Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517)

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Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517) by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517)

1. Used to make wide-scope educational decisions

2. Improves teachers' foundational knowledge and avoids misconceptions

3. Establishes the fundamental scope and direction of teaching

4. Learning Objective is the foundation

5. Week 2 - Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

5.1. Development

5.1.1. Physical Genetically predetermined path

5.1.2. Cognitive Executive Cognitive Functioning individuals organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes Innate Curiosity humans are born with powerful curiosity about the world around them Learning How to Learn children have innate psychological mechanisms that allow them to learn how to learn

5.1.3. Social

5.2. Principles of Development

5.2.1. Development follows an orderly and logical progression Walk before you run Talk before you read master sentences before essays

5.2.2. Development is a gradually progressive process, not always at a constant rate marked by periods of relatively rapid or slow growth

5.2.3. Development involves quantitative and qualitative changes

5.2.4. Individuals develop at different rates not all children achieve the same developmental milestones at the same time, despite being the same age.

5.2.5. Development results from the influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture) Genetics setting the limits of developmental potential Environment determining how much of that potential is realized

5.3. Theoretical Approaches

5.3.1. Piaget The Psychological Structures of Learning Innate drive to organize Innate drive to adjust From Disequilibrium to Equilibrium Assimilation: If information is new and does not fit a mental schema, the brain is in a disequilibrium and it will assimilate the new information into an existing schema. Brain is now in equilibrium again. Accommodation: If the new information does not fit into an existing schema the brain is in disequilibrium and it will accommodate the new information by modifying or creating a new schema. Brain is now in equilibrium again Four stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operations Formal Operations Horizontal decalage children's abilities in different domains develop at different times

5.3.2. Vygotsky Children learn more and with greater efficiency when they receive some assistance from more competent individuals to complete tasks that are just beyond their independent abilities Zone of proximal development range of tasks that a child cannot perform independently but can perform with the help of others social interactions and shared social activities actually create an individual’s cognitive structures and cause individuals to think in certain ways. the social environment of the child does more than merely influence cognitive development Scaffolding providing just enough support to prompt learning Children's inner language drives their reasoning abilities and builds cognitive structures

5.3.3. Chromsky Language-Acquisition Device an innate capacity to learn, understand, and acquire language 3 important components of language development Function Structure Infinite generativity

5.3.4. Erikson Eight stages of psychosocial development 1. Trust vs. Mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 3. Initiative vs. Guilt 4. Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation 8. Integrity vs. Despair

5.3.5. Kohlberg Six Stage Theory of Moral Reasoning Level 1: Preconventional Level 2: Conventional Level 3: Postconventional

5.3.6. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory framework of environmental systems within which an individual interacts influences that environmental contexts have on social development of individuals

5.4. Growth Mindset -Intelligence can be developed

5.4.1. Embrace chalenges you will come out stronger on the other side

5.4.2. Persist in the face of setbacks failure is an opportunity to learn

5.4.3. See effort ads the path to mastery effort is necessary to grow and master useful skills

5.4.4. Learn from criticism criticism and negative feedback are sources of information. Not to be taken personally

5.4.5. Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others success of others is seen as a source of inspiration and information

5.4.6. Greater sense of free will

6. Week 1 - Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

6.1. Reflective Practice

6.1.1. Defining charactersitic of a truly professional teacher. It shows dedication and allows for maximum effectiveness.

6.1.2. Reflective Practitioners • are open-minded and amenable to change • feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning • choose to analyze and reflect on their practice • assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice • embrace self-enquiry

6.2. Educational Psychology: understanding of the psychological principles that govern the interactive human behaviours involved in the teaching and learning process.

6.2.1. Purposes Expand the fundamental theoretical research framework of the discipline Improve educational practice for teachers by providing them with sound and relevant research results upon which to base their instruction

6.2.2. Commonplaces of Education (the 4 ingredients for learning) The Teacher Someone who teaches The Curriculum The topic being taught The Student Someone being taught The Classroom The setting

6.2.3. 9 Foundational Topics Learning and Cognitive How do students think and learn best? Potential barriers to efficient learning? Development What ages/grades can students be taught particular curricular concepts? How do changes in a student's cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and physical development influence the teaching and learning process? Social an Cultural Influences How do classrooms affect teaching and student learning? Motivation Why do students engage in certain activities? How can teachers use student interest to facilitate learning? Behaviour and Classroom Managment How can teachers construct a classroom environment that is academically effective, comfortable, and properly managed? Individual Differences Why do some students need more instruction then others? Assessment and Evaluation How can teachers determine what the students took away from the lesson? How is assessment linked to instruction? Teaching and Instruction What types of teaching methods are best? What are the factors that determine the use of particular instruction methods? Psychological Foundations of Curricula How does curriculum design affect teaching and learning? What are the preferred methods for teaching particular skills?

