Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517)

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Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517) by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and Development Mind Map By: Latisha Cater (250954517)

1. Used to make wide-scope educational decisions

2. Improves teachers' foundational knowledge and avoids misconceptions

3. Establishes the fundamental scope and direction of teaching

4. Learning Objective is the foundation

5. Week 2 - Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

5.1. Development

5.1.1. Physical

5.1.1.1. Genetically predetermined path

5.1.2. Cognitive

5.1.2.1. Executive Cognitive Functioning

5.1.2.1.1. individuals organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes

5.1.2.2. Innate Curiosity

5.1.2.2.1. humans are born with powerful curiosity about the world around them

5.1.2.3. Learning How to Learn

5.1.2.3.1. children have innate psychological mechanisms that allow them to learn how to learn

5.1.3. Social

5.2. Principles of Development

5.2.1. Development follows an orderly and logical progression

5.2.1.1. Walk before you run

5.2.1.2. Talk before you read

5.2.1.3. master sentences before essays

5.2.2. Development is a gradually progressive process, not always at a constant rate

5.2.2.1. marked by periods of relatively rapid or slow growth

5.2.3. Development involves quantitative and qualitative changes

5.2.4. Individuals develop at different rates

5.2.4.1. not all children achieve the same developmental milestones at the same time, despite being the same age.

5.2.5. Development results from the influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture)

5.2.5.1. Genetics setting the limits of developmental potential

5.2.5.2. Environment determining how much of that potential is realized

5.3. Theoretical Approaches

5.3.1. Piaget

5.3.1.1. The Psychological Structures of Learning

5.3.1.1.1. Innate drive to organize

5.3.1.1.2. Innate drive to adjust

5.3.1.2. From Disequilibrium to Equilibrium

5.3.1.2.1. Assimilation: If information is new and does not fit a mental schema, the brain is in a disequilibrium and it will assimilate the new information into an existing schema. Brain is now in equilibrium again.

5.3.1.2.2. Accommodation: If the new information does not fit into an existing schema the brain is in disequilibrium and it will accommodate the new information by modifying or creating a new schema. Brain is now in equilibrium again

5.3.1.3. Four stages of cognitive development

5.3.1.3.1. Sensorimotor

5.3.1.3.2. Preoperational

5.3.1.3.3. Concrete Operations

5.3.1.3.4. Formal Operations

5.3.1.4. Horizontal decalage

5.3.1.4.1. children's abilities in different domains develop at different times

5.3.2. Vygotsky

5.3.2.1. Children learn more and with greater efficiency when they receive some assistance from more competent individuals to complete tasks that are just beyond their independent abilities

5.3.2.2. Zone of proximal development

5.3.2.2.1. range of tasks that a child cannot perform independently but can perform with the help of others

5.3.2.3. social interactions and shared social activities actually create an individual’s cognitive structures and cause individuals to think in certain ways.

5.3.2.3.1. the social environment of the child does more than merely influence cognitive development

5.3.2.4. Scaffolding

5.3.2.4.1. providing just enough support to prompt learning

5.3.2.5. Children's inner language drives their reasoning abilities and builds cognitive structures

5.3.3. Chromsky

5.3.3.1. Language-Acquisition Device

5.3.3.1.1. an innate capacity to learn, understand, and acquire language

5.3.3.2. 3 important components of language development

5.3.3.2.1. Function

5.3.3.2.2. Structure

5.3.3.2.3. Infinite generativity

5.3.4. Erikson

5.3.4.1. Eight stages of psychosocial development

5.3.4.1.1. 1. Trust vs. Mistrust

5.3.4.1.2. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

5.3.4.1.3. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt

5.3.4.1.4. 4. Industry vs. Inferiority

5.3.4.1.5. 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion

5.3.4.1.6. 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

5.3.4.1.7. 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

5.3.4.1.8. 8. Integrity vs. Despair

5.3.5. Kohlberg

5.3.5.1. Six Stage Theory of Moral Reasoning

5.3.5.1.1. Level 1: Preconventional

5.3.5.1.2. Level 2: Conventional

5.3.5.1.3. Level 3: Postconventional

5.3.6. Bronfenbrenner

5.3.6.1. Ecological Theory

5.3.6.1.1. framework of environmental systems within which an individual interacts

