICLE: Learners in the driving seat (Chris Watkins’)

16.1.1.1. Students must take responsibility for their own learning as it encourages "greater engagement and intrinsic motivation, students setting higher challenge, students evaluating their work, better problem-solving" (29).

16.1.2. VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXpbONjV1Jc&feature=youtu.be

16.2. Primary Topics

16.2.1. Reflective practice

16.2.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS: Open-minded and amenable to change, embrace self-enquiry, ethical responsibility to best facilitate students’ learning, analyze and reflect on their practice, assess effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

16.2.1.1.1. GOAL: To become an effective teacher ("Effective teaching may be the hardest job there is." - William Glasser)

16.2.2. Four commonplaces of education

16.2.2.1. Teacher, Topic, Setting, Student

16.2.3. Educational psychology

16.2.3.1. DEFINITION: Uses knowledge and methods of psychology and related disciplines to study teaching and learning

16.2.3.1.1. GOAL: To improve the teaching and learning processes

16.2.3.1.2. INCLUDES: Learning and Cognition, Development, Social and Cultural Influences, Motivation, Behaviour/Classroom Management, Individual Differences, Assessment and Evaluation, Teaching and Instruction, Psychological Foundations of Curricula

16.2.4. Planning

16.2.4.1. WHAT TO PLAN: What will be taught, When it will be taught, How and when learning will be assessed, What teaching methods and materials will be used, How to establish the type of learning environment needed

16.2.4.1.1. HOW TO PLAN: Excellent instruction, Enhanced student learning, Exemplary environments

16.2.5. Research Findings (to instruction and learning)

16.2.5.1. RESEARCH PROCESS: Observation of phenomena, formation of questions, application of research methods, development of guiding principles, development of theories

16.2.5.1.1. RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH: course textbook, resources from Faculty of Education, journals/books from library, What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept. of Ed.), Google Scholar, research/subscription journals, Conferences, Professional Development Sessions

17. Week 2 - Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

17.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

17.1.1. VIDEO: The power of yet | Carol S Dweck | TEDxNorrköping

17.1.2. VIDEO: What adults can learn from kids | Adora Svitak

17.2. Primary Topics

17.2.1. Development

17.2.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS: Physical/cognitive/social changes, Learning becomes more organized, Behaviours become more adaptive

17.2.1.2. PRINCIPLES: Orderly progression/gradual process, Periods of rapid and slow growth, Quantitative and qualitative changes, Individuals develop at different rates, Genetics set developmental potential, Environment determines potential realized

17.2.2. Impact of development on learning

17.2.2.1. PREFRONTAL CORTEX: Takes 20 years to become fully functional (Controls decision-making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and managing risk-taking)

17.2.3. Contributions of developmental theorists

17.2.3.1. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: https://www.google.ca/search?q=piaget%27s+development+stages&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi-yIqqkK3XAhUn3IMKHQ0xDuIQ_AUICigB&biw=1239&bih=585#imgrc=6SNmUc8zw3OCMM:

17.2.4. Developmental appropriateness

17.2.4.1. SELF-REFLECT: Ideally, I would like to teach grade _____ because students at this developmental stage.... I am least interested in teaching grade _____ because students at this developmental stage...

17.2.5. Supporting students’ psychological well-being

17.3. Teachers Beliefs Survey

17.3.1. 1. Knowledge of the subject matter is the most important part of being an effective teacher. 2. Good teachers always know more than their students. 3. For effective learning, I need to be in control of the direction of learning. 4. I am responsible for what students learn and how they learn. 5. If I don’t prompt and provide direction for student questions, they won’t get the right answer.