6.2.4. Research Methods: Credible research is systematic, objective, and testable. Research Process 1. Observation of Phenomena 2. Formation of Questions 3. Applications of research methods 4. Development of Guiding Principles 5. Development of Theories Quantitative Research Descriptive Research Experimental Research Qualitative Research Idiographic research Ethnographic research

6.3. Teacher Planning

6.3.1. Important Considerations What will be taught The order of what is being taught What teaching methods and materials are required What type of environment am I teaching in How will students be assessed

6.3.2. Curricular Planning Following a top-down approach Educational Purpose Learning Experiences Evaluation

6.3.3. Instructional Planning Constructivism actively and meaningfully constructing one's own knowledge and understanding Instructional Approaches Teacher-Centered Approach Student-Centered Approach

6.3.4. Ten Best Practices 1. Teach for understanding, appreciation, and life application 2. Address multiple goals simultaneously 3. Employ inquiry models 4. Engage students in discourse management 5. Design authentic activities 6. Include debriefing 7. Work with artifacts 8. Foster metacognition and self-regulated learning 9. Be aware of trajectories, misconceptions, and representations 10. Recognize the social aspects of learning

6.4. Learners in the driving seat

6.4.1. The goal is to have students become more "learner-driven" when it comes to their learning Addressing problems within the classroom Inquiry is important Encourage teacher to help students become more independent towards their own learning - teachers will then feel more comfortable giving students more freedom about their own learning Recognize that the entire lesson does not have to be planned for - freedom is a good thing Know that teachers may have reservations since they have been teaching students a certain way for a long time

7. Week 3 - Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

7.1. Cognitive

7.1.1. Theory that explains thinking and differing mental processes and internal/external influences that lead to learning Received, organized, stored and retrieved by the mind

7.1.2. Deeper Learning and developing critical thinking skills Creating Meaning Making links beyond the classroom Discovery learning Sequencing Relate prior knowledge to new concepts

7.1.3. Applications Chunking Graphic organizers Acronymns Hooks Reviewing Real world

7.1.4. Patterns

7.1.5. Innate drive to adjust Equilibrium vs. disequilibrium

7.1.6. Scaffolding and Schemas knowledge building on itself

7.2. Behavioural

7.2.1. Classroom management - positive and negative reinforcement can help control behaviour

7.2.2. based on observable behaviour

7.2.3. students imitate the teacher's behaviour and adjust their behaviour accordingly

7.2.4. Support Student centered rewards skill development encouragement responsive immediate

7.3. Social and Constructive

7.3.1. equates learning with creative meaning from experience Student Centered Learning Teacher as a guide socratic method independent study Hands on experiences avoid oversimplification real world problems and settings Scaffolding zone of proximal development collaborative and cooperative efforts negotiation instead of competition Social constructivism importance of school interaction ecological theory

8. Week 4 - First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

8.1. Classroom Management

8.1.1. students learn better and more efficiently in environments that are orderly and psychologically secure

8.1.2. Strategies Proximity Touch Student's Name Gesture The Look The Pause Ignore Signal to Begin/ Signal for Attention Deal with the problem not the student

8.1.3. DCM (Dynamic Classroom Management results in more positive student behaviours, enhanced student psychological security, and better teaching and learning Develop caring, supportive relationships with students Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning. Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks. Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation. Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

8.1.4. Teacher behaviour that diminish student behaviour problems provide positive feedback to students offer sustained feedback to students respond supportively to students in general respond even more supportively to low-ability students ask questions that students are able to answer correctly respond supportively to students with behaviour problems present learning tasks for which students have a high probability of success use time efficiently intervene in misbehaviour at a low rate maintain a low ratio of punitive to positive interventions use criticism at a low rate keep the need for disciplinary interventions low through positive classroom interventions