5.3.6.1.2. influences that environmental contexts have on social development of individuals

5.4. Growth Mindset -Intelligence can be developed

5.4.1. Embrace chalenges

5.4.1.1. you will come out stronger on the other side

5.4.2. Persist in the face of setbacks

5.4.2.1. failure is an opportunity to learn

5.4.3. See effort ads the path to mastery

5.4.3.1. effort is necessary to grow and master useful skills

5.4.4. Learn from criticism

5.4.4.1. criticism and negative feedback are sources of information. Not to be taken personally

5.4.5. Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others

5.4.5.1. success of others is seen as a source of inspiration and information

5.4.6. Greater sense of free will

6. Week 1 - Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

6.1. Reflective Practice

6.1.1. Defining charactersitic of a truly professional teacher. It shows dedication and allows for maximum effectiveness.

6.1.2. Reflective Practitioners

6.1.2.1. • are open-minded and amenable to change

6.1.2.2. • feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning

6.1.2.3. • choose to analyze and reflect on their practice

6.1.2.4. • assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

6.1.2.5. • embrace self-enquiry

6.2. Educational Psychology: understanding of the psychological principles that govern the interactive human behaviours involved in the teaching and learning process.

6.2.1. Purposes

6.2.1.1. Expand the fundamental theoretical research framework of the discipline

6.2.1.2. Improve educational practice for teachers by providing them with sound and relevant research results upon which to base their instruction

6.2.2. Commonplaces of Education (the 4 ingredients for learning)

6.2.2.1. The Teacher

6.2.2.1.1. Someone who teaches

6.2.2.2. The Curriculum

6.2.2.2.1. The topic being taught

6.2.2.3. The Student

6.2.2.3.1. Someone being taught

6.2.2.4. The Classroom

6.2.2.4.1. The setting

6.2.3. 9 Foundational Topics

6.2.3.1. Learning and Cognitive

6.2.3.1.1. How do students think and learn best?

6.2.3.1.2. Potential barriers to efficient learning?

6.2.3.2. Development

6.2.3.2.1. What ages/grades can students be taught particular curricular concepts?

6.2.3.2.2. How do changes in a student's cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and physical development influence the teaching and learning process?

6.2.3.3. Social an Cultural Influences

6.2.3.3.1. How do classrooms affect teaching and student learning?

6.2.3.4. Motivation

6.2.3.4.1. Why do students engage in certain activities?

6.2.3.4.2. How can teachers use student interest to facilitate learning?

6.2.3.5. Behaviour and Classroom Managment

6.2.3.5.1. How can teachers construct a classroom environment that is academically effective, comfortable, and properly managed?

6.2.3.6. Individual Differences

6.2.3.6.1. Why do some students need more instruction then others?

6.2.3.7. Assessment and Evaluation

6.2.3.7.1. How can teachers determine what the students took away from the lesson?

6.2.3.7.2. How is assessment linked to instruction?

6.2.3.8. Teaching and Instruction

6.2.3.8.1. What types of teaching methods are best?

6.2.3.8.2. What are the factors that determine the use of particular instruction methods?

6.2.3.9. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

6.2.3.9.1. How does curriculum design affect teaching and learning?

6.2.3.9.2. What are the preferred methods for teaching particular skills?

6.2.4. Research Methods: Credible research is systematic, objective, and testable.

6.2.4.1. Research Process

6.2.4.1.1. 1. Observation of Phenomena

6.2.4.1.2. 2. Formation of Questions

6.2.4.1.3. 3. Applications of research methods

6.2.4.1.4. 4. Development of Guiding Principles

6.2.4.1.5. 5. Development of Theories

6.2.4.2. Quantitative Research

6.2.4.2.1. Descriptive Research

6.2.4.2.2. Experimental Research

6.2.4.3. Qualitative Research

6.2.4.3.1. Idiographic research

6.2.4.3.2. Ethnographic research

6.3. Teacher Planning

6.3.1. Important Considerations

6.3.1.1. What will be taught

6.3.1.2. The order of what is being taught

6.3.1.3. What teaching methods and materials are required

6.3.1.4. What type of environment am I teaching in

6.3.1.5. How will students be assessed

6.3.2. Curricular Planning

6.3.2.1. Following a top-down approach

6.3.2.1.1. Educational Purpose

6.3.2.1.2. Learning Experiences

6.3.2.1.3. Evaluation

6.3.3. Instructional Planning

6.3.3.1. Constructivism

6.3.3.1.1. actively and meaningfully constructing one's own knowledge and understanding

