Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Week 1: Chapter One: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practice

1.1.1. Striving for professionalism

1.1.2. Exhibiting open-mindedness

1.1.3. Using research to guide decision-making

1.2. Educational Philosophy

1.2.1. Learning and Cognition

1.2.2. Development

1.2.3. Social and Cultural Influences

1.2.4. Motivation

1.2.5. Behaviour and Classroom Management

1.2.6. Individual Differences

1.2.7. Assessment and Evaluation

1.2.8. Teaching and Instruction

1.2.9. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

1.3. Four Commonplaces of Education

1.3.1. Teacher

1.3.2. Topic

1.3.3. Setting

1.3.4. Student

1.4. Research Process

1.4.1. Step 1: Observation of phenomena Step 2: Formation of Questions Step 3: Application of Research Methods Step 4: Development of Guiding Principles Step 5: Development of Theories

1.5. 10 Best Practices

1.5.1. Ten Best Practices 1) Teach for understanding, appreciation and life application 2) Address multiple goals simultaneously 3) Employ Inquiry models 4) Engage students in discourse management 5) Design authentic activities 6) Include debriefing 7) Work with artifacts 8) Foster metacognition and self-regulated learning 9) Be aware of trajectories, misconceptions and representations 10) Recognise the social aspects of learning

1.6. What is school for?

1.6.1. STOP STEALING DREAMS: Seth Godin at TEDxYouth@BFS

1.6.2. As teachers, we should strive to produce students who are eager lifelong learners, not rote memorizers.

1.7. Learner-driven learning

1.7.1. To create a learner-driven environment, we must: 1) Name the problem 2) Identify the way ahead 3) Recognize the tensions for teachers 4) Review our planning 5) Recognize the reservations

2. Week 6: Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

2.1. Learning Objectives

2.1.1. What do I want my students to learn??

2.1.2. Specific Desired End Results Basic form → "I can" statements based on lessons and instruction Cognitive verb → Action verbs describing competencies Topical Description → Precise descriptions of knowledge and capacity

2.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

2.2.1. Knowledge 
→ Remembering or recognizing something factual

2.2.2. Comprehension → Interpreting/understanding information

2.2.3. Application → Being able to use information to solve a problem

2.2.4. Analysis 
→ Breaking concepts into parts; indicating relationships

2.2.5. Synthesis→ Bringing ideas together; generating/creating new ideas from other related ideas

2.2.6. Evaluation→ 
Judging the respective worth/value of something

2.3. Stiggins' Achievement Targets

2.3.1. A complement to Bloom's Taxonomy Knowledge → Declarative knowledge: facts, terms, concepts, and generalizations Reasoning → Procedural knowledge: procedures or problem-solving methods Skills → Process of answering questions through analytical problem-solving Products 
→ Abilities required to put procedural knowledge to use in a fluent fashion and in the appropriate context Attitudes and Dispositions → Student creations that reflect current skill and ability levels

2.4. Backwards Lesson Design

2.4.1. Planning lessons based on achieving specific goals How will I determine whether or not they have learned? What will I teach? How will I teach it?

2.5. Learning Styles

2.5.1. Learner-centred "Diagnostic Teaching Approach" What are students’ backgrounds, cultures, abilities, interests? What prior knowledge do my students have? What misconceptions do my students have?

2.5.2. Knowledge-centred The teacher's goal is... To help “build a bridge” between prior knowledge and new material To foster understanding and skill building To encourage experimentation and discovery To question and organize prior knowledge and apply concepts to new situations

2.6. TEDxPhilly - Chris Lehmann - Education is broken

2.6.1. Assessment-centred Focus on the concepts behind knowledge instead of memorization Student organization of knowledge Metacognition and self-assessment skills Project-based demonstrations of knowledge (practical application)

2.6.2. Community-centred “Safe space” learning environments where everyone is respected and accpted Students set their own goals and practice auto-evaluation

3. Week 7: Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

3.1. What is intelligence?

3.1.1. The ability to learn from experience and to adapt to one’s environment & knowing about and controlling one’s own thinking

3.1.2. Fluid intelligence: the ability to understand abstract and new concepts (general reasoning)

3.1.3. Crystallized intelligence: the ability to apply culturally and environmentally influenced problem solving skills

3.1.4. Visual-spatial reasoning: the ability to use and manipulate visual images and visual relationships

3.2. Multiple Intelligences (MI)

3.2.1. 8 or more separate intelligence structures (linguistic, logical–mathematical, spatial, bodily–kinesthetics; musical; interpersonal; intrapersonal; naturalistic)