8.2. Self

8.2.1. Self-Efficacy

8.2.2. Self-Regulation tasks should be complex Tasks students make decisions, have choices, take responsibility for planning Control students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals Self-evaluation students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving Collaboration

8.2.3. Resilient Children Good self esteem sense of competence optimistic Personal control Feel connected Motivated to learn Self disciplined

8.3. Well Being in the classroom

8.3.1. Personal Development

8.3.2. Flexibility and Control Teachers should be able to allow students to take control of their learning (release of responsibility) If a planned lesson is not able to be executed, being able to continue teaching is an example of being flexible

8.3.3. Social Interaction Students need to form healthy relationships with one another

8.3.4. Optimal Challenge Students will feel accomplished by completing their work at a higher difficulty level

8.3.5. Positive Classroom Culture

8.3.6. Valued Contribution Give recognition to effort and participation from students

8.3.7. Instructor Support

8.3.8. Access to Resources Having the resources that will aid students to perform their best in the classroom eg. noise cancelling headphones

8.3.9. Real Life Learning Applying real life applications to school work will be more engaging for students because thy can see a purpose for the lesson

9. Week 5 - Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

9.1. Diagnostic Assessment

9.1.1. Determination of a student's current level of knowledge prior to instruction

9.1.2. Starting point for all instruction

9.2. Lesson Plans

9.2.1. Build lesson plans using Backwards Design 1. What do I want my students to learn? Specific Learning Objective 2. How will I determine whether or not they have learned? Assessment Question 3. What will I teach? Topical Unit and Lesson Plans 4. How will I teach? Instructional Method

9.2.2. Core Elements of Backwards Design Instructional activities that connect to and build understanding Assessment that deliberately measures student progress toward curricular goals The articulation of why certain assessments are appropriate and for what purpose The development of a variety of ongoing formal and informal assessment tools

9.3. The Common Thread of Learning Objectives

9.3.1. Philosophical objectives found in mission statements

9.3.2. Global objectives found in curriculum guides

9.3.3. Broad learning objectives used in unit plans

9.3.4. Specific learning objectives

9.3.5. Assessment questions

9.3.6. Topical unit and lesson plans

9.3.7. Instructional methods

9.4. Different Taxonomies

9.4.1. Bloom's Taxonomy Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning behaviour Clearly separates different types and goals of thinking Cognitive Objective 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

9.4.2. Stiggin's Taxonomy of Achievement Targets A set of specifications for what students should learn or do Targets 1. Knowledge 2. Reasoning 3. Skills 4. Products 5. Attitudes and Dispositions

9.5. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

9.5.1. advocates for physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all users and especially those of individuals with disabilities. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

9.5.2. 1. Create a welcoming classroom environment that emphasizes academic and behavioural success.

9.5.3. 2. Determine the essential academic components to be taught/learned and the preferred behavioural outcomes.

9.5.4. 3. Provide students with both clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning progress and social conduct.

9.5.5. 4. Implement a variety of topically suitable instructional methods.

9.5.6. 5. Provide a variety of ways for students to demonstrate what they have learned (assessment).

9.5.7. 6. Make appropriate use of technology to enhance learning.

9.5.8. 7. Encourage and initiate teacher–student and student–student discourses about learning topics/tasks and behavioural expectations.

9.6. Motivation

9.6.1. What motivates students? Challenging and meaningful tasks Being able to effectively use learning strategies Having teacher support Being required to demonstrate knowledge Feeling that the teacher cares for them

9.7. How People Learn (HPL)

9.7.1. Knowledge-Centeredness What should be taught, why is it important, and how should this knowledge be organized? Teachers consult their respective national, provincial, and district standards in deciding what to teach and why.

9.7.2. Learner- Centeredness Who learns, how, and why? Teachers need to make moment-by-moment teaching decisions based on their ongoing assessments of their learners’ current levels of understanding.

9.7.3. Community-Centeredness What kinds of classroom, school, and school-community environments enhance learning? Teachers need to create climates of shared learning and respect for learning, sense of community among teachers and other adults in the school, and build on the intellectual resources of the community.

9.7.4. Assessment-Centeredness What kinds of evidence can students, teachers, parents, and others use to see if effective learning is really occurring? Teachers focus on ways that different teaching and learning goals affect the assessment of academic progress.