6.3.3.2. Instructional Approaches

6.3.3.2.1. Teacher-Centered Approach

6.3.3.2.2. Student-Centered Approach

6.3.4. Ten Best Practices

6.3.4.1. 1. Teach for understanding, appreciation, and life application

6.3.4.2. 2. Address multiple goals simultaneously

6.3.4.3. 3. Employ inquiry models

6.3.4.4. 4. Engage students in discourse management

6.3.4.5. 5. Design authentic activities

6.3.4.6. 6. Include debriefing

6.3.4.7. 7. Work with artifacts

6.3.4.8. 8. Foster metacognition and self-regulated learning

6.3.4.9. 9. Be aware of trajectories, misconceptions, and representations

6.3.4.10. 10. Recognize the social aspects of learning

6.4. Learners in the driving seat

6.4.1. The goal is to have students become more "learner-driven" when it comes to their learning

6.4.1.1. Addressing problems within the classroom

6.4.1.2. Inquiry is important

6.4.1.3. Encourage teacher to help students become more independent towards their own learning - teachers will then feel more comfortable giving students more freedom about their own learning

6.4.1.4. Recognize that the entire lesson does not have to be planned for - freedom is a good thing

6.4.1.5. Know that teachers may have reservations since they have been teaching students a certain way for a long time

7. Week 3 - Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

7.1. Cognitive

7.1.1. Theory that explains thinking and differing mental processes and internal/external influences that lead to learning

7.1.1.1. Received, organized, stored and retrieved by the mind

7.1.2. Deeper Learning and developing critical thinking skills

7.1.2.1. Creating Meaning

7.1.2.1.1. Making links beyond the classroom

7.1.2.1.2. Discovery learning

7.1.2.1.3. Sequencing

7.1.2.2. Relate prior knowledge to new concepts

7.1.3. Applications

7.1.3.1. Chunking

7.1.3.2. Graphic organizers

7.1.3.3. Acronymns

7.1.3.4. Hooks

7.1.3.5. Reviewing

7.1.3.6. Real world

7.1.4. Patterns

7.1.5. Innate drive to adjust

7.1.5.1. Equilibrium vs. disequilibrium

7.1.6. Scaffolding and Schemas

7.1.6.1. knowledge building on itself

7.2. Behavioural

7.2.1. Classroom management - positive and negative reinforcement can help control behaviour

7.2.2. based on observable behaviour

7.2.3. students imitate the teacher's behaviour and adjust their behaviour accordingly

7.2.4. Support

7.2.4.1. Student centered

7.2.4.2. rewards

7.2.4.3. skill development

7.2.4.4. encouragement

7.2.4.5. responsive

7.2.4.6. immediate

7.3. Social and Constructive

7.3.1. equates learning with creative meaning from experience

7.3.1.1. Student Centered Learning

7.3.1.1.1. Teacher as a guide

7.3.1.1.2. socratic method

7.3.1.1.3. independent study

7.3.1.2. Hands on experiences

7.3.1.2.1. avoid oversimplification

7.3.1.2.2. real world problems and settings

7.3.1.3. Scaffolding

7.3.1.3.1. zone of proximal development

7.3.1.3.2. collaborative and cooperative efforts

7.3.1.3.3. negotiation instead of competition

7.3.1.4. Social constructivism

7.3.1.4.1. importance of school interaction

7.3.1.4.2. ecological theory

8. Week 4 - First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

8.1. Classroom Management

8.1.1. students learn better and more efficiently in environments that are orderly and psychologically secure

8.1.2. Strategies

8.1.2.1. Proximity

8.1.2.2. Touch

8.1.2.3. Student's Name

8.1.2.4. Gesture

8.1.2.5. The Look

8.1.2.6. The Pause

8.1.2.7. Ignore

8.1.2.8. Signal to Begin/ Signal for Attention

8.1.2.9. Deal with the problem not the student

8.1.3. DCM (Dynamic Classroom Management

8.1.3.1. results in more positive student behaviours, enhanced student psychological security, and better teaching and learning

8.1.3.2. Develop caring, supportive relationships with students

8.1.3.3. Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning.