17.4. Mindset

17.4.1. Growth v.s. Fixed: https://www.google.ca/search?biw=1239&bih=585&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=FwACWtygBYbMjwTq6LfwBA&q=growth+mindset&oq=growth+mindset&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0l10.122124.124642.0.124782.14.12.0.0.0.0.412.2142.2-7j0j1.8.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..6.8.2136...0i67k1.0.fCJl41a-50o#imgrc=GCCKLIAnP90s9M:

18. Week 3 - Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

18.1. Types of Learning Theories

18.1.1. Cognitive

18.1.1.1. Cognitive learning theorists

18.1.1.2. Use a Learning Theory: Cognitivism

18.1.1.3. DEFINITION: Learning occurs through internal processing of information (the Peak Performance Center)

18.1.1.4. THEORIST/CONCEPT

18.1.1.4.1. Piaget: Cognitive Stages of Development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational)

18.1.1.5. PROCESSES

18.1.1.5.1. 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Creating 6. Evaluating

18.1.2. Behavioural

18.1.2.1. Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism

18.1.2.2. DEFINITION: New behaviours or changes in behaviours are acquired through associations between stimuli and response (the Peak Performance Center)

18.1.2.3. THEORISTS/CONCEPTS

18.1.2.3.1. Pavlov: Classical conditioning (dogs)

18.1.2.3.2. Skinner: Operant conditioning (rats)

18.1.3. Socio-Cultural / Constructivist

18.1.3.1. Use a Learning Theory: Constructivism

18.1.3.2. Constructivist Learning

18.1.3.3. DEFINITION: We construct our own knowledge of the world based on individual experiences (the Peak Performance Center)

18.1.3.4. THEORIST/CONCEPT

18.1.3.4.1. Vygotsky: zone of proximal development

19. Week 4 - First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

19.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the classroom)

19.1.1. VIDEO: Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed

19.1.2. VIDEO: The Myth of Average: Todd Rose at TEDxSonomaCounty - YouTube

19.2. Primary Topics

19.2.1. Self-Regulation

19.2.1.1. TASKS: complex

19.2.1.2. CONTROL: Students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress

19.2.2. Self-Efficacy

19.2.2.1. BUILD RESILIENCE: Good self-esteem, Sense of competence, Optimistic, Personal control, Feel connected, Motivated to learn, Self-disciplined

19.2.2.2. SELF-EVALUATION: Students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goal

19.2.2.3. COLLABORATION: Students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving.

19.2.2.4. "You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink"

19.2.3. Communities of Learners

19.2.3.1. CHARACTERISTICS: Job-embedded, Collaborative, Collegial, Ongoing, Student-centered

19.2.3.2. REQUIRE: active learning, reflective dialogue, pedagogical content knowledge, socially constructivist learning process, student achievement

19.2.4. Exemplary Learning Environments

19.2.4.1. "School systems are not responsible for meeting every need of their students. But when the need directly affects learning, the school must meet the challenge." - Carnegie Council Task Force (1989)

19.2.4.2. SELF-REFLECT: What makes a positive environment? (general atmosphere, teaching style, class rules, types of discipline, frequency of disruptive behaviour)? 

19.2.4.3. WHAT DOES IT ACHIEVE? academic success, good planning and classroom management, optimum learning opportunities (especially important for students with exceptionalities)

19.2.5. Well-Being in the Classroom

19.2.5.1. DO YOU PROVIDE: opportunities for social interaction, positive classroom culture, challenges, opportunities for experiential learning, flexibility and control

19.2.6. Social Emotional Learning

19.2.6.1. HOW TO: deal with problematic behaviours, teach students with behavioural disorders, implement classroom management program

19.2.6.2. CONSIDER: Maslow's hierarchy of needs (ex: safety and security, love and belonging)

19.2.7. Effective Teaching

19.2.7.1. Cannot take place in a poorly structured classroom

19.2.7.2. Primary factory of improving education quality is teacher effectiveness, such that all students will achieve adequate progress regardless of their academic achievement

19.2.7.3. Positively affect student achievement: 1. Design classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning. 2. Make wise choices about effective instructional strategies 3. Make use of classroom management techniques (ex: (Proximity, Touch, Student’s Name, Gesture, The Look, The Pause, Ignore, Signal to Begin/for Attention)