9.8. Instructional Strategies

9.8.1. Cognitive Strategies purposeful and controllable thinking process that actively promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge Effective thinking working memory short-term store of relevant information long-term memory Metacognition

9.8.2. Select-Organize-Integrate (SOI) information-processing model of meaningful learning meaningful learning occurs when students engage in three cognitive processes 1. selecting relevant information 2. organizing the selected information 3. integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

9.8.3. Direct Instruction Clear learning objectives Well-planned lessons Explicit teaching Lots of practice

9.8.4. Student Problem-Solving Instruct students on how to develop thinking strategies and help them execute these strategies Verbal Protocol Analysis documenting conscious cognitive processing Students explain their thinking Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning (a) help teachers design comprehensive curricular tasks (inquiry base) (b) complete tasks with peers collaboratively (problem base) (c) create specific educational products (project base) (d) reflect on their learning experiences

10. Week 6 - Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

10.1. How People Learn Framework

10.1.1. Knowledge-Centered

10.1.2. Learner-Centered

10.1.3. Community Centered

10.1.4. Assessment Centered

10.2. Universal Instructional Design

10.2.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

10.2.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

10.3. Linking Assessment and Instruction

10.3.1. Specific Learning Object

10.3.2. Assessment Question

10.3.3. Topical Unit and Lesson Plans

10.3.4. Instructional Method

10.4. Basics of Curriculum Planning

10.4.1. Expectations

10.4.2. Assessment and Evaluation

10.4.3. Teaching Strategies

10.4.4. Topics, Themes, Resources

10.5. Enduring Understandings

10.5.1. facets of understanding help identify the enduring understandings that students will think deeply about Can explain Can Interpret Can apply Have critical perspective Can empathize Have self-knowledge

10.5.2. Not just material worth covering

10.5.3. Enduring value beyond the classroom

10.5.4. Resides at the heart of the discipline

10.5.5. Required un-coverage of abstract or often misunderstood ideas

10.5.6. Offer potential for engaging students

10.5.7. Not broader(more) deeper ( less)

10.5.8. Allow for strong culture of instructional practice

10.6. Assessment of Student Learning

10.6.1. Purpose of Assessment Measure and indicate student achievement Diagnostic Assessment Formative Assessment Summative Assessment

10.6.2. Assessment Design Process Designing Questions must be derived from the same learning objectives used in unit conceptually identical to examples used to teach the concept Designing Tests and Exams Content Validity Content Reliability Table of Specifications

10.6.3. Types of Assessment Questions Selected-Response Questions True/False questions Matching questions Multiple-choice questions Constructed-Response Questions Short-answer questions Restricted-essay questions Essay questions

10.6.4. Criterion-Based Assessment assessing work based on marking a rubic

10.6.5. Norm-Based Assessment assessing work by comparing it to the work of others

10.6.6. Assessment Done Well Multiple opportunities to improve Provision of useful and timely feedback No marks until the final attempt Clear targets in student friendly language Students able to self and peer assess Affirmation of capability Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

10.7. 3 Stage Model

10.7.1. 1. Identify desired results

10.7.2. 2. Determine acceptable evidence

10.7.3. 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction

11. Week 7 - Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

11.1. Intelligence

11.1.1. Groups of intellectual behaviours Cognitive Styles Learning Styles Temperament

11.1.2. 8 Categories Fluid intelligence Considered most important Crystallized intelligence Considered most important General memory and learning Broad visual Perception Considered most important Broad auditory perception Broad retrieval capacity Broad cognitive speediness Processing speed

11.1.3. Important Theorists Gardner Intelligence as Structures Theory of Multiple Intelligences Sternberg Intelligence as Processes Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

11.2. Special Education

11.2.1. Exceptionalities High-Incidence Exceptionalities typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairment, and multiple disabilities.

11.2.2. Inclusion all students with exceptionalities should be educated within regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible. All Canadian provinces and territories use the educational philosophy of inclusion

11.2.3. Individualized Education Plan (IEPs) document outlining a student’s individualized educational goals, services that student will receive, methods and strategies used to deliver services and the placement in which all of these will be provided Who uses IEPs? Students with ADHD Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder Students who are Gifted and Talented Students with Mild Intellectual Disability Students with Specific Learning Disorders