8.1.3.4. Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks.

8.1.3.5. Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation.

8.1.3.6. Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

8.1.4. Teacher behaviour that diminish student behaviour problems

8.1.4.1. provide positive feedback to students

8.1.4.2. offer sustained feedback to students

8.1.4.3. respond supportively to students in general

8.1.4.4. respond even more supportively to low-ability students

8.1.4.5. ask questions that students are able to answer correctly

8.1.4.6. respond supportively to students with behaviour problems

8.1.4.7. present learning tasks for which students have a high probability of success

8.1.4.8. use time efficiently

8.1.4.9. intervene in misbehaviour at a low rate

8.1.4.10. maintain a low ratio of punitive to positive interventions

8.1.4.11. use criticism at a low rate

8.1.4.12. keep the need for disciplinary interventions low through positive classroom interventions

8.2. Self

8.2.1. Self-Efficacy

8.2.2. Self-Regulation

8.2.2.1. tasks should be complex

8.2.2.1.1. Tasks

8.2.2.2. students make decisions, have choices, take responsibility for planning

8.2.2.2.1. Control

8.2.2.3. students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals

8.2.2.3.1. Self-evaluation

8.2.2.4. students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving

8.2.2.4.1. Collaboration

8.2.3. Resilient Children

8.2.3.1. Good self esteem

8.2.3.2. sense of competence

8.2.3.3. optimistic

8.2.3.4. Personal control

8.2.3.5. Feel connected

8.2.3.6. Motivated to learn

8.2.3.7. Self disciplined

8.3. Well Being in the classroom

8.3.1. Personal Development

8.3.2. Flexibility and Control

8.3.2.1. Teachers should be able to allow students to take control of their learning (release of responsibility)

8.3.2.2. If a planned lesson is not able to be executed, being able to continue teaching is an example of being flexible

8.3.3. Social Interaction

8.3.3.1. Students need to form healthy relationships with one another

8.3.4. Optimal Challenge

8.3.4.1. Students will feel accomplished by completing their work at a higher difficulty level

8.3.5. Positive Classroom Culture

8.3.6. Valued Contribution

8.3.6.1. Give recognition to effort and participation from students

8.3.7. Instructor Support

8.3.8. Access to Resources

8.3.8.1. Having the resources that will aid students to perform their best in the classroom eg. noise cancelling headphones

8.3.9. Real Life Learning

8.3.9.1. Applying real life applications to school work will be more engaging for students because thy can see a purpose for the lesson

9. Week 5 - Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

9.1. Diagnostic Assessment

9.1.1. Determination of a student's current level of knowledge prior to instruction

9.1.2. Starting point for all instruction

9.2. Lesson Plans

9.2.1. Build lesson plans using Backwards Design

9.2.1.1. 1. What do I want my students to learn?

9.2.1.1.1. Specific Learning Objective

9.2.1.2. 2. How will I determine whether or not they have learned?

9.2.1.2.1. Assessment Question

9.2.1.3. 3. What will I teach?

9.2.1.3.1. Topical Unit and Lesson Plans

9.2.1.4. 4. How will I teach?