19.2.7.4. Use researched strategies (Cooperative learning, Graphic organizers, Homework and questions)

20. Week 5 - Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

20.1. Primary Topics

20.1.1. Student Motivation

20.1.1.1. NEED: Challenging and meaningful tasks , Effective learning strategies, Teacher support , To demonstrate knowledge , To know the teacher cares for them

20.1.2. Constructivism

20.1.2.1. VIEWS OF LEARNING: Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge (actively seek meaning), Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction/learning, Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views, Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

20.1.2.2. APPLICATION: Dialogue & Instructional Conversations, Inquiry Learning, Problem-based Learning, Teacher and Peer Learning, Cognitive Apprenticeships, Collaborative Learning

20.1.2.3. CREATE: Complex, challenging learning environments, Real world situations, Social negotiation (collaborative work), Multiple representations of content, Making students aware of the knowledge construction process (becoming self-regulated learners), Student-centered instruction (student ownership of learning)

20.1.3. Bloom’s Taxonomy

20.1.3.1. Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives : 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

20.1.4. Universal Instructional Design

20.1.4.1. Accessible and effective instructions and learning for all students

20.1.5. School Types

20.1.5.1. Developmentally appropriate schools

20.1.5.1.1. Metaphor: Child as Explorer, active learners, playful learning (guided play), Whole child approach (brains and heart), Integrated curricula

20.1.5.2. Direct instruction schools

20.1.5.2.1. Metaphor: Child as empty vessel, passive learners, compartmentalized learning

20.1.6. Instructional Learning Approaches

20.1.6.1. Inquiry-Based

20.1.6.1.1. KEY ELEMENTS: Exploration, Invention, Application

20.1.6.1.2. TEACHER ROLE: Leader

20.1.6.1.3. STUDENT ROLE: designing and directing own tasks, sharing authority for answers

20.1.6.1.4. SPECIFIC OUTCOMES: Understand principles, nature of inquiry and application of knowledge

20.1.6.2. Problem-Based

20.1.6.2.1. KEY ELEMENTS: Identification Problems, Activating/elaborate prior knowledge

20.1.6.2.2. TEACHER ROLE: Facilitator/Coach

20.1.6.2.3. STUDENT ROLE: determining problem, Identifying information, data and learning goals

20.1.6.2.4. SPECIFIC OUTCOMES: Effective problem-solving skills, self-directed, lifelong learning skills, effective collaborations

20.1.6.3. HOW WE LEARN: Knowledge-Centeredness, Learner-Centeredness, Community-Centredness , Assessment-Centredness

20.1.7. Critical Thought Process

20.1.7.1. 1) Ask "what", “how” and “why”, 2) Examine “facts”(find evidence for support), 3) Argue reasonably (no emotions), 4) Recognize there's 1+ right answer, 5) Compare answers (determine the best), 6) Evaluate/question what others say, 7) Ask questions

20.1.8. Universal Design for Learning

20.1.8.1. Three Primary Principles

20.1.8.1.1. 1) Provide Multiple Means of Representation (Perception Language, expressions, and symbols: Comprehension), 2) Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression (Physical action, Expression, and communication: Executive function), 3) Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (Recruiting interest, Sustaining effort and persistence: Self-regulation)

20.2. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

20.2.1. VIDEO: Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan

21. Week 6 - Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

21.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

21.1.1. VIDEO: What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

21.1.2. ARTICLE: Capacity Building Series (Integrated Learning in the Classroom)

21.1.2.1. Common Approaches to Curriculum Integration: "an emphasis on backward planning from student needs/interests , a combination of subjects , a focus on relationships among concepts , an emphasis on projects/tasks , flexible scheduling/flexible student groupings , use of authentic sources that go beyond textbooks" (1)