11.3. Learning For All

11.3.1. Three Effective Approaches Differentiated Instruction The Tiered Approach Universal Design for Learning

12. Week 8 - Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

12.1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

12.1.1. Critical consciousness is crucial

12.1.2. Teachers need to have a culturally responsive practice

12.1.3. Aboriginal Education Risk factors Early school failures Moving from school to school Lack of parent support Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies Living in remote communities Lack of resources Special needs Protective Factors Early intervention Resiliency Positive self-image Family engagement Aboriginal role models Community involvement Relevant programming

12.2. Stereotype Threat

12.2.1. the fear that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group. Can lead to prejudice Can lead to discrimination Harmful to individuals who have strong ties to their ethnic, religious or cultural group Result in an impairment of performance emotional burden that can reduce working memory and undermines actual ability

12.3. Socio-Economic Status (SES) -indicates an individual’s social class based on education, occupation, and income.

12.3.1. large impact on how well children do in school

12.3.2. 5 levels lowest lower-middle middle upper-middle highest

12.3.3. Children's SES is determined by their parents' occupation and income level

12.3.4. teachers must be aware of the differences and do what they can to moderate them

12.3.5. Children's development is at risk

12.3.6. scarcity of resources

12.4. Different Parenting Styles

12.4.1. Authoritarian attempts to shape, control, and measure children’s behaviours against fairly rigid standards; conveys a strong emphasis on respect for authority, obedience, and traditional values; and mostly discourages open discussion of such topics and children’s objections.

12.4.2. Permissive openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all children’s actions, rarely making behavioural demands or invoking restrictions, and does not purposefully distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable actions.

12.4.3. Authoritative involves a constant series of balancing acts: between expectation demands and encouragement to achieve, between establishing rules and meting out discipline, between fostering student independence and providing parental influence, and between open communication and direct advice.

12.5. Increasing Diversity in Schools

12.5.1. Languages spoken

12.5.2. Aboriginal Students

12.5.3. One-Parent families

12.5.4. Religions

12.6. Student dilemmas

12.6.1. Individualism Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

12.6.2. Collectivism Act within a shared identity and common purpose

12.7. Differences within Identified Groups

12.7.1. Critical Consciousness Political values and beliefs An ideological clarity A socio-cultural consciousness

12.7.2. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes What teachers need to know Their own cultural assumptions How to inquire about students’ backgrounds  How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners  How to establish links across cultures

12.8. Multicultural Education

12.8.1. Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect

12.8.2. Different Views Diversity valued No culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance

12.8.3. Dimensions Content integration Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture and social structure Prejudice reduction Knowledge construction process

13. Week 9 - End of School Year: Standardized Achievement Tests

13.1. Purpose

13.1.1. To assess effectiveness of instruction

13.2. Testing in Canada

13.2.1. Federal Achievement Levels of 13 yr olds (math, reading, and science)

13.2.2. Provincial/Territorial Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade level Grade 12 exit exams

13.3. Standardized Tests

13.3.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

13.3.2. Administered in the same fashion

13.3.3. Scored in systematic and uniform manner

13.3.4. Different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

13.3.5. Types Criterion-Referenced Student's score determined by comparing performance to establish criteria Norm-Referenced Student's score determined by comparing performance to other students

13.3.6. Aptitude Test tests a student's specific cognitive, social, and behavioural skills

13.3.7. Achievement Test

13.3.8. Criticism Biased tests Stressful for students and teachers Results in teaching to the test Takes up too much time Does not enhance student learning Content of test does not reflect instruction

13.3.9. Improving Standardized Tests Should improve the way the curriculum is designed Should not be a stressful task and minimally intrusive Tests should improve students' learning Be based on the same curriculum framework that students have been accustom to Use common standards for judging quality of work All tests are imperfect

13.3.10. Preparing Students Convey a positive attitude Teach test-taking skills Simulate use of time limits during testing Familiarize students with the type of questions used Involve students in marking questions of each type

13.3.11. The Big Debate Pros Both the weakness of the test and the strength of the test can be examined Schools and school boards can be compared to see how students are doing in comparison to one another - can help determine what each school may need to improve on Can help find out if certain school are or are not meeting the standards set through the curriculum Cons Environmental Factors Personal Factors Standardized tests use a minimum number of questions Standardized tests have to make a one-size-fits-all test that will not fit all

14. I plan to implement all 4 commonplaces to create an engaging environment

15. System approach to intelligence

16. Processing approach to intelligence

17. Represents 80% of all students with special needs

18. Learning mode preferences

19. Natural way of reacting to environment

20. Ability to learn and adapt