9.2.1.4.1. Instructional Method

9.2.2. Core Elements of Backwards Design

9.2.2.1. Instructional activities that connect to and build understanding

9.2.2.2. Assessment that deliberately measures student progress toward curricular goals

9.2.2.3. The articulation of why certain assessments are appropriate and for what purpose

9.2.2.4. The development of a variety of ongoing formal and informal assessment tools

9.3. The Common Thread of Learning Objectives

9.3.1. Philosophical objectives found in mission statements

9.3.2. Global objectives found in curriculum guides

9.3.3. Broad learning objectives used in unit plans

9.3.4. Specific learning objectives

9.3.5. Assessment questions

9.3.6. Topical unit and lesson plans

9.3.7. Instructional methods

9.4. Different Taxonomies

9.4.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

9.4.1.1. Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning behaviour

9.4.1.2. Clearly separates different types and goals of thinking

9.4.1.3. Cognitive Objective

9.4.1.3.1. 1. Knowledge

9.4.1.3.2. 2. Comprehension

9.4.1.3.3. 3. Application

9.4.1.3.4. 4. Analysis

9.4.1.3.5. 5. Synthesis

9.4.1.3.6. 6. Evaluation

9.4.2. Stiggin's Taxonomy of Achievement Targets

9.4.2.1. A set of specifications for what students should learn or do

9.4.2.2. Targets

9.4.2.2.1. 1. Knowledge

9.4.2.2.2. 2. Reasoning

9.4.2.2.3. 3. Skills

9.4.2.2.4. 4. Products

9.4.2.2.5. 5. Attitudes and Dispositions

9.5. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

9.5.1. advocates for physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all users and especially those of individuals with disabilities.

9.5.1.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

9.5.1.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

9.5.2. 1. Create a welcoming classroom environment that emphasizes academic and behavioural success.

9.5.3. 2. Determine the essential academic components to be taught/learned and the preferred behavioural outcomes.

9.5.4. 3. Provide students with both clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning progress and social conduct.

9.5.5. 4. Implement a variety of topically suitable instructional methods.

9.5.6. 5. Provide a variety of ways for students to demonstrate what they have learned (assessment).

9.5.7. 6. Make appropriate use of technology to enhance learning.

9.5.8. 7. Encourage and initiate teacher–student and student–student discourses about learning topics/tasks and behavioural expectations.

9.6. Motivation

9.6.1. What motivates students?

9.6.1.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

9.6.1.2. Being able to effectively use learning strategies

9.6.1.3. Having teacher support

9.6.1.4. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

9.6.1.5. Feeling that the teacher cares for them

9.7. How People Learn (HPL)

9.7.1. Knowledge-Centeredness

9.7.1.1. What should be taught, why is it important, and how should this knowledge be organized?

9.7.1.2. Teachers consult their respective national, provincial, and district standards in deciding what to teach and why.

9.7.2. Learner- Centeredness

9.7.2.1. Who learns, how, and why?

9.7.2.2. Teachers need to make moment-by-moment teaching decisions based on their ongoing assessments of their learners’ current levels of understanding.

9.7.3. Community-Centeredness

9.7.3.1. What kinds of classroom, school, and school-community environments enhance learning?

9.7.3.2. Teachers need to create climates of shared learning and respect for learning, sense of community among teachers and other adults in the school, and build on the intellectual resources of the community.

9.7.4. Assessment-Centeredness

9.7.4.1. What kinds of evidence can students, teachers, parents, and others use to see if effective learning is really occurring?

9.7.4.2. Teachers focus on ways that different teaching and learning goals affect the assessment of academic progress.

9.8. Instructional Strategies

9.8.1. Cognitive Strategies

9.8.1.1. purposeful and controllable thinking process that actively promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge

9.8.1.2. Effective thinking

9.8.1.2.1. working memory

9.8.1.2.2. short-term store of relevant information

9.8.1.2.3. long-term memory

9.8.1.2.4. Metacognition

9.8.2. Select-Organize-Integrate (SOI)

9.8.2.1. information-processing model of meaningful learning

9.8.2.2. meaningful learning occurs when students engage in three cognitive processes

9.8.2.2.1. 1. selecting relevant information

9.8.2.2.2. 2. organizing the selected information

9.8.2.2.3. 3. integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

9.8.3. Direct Instruction

9.8.3.1. Clear learning objectives

9.8.3.2. Well-planned lessons

9.8.3.3. Explicit teaching

9.8.3.4. Lots of practice

9.8.4. Student Problem-Solving

9.8.4.1. Instruct students on how to develop thinking strategies and help them execute these strategies

9.8.4.2. Verbal Protocol Analysis

9.8.4.2.1. documenting conscious cognitive processing

9.8.4.2.2. Students explain their thinking

9.8.4.3. Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning

9.8.4.3.1. (a) help teachers design comprehensive curricular tasks (inquiry base)