21.2. Primary Topics

21.2.1. Learning Approaches

21.2.1.1. Learner-Centered

21.2.1.1.1. Children construct new knowledge by building upon their prior knowledge and experiences

21.2.1.2. Knowledge-Centered

21.2.1.2.1. Teacher's help students "build a bridge" between prior knowledge to the new topics they are learning

21.2.1.3. Assessment-Centered

21.2.1.3.1. Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts

21.2.2. Critical Thinking

21.2.2.1. CONSCIOUSNESS

21.2.2.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS: Political values and beliefs, ideological clarity, socio-cultural consciousness

22. Week 7 - Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

22.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

22.1.1. VIDEO: Do schools kill creativity?

22.1.2. ARTICLE: Including Students with Exceptionalities (Dr. Sheila Bennett)

22.1.2.1. EXCEPTIONAL CATEGORIES: Behaviour, Communication (autism, deaf or hard of hearing, language impairment, speech impairment, learning disability), Intellectual (giftedness, mild intellectual disability, developmental disability), Physical disability (blindness, low vision), Multiple combination of above

22.2. Primary Topics

22.2.1. Instructional Approaches

22.2.1.1. EFFECTIVE: close the achievement gap (the disparity in achievement between groups of students. (Factors include: gender, ethno-cultural background, socio-economic status, special education needs, language proficiency, or number of credits accumulated)

22.2.1.2. TYPES: Universal Design for Learning (UDL), differentiated instruction, and tiered approach to prevention and intervention.

22.2.1.2.1. CORE CONCEPTS OF UDL: Universality and equity, Flexibility and inclusiveness, An appropriately designed space, Simplicity, Safety

22.2.1.2.2. CORE CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION: safe and non-threatening learning environment, appropriately challenge learners, learners must make meaning of new ideas and skills through prior knowledge/experience

22.2.1.2.3. CORE CONCEPTS OF TIERED: facilitate early identification of both students who may be at risk and students who may be in need of greater challenges, ensure appropriate and timely intervention to address these students’ needs and significantly reduce the likelihood that they will develop more intractable problems in the future.

22.2.2. Common Classroom Strategies

22.2.2.1. Cooperative learning, project-based instruction, problem-based instruction, explicit instruction

22.2.2.1.1. ALL support UDL and DI

23. Week 8 - Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

23.1. Primary Topics

23.1.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

23.1.1.1. VIDEO: How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim

23.1.1.2. VIDEO: Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv

23.1.1.3. VIDEO: The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

23.1.2. Diversity

23.1.2.1. Every child learns differently

23.1.2.1.1. FACTORS: Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender

23.1.2.2. Universal Design for Learning

23.1.2.2.1. NETWORKS: 1) Recognition learning: Representation (WHAT we teach/learn), 2) Strategic learning: Action and expression (HOW we learn/express what we know), 3) Affective learning: Engagement (Generating and sustaining motivation, the WHY of learning)

23.1.2.3. HOW TO ENCOURAGE: Languages spoken, Aboriginal students, One-parent families, Same-sex couples, Newcomers to Canada, Religions practised 

23.1.3. Equality and Inclusive Education

23.1.3.1. "Teacher’s attitudes and expectations, as well as their knowledge of how to incorporate the cultures, experiences, and needs of their students into their teaching, significantly influence what students learn..." Banks et al. (2005)

23.1.4. Influences of individualism and collectivism

23.1.4.1. Individualism: Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose Collectivism: Act within a shared identity and common purpose

23.1.5. Disparate educational opportunities

23.1.6. Stereotype threat

23.1.6.1. CHARACTERISTICS: Fear that one’s behaviour will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group, those with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable, can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

23.1.7. Relationship between SES and education

23.1.7.1. STATUS: greatest impact on scholastic achievement

23.1.7.1.1. LOW SES: Development is at risk, Economic hardships, Scarcity of resources, More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

23.1.8. Multicultural education

23.1.8.1. PRACTICE

23.1.8.1.1. Culturally Responsive: Broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes.

23.1.8.2. DIFFERENT VIEWS

23.1.8.2.1. Diversity valued: No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed: Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture: Valued striking a balance