9.8.4.3.2. (b) complete tasks with peers collaboratively (problem base)

9.8.4.3.3. (c) create specific educational products (project base)

9.8.4.3.4. (d) reflect on their learning experiences

10. Week 6 - Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

10.1. How People Learn Framework

10.1.1. Knowledge-Centered

10.1.2. Learner-Centered

10.1.3. Community Centered

10.1.4. Assessment Centered

10.2. Universal Instructional Design

10.2.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

10.2.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

10.3. Linking Assessment and Instruction

10.3.1. Specific Learning Object

10.3.2. Assessment Question

10.3.3. Topical Unit and Lesson Plans

10.3.4. Instructional Method

10.4. Basics of Curriculum Planning

10.4.1. Expectations

10.4.2. Assessment and Evaluation

10.4.3. Teaching Strategies

10.4.4. Topics, Themes, Resources

10.5. Enduring Understandings

10.5.1. facets of understanding help identify the enduring understandings that students will think deeply about

10.5.1.1. Can explain

10.5.1.2. Can Interpret

10.5.1.3. Can apply

10.5.1.4. Have critical perspective

10.5.1.5. Can empathize

10.5.1.6. Have self-knowledge

10.5.2. Not just material worth covering

10.5.3. Enduring value beyond the classroom

10.5.4. Resides at the heart of the discipline

10.5.5. Required un-coverage of abstract or often misunderstood ideas

10.5.6. Offer potential for engaging students

10.5.7. Not broader(more) deeper ( less)

10.5.8. Allow for strong culture of instructional practice

10.6. Assessment of Student Learning

10.6.1. Purpose of Assessment

10.6.1.1. Measure and indicate student achievement

10.6.1.1.1. Diagnostic Assessment

10.6.1.1.2. Formative Assessment

10.6.1.1.3. Summative Assessment

10.6.2. Assessment Design Process

10.6.2.1. Designing Questions

10.6.2.1.1. must be derived from the same learning objectives used in unit

10.6.2.1.2. conceptually identical to examples used to teach the concept

10.6.2.2. Designing Tests and Exams

10.6.2.2.1. Content Validity

10.6.2.2.2. Content Reliability

10.6.2.2.3. Table of Specifications

10.6.3. Types of Assessment Questions

10.6.3.1. Selected-Response Questions

10.6.3.1.1. True/False questions

10.6.3.1.2. Matching questions

10.6.3.1.3. Multiple-choice questions

10.6.3.2. Constructed-Response Questions

10.6.3.2.1. Short-answer questions

10.6.3.2.2. Restricted-essay questions

10.6.3.2.3. Essay questions

10.6.4. Criterion-Based Assessment

10.6.4.1. assessing work based on marking a rubic

10.6.5. Norm-Based Assessment

10.6.5.1. assessing work by comparing it to the work of others

10.6.6. Assessment Done Well

10.6.6.1. Multiple opportunities to improve

10.6.6.2. Provision of useful and timely feedback

10.6.6.3. No marks until the final attempt

10.6.6.4. Clear targets in student friendly language

10.6.6.5. Students able to self and peer assess

10.6.6.6. Affirmation of capability

10.6.6.7. Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

10.7. 3 Stage Model

10.7.1. 1. Identify desired results

10.7.2. 2. Determine acceptable evidence

10.7.3. 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction

11. Week 7 - Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

11.1. Intelligence

11.1.1. Groups of intellectual behaviours

11.1.1.1. Cognitive Styles

11.1.1.2. Learning Styles

11.1.1.3. Temperament

11.1.2. 8 Categories

11.1.2.1. Fluid intelligence

11.1.2.1.1. Considered most important

11.1.2.2. Crystallized intelligence

11.1.2.2.1. Considered most important

11.1.2.3. General memory and learning

11.1.2.4. Broad visual Perception

11.1.2.4.1. Considered most important

11.1.2.5. Broad auditory perception

11.1.2.6. Broad retrieval capacity

11.1.2.7. Broad cognitive speediness

11.1.2.8. Processing speed

11.1.3. Important Theorists

11.1.3.1. Gardner

11.1.3.1.1. Intelligence as Structures

11.1.3.1.2. Theory of Multiple Intelligences

11.1.3.2. Sternberg

11.1.3.2.1. Intelligence as Processes

11.1.3.2.2. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

11.2. Special Education

11.2.1. Exceptionalities

11.2.1.1. High-Incidence Exceptionalities

11.2.1.1.1. typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities.

11.2.1.2. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities

11.2.1.2.1. typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairment, and multiple disabilities.

11.2.2. Inclusion

11.2.2.1. all students with exceptionalities should be educated within regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible.

11.2.2.1.1. All Canadian provinces and territories use the educational philosophy of inclusion

11.2.3. Individualized Education Plan (IEPs)

11.2.3.1. document outlining a student’s individualized educational goals, services that student will receive, methods and strategies used to deliver services and the placement in which all of these will be provided

11.2.3.2. Who uses IEPs?

11.2.3.2.1. Students with ADHD

11.2.3.2.2. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

11.2.3.2.3. Students who are Gifted and Talented

11.2.3.2.4. Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

11.2.3.2.5. Students with Specific Learning Disorders

11.3. Learning For All

11.3.1. Three Effective Approaches

11.3.1.1. Differentiated Instruction

11.3.1.2. The Tiered Approach

11.3.1.3. Universal Design for Learning

12. Week 8 - Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

12.1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

12.1.1. Critical consciousness is crucial

12.1.2. Teachers need to have a culturally responsive practice

12.1.3. Aboriginal Education

12.1.3.1. Risk factors

12.1.3.1.1. Early school failures

12.1.3.1.2. Moving from school to school

12.1.3.1.3. Lack of parent support

12.1.3.1.4. Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies

12.1.3.1.5. Living in remote communities

12.1.3.1.6. Lack of resources

12.1.3.1.7. Special needs

12.1.3.2. Protective Factors

12.1.3.2.1. Early intervention

12.1.3.2.2. Resiliency

12.1.3.2.3. Positive self-image

12.1.3.2.4. Family engagement

12.1.3.2.5. Aboriginal role models

12.1.3.2.6. Community involvement

12.1.3.2.7. Relevant programming

12.2. Stereotype Threat

12.2.1. the fear that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group.

12.2.1.1. Can lead to prejudice

12.2.1.2. Can lead to discrimination

12.2.1.3. Harmful to individuals who have strong ties to their ethnic, religious or cultural group

12.2.1.4. Result in an impairment of performance

12.2.1.4.1. emotional burden that can reduce working memory and undermines actual ability

12.3. Socio-Economic Status (SES) -indicates an individual’s social class based on education, occupation, and income.

12.3.1. large impact on how well children do in school

12.3.2. 5 levels

12.3.2.1. lowest

12.3.2.2. lower-middle

12.3.2.3. middle

12.3.2.4. upper-middle

12.3.2.5. highest

12.3.3. Children's SES is determined by their parents' occupation and income level

12.3.4. teachers must be aware of the differences and do what they can to moderate them

12.3.5. Children's development is at risk

12.3.6. scarcity of resources

12.4. Different Parenting Styles

12.4.1. Authoritarian

12.4.1.1. attempts to shape, control, and measure children’s behaviours against fairly rigid standards; conveys a strong emphasis on respect for authority, obedience, and traditional values; and mostly discourages open discussion of such topics and children’s objections.

12.4.2. Permissive

12.4.2.1. openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all children’s actions, rarely making behavioural demands or invoking restrictions, and does not purposefully distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable actions.

12.4.3. Authoritative

12.4.3.1. involves a constant series of balancing acts: between expectation demands and encouragement to achieve, between establishing rules and meting out discipline, between fostering student independence and providing parental influence, and between open communication and direct advice.