23.1.8.3. DIMENSIONS

23.1.8.3.1. Content integration, Equity pedagogy, Empowering school culture and social structure, Prejudice reduction, Knowledge construction process

23.1.9. Aboriginal Education

23.1.9.1. RISK FACTORS

23.1.9.1.1. Early school failures, Moving from school to school, Lack of parent support, Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies, Living in remote communities, Lack of resources, Special needs

23.1.9.2. PROTECTIVE FACTORS

23.1.9.2.1. Early intervention, Resiliency, Positive self-image, Family engagement, Community involvement, Relevant programming, Aboriginal role models

24. Week 9 - End of School Year

24.1. ADDITIONAL REFLECTION (outside the textbook)

24.1.1. VIDEO: How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

24.1.2. ARTICLE: Standardized Testing: Fair or Not? (Dr. John Poulsen and Kurtis Hewson)

24.1.2.1. "These once-a-year tests are not likely to be of much value...They are assessments OF learning that are too infrequent, broad in focus, and slow in returning results to inform the ongoing array of daily decisions" (p. 347).

24.1.3. ARTICLE: The Facts on Education What is the Value of Standardized Testing?

24.1.3.1. AGAINST: "There is a tendency to “teach to the test”, which results in narrowing of the curriculum"

24.1.3.2. FOR: "The opportunity for comparison of educational outcomes across schools, provinces, or countries."

24.1.4. ARTICLE: EQAO and 21st century skills

24.1.4.1. 21ST-CENTURY LEARNING OUTCOMES

24.1.4.1.1. Communication

24.1.4.1.2. Numeracy

24.1.4.1.3. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

24.1.4.1.4. Personal Management: Attitudes and Behaviours

24.2. Primary Topics

24.2.1. Standardized Tests

24.2.1.1. DESCRIPTION

24.2.1.1.1. Contain same questions for all test-takers, administered to all test-takers in same fashion, scored in systematic and uniform manner, different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

24.2.1.2. IN CANADA

24.2.1.2.1. Federal: Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science) Provincial/Territorial: Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

24.2.1.3. STAKEHOLDERS' VIEWS

24.2.1.4. WELL-DESIGNED CHARACTERISTICS

24.2.1.4.1. Enhance teaching and learning, Improve curricular design, Be minimally intrusive

24.2.1.5. PREPARATION

24.2.1.5.1. Convey positive attitudes about testing, Teach test-taking skills, Simulate use of time limits during testing, Familiarize students with types of questions used, Involve students in marking questions of each type

24.2.1.6. REFERENCED

24.2.1.6.1. Criterion-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria Norm-Referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

24.2.1.7. CRITICISMS

24.2.1.7.1. Biased tests, Stressful for students and teachers, Results in teaching to the test, Takes up too much time, Does not enhance student learning, Content of tests does not reflect instruction

24.2.2. Standardized Achievement

24.2.2.1. RESULTS SHOULD: Be based on the same curriculum framework, Address the same cognitive demands, Incorporate similar tasks, Use common standards for judging quality of work, Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

24.2.2.1.1. INTERPRETING RESULTS: Does the student’s score make sense? How does the score compare to the student’s other achievement indicators? Does the score reveal growth in learning? Did the student just have a bad day?

25. EFFECTIVE ROOTS

26. TOWARDS EFFECTIVE

27. TEACHING AND LEARNING

28. IN THE CLASSROOM

29. HOW TO GROW A TREE :

30. CRITICAL THINKING

31. CRITICAL THINKING

32. UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

33. UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

34. EXEMPLARY ENVIRONMENTS

35. EXEMPLARY ENVIRONMENTS

36. PIAGET

37. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

38. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

39. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

40. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

41. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH

42. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH

43. LEARNING APPROACH

44. LEARNING APPROACH