12.5. Increasing Diversity in Schools

12.5.1. Languages spoken

12.5.2. Aboriginal Students

12.5.3. One-Parent families

12.5.4. Religions

12.6. Student dilemmas

12.6.1. Individualism

12.6.1.1. Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

12.6.2. Collectivism

12.6.2.1. Act within a shared identity and common purpose

12.7. Differences within Identified Groups

12.7.1. Critical Consciousness

12.7.1.1. Political values and beliefs

12.7.1.2. An ideological clarity

12.7.1.3. A socio-cultural consciousness

12.7.2. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

12.7.2.1. has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes

12.7.2.2. What teachers need to know

12.7.2.2.1. Their own cultural assumptions

12.7.2.2.2. How to inquire about students’ backgrounds 

12.7.2.2.3. How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners 

12.7.2.2.4. How to establish links across cultures

12.8. Multicultural Education

12.8.1. Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect

12.8.2. Different Views

12.8.2.1. Diversity valued

12.8.2.1.1. No culture considered dominant

12.8.2.2. Dominant culture stressed

12.8.2.2.1. Surviving in real world

12.8.2.3. Diversity and dominant culture

12.8.2.3.1. Valued striking a balance

12.8.3. Dimensions

12.8.3.1. Content integration

12.8.3.2. Equity pedagogy

12.8.3.3. Empowering school culture and social structure

12.8.3.4. Prejudice reduction

12.8.3.5. Knowledge construction process

13. Week 9 - End of School Year: Standardized Achievement Tests

13.1. Purpose

13.1.1. To assess effectiveness of instruction

13.2. Testing in Canada

13.2.1. Federal

13.2.1.1. Achievement Levels of 13 yr olds (math, reading, and science)

13.2.2. Provincial/Territorial

13.2.2.1. Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade level

13.2.2.2. Grade 12 exit exams

13.3. Standardized Tests

13.3.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

13.3.2. Administered in the same fashion

13.3.3. Scored in systematic and uniform manner

13.3.4. Different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

13.3.5. Types

13.3.5.1. Criterion-Referenced

13.3.5.1.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to establish criteria

13.3.5.2. Norm-Referenced

13.3.5.2.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to other students

13.3.6. Aptitude Test

13.3.6.1. tests a student's specific cognitive, social, and behavioural skills

13.3.7. Achievement Test

13.3.8. Criticism

13.3.8.1. Biased tests

13.3.8.2. Stressful for students and teachers

13.3.8.3. Results in teaching to the test

13.3.8.4. Takes up too much time

13.3.8.5. Does not enhance student learning

13.3.8.6. Content of test does not reflect instruction

13.3.9. Improving Standardized Tests

13.3.9.1. Should improve the way the curriculum is designed

13.3.9.2. Should not be a stressful task and minimally intrusive

13.3.9.3. Tests should improve students' learning

13.3.9.4. Be based on the same curriculum framework that students have been accustom to

13.3.9.5. Use common standards for judging quality of work

13.3.9.6. All tests are imperfect

13.3.10. Preparing Students

13.3.10.1. Convey a positive attitude

13.3.10.2. Teach test-taking skills

13.3.10.3. Simulate use of time limits during testing

13.3.10.4. Familiarize students with the type of questions used

13.3.10.5. Involve students in marking questions of each type

13.3.11. The Big Debate

13.3.11.1. Pros

13.3.11.1.1. Both the weakness of the test and the strength of the test can be examined

13.3.11.1.2. Schools and school boards can be compared to see how students are doing in comparison to one another - can help determine what each school may need to improve on

13.3.11.1.3. Can help find out if certain school are or are not meeting the standards set through the curriculum

13.3.11.2. Cons

13.3.11.2.1. Environmental Factors

13.3.11.2.2. Personal Factors

13.3.11.2.3. Standardized tests use a minimum number of questions

13.3.11.2.4. Standardized tests have to make a one-size-fits-all test that will not fit all

14. I plan to implement all 4 commonplaces to create an engaging environment

15. System approach to intelligence

16. Processing approach to intelligence

17. Represents 80% of all students with special needs

18. Learning mode preferences

19. Natural way of reacting to environment

20. Ability to learn and adapt