3.2.2. Students think and learn differently so different ways of teaching are needed

3.2.3. Other types of intelligence Analytical/Componential Intelligence Creative/Experiential Intelligence Practical/Contextual Intelligence

3.3. Special Education

3.3.1. Specialized instruction based on proper assessment of students abilities

3.3.2. High-incidence exceptionalities: mild disabilities (include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, intellectual disabilities)

3.3.3. Low-incidence exceptionalities: moderate-severe disabilities (autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairment, and multiple disabilities)

3.3.4. Individualized Education Program (IEP) Program that outlines a student’s individualized education goals, the services that a student with exceptionalities will receive, and the methods and strategies that will be used to deliver these services to ensure that goals are met Key Questions

3.3.5. Do schools kill creativity? | Sir Ken Robinson Unpredictability of the future is hard to educate for Creativity is as important as literacy (and we should treat it that way) Children are not afraid of taking chances or being wrong, but the flawed school system makes them afraid of failure Creativity comes from the interaction of new and different things

3.4. Exceptionalities (as described in Ontario)

3.4.1. Behaviour

3.4.2. Communication (autism, deaf or hard of hearing, language impairment, speech impairment, learning disability)

3.4.3. Intellectual (giftedness, mild intellectual disability, developmental disability )

3.4.4. Physical disability (blindness, low vision)

3.4.5. Multiple (combination of any of the above)

4. Week 9: End of School Year

4.1. What is Standardized Testing?

4.1.1. Administered to large groups of individuals

4.1.2. Includes the same questions for all test-takers

4.1.3. Is administered to all individuals in the same fashion, under the same conditions and within a specified time

4.1.4. It is always scored in a systematic and uniform manner

4.1.5. Standardized achievement tests are based on the learning objectives that should be common in all classrooms

4.1.6. Standardized tests are used in Canada by provincial government = wide-scale assessments to help determine the effectiveness of education systems

4.2. Four Phases of a Test's Life Cycle

4.2.1. Creation of Test Items

4.2.2. Field Testing

4.2.3. Administration

4.2.4. Scoring

4.3. Pros and Cons of Standardized Testing

4.3.1. Pros The opportunity for comparison of education outcomes across schools, provinces, or countries Results of standardized tests provides an opportunity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the system Offering a means to assess accountability Provincial assessments provide a way to evaluate curricula and determine which school/districts/regions and meeting goals

4.3.2. The debate over Standardized Testing is still alive and well today (worldwide)

4.3.3. Cons Tendency to "teach the test" which results in narrowing the curriculum Tests do not allow for linguistic or other cultural differences among students there is the potential for subgroups of students to become lost within the overall numbers Standardized testing leads to student disengagement The tests do not adequately assess 21st century skills such as creativity, technological ability, problem solving or critical thinking skills

4.4. How EQAO tests are created, administered and scored

4.4.1. EQAO develop its test questions (items), scores student response, analyzes the scores, and reports the results

4.4.2. EQAO is keeping with the standards of "Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for education in Canada" and the "Standards for Education and Psychological Testing"

4.4.3. Staff is made up of Ontario qualified teachers and principals

4.4.4. Once the questions are made, the committees try them out with their own students

4.4.5. Pilot test items are then improved based on feedback

4.4.6. The assessment development committee then review items to make sure they are age and grade appropriate and are well connected to the curriculum

4.4.7. Then the sensitivity committee review the new items so they are fair, and can be understood by all students

5. Week 8: Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

5.1. Diversity in Ontario

5.1.1. Language

5.1.2. Culture

5.1.3. Ethnicity

5.1.4. Family

5.1.5. Sexual Identity

5.1.6. Sexual Orientation

5.1.7. Visible Minorities

5.1.8. Religion

5.2. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

5.2.1. Individualism : acting within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

5.2.2. Collectivism : being a part of the world and acting within a shared identity and common purpose

5.2.3. Intelligence is less socially constructed while learning and teaching is highly socially constructed

5.2.4. If teachers are to effectively plan, conduct, monitor, reflect upon, and adapt their teaching to suit ever-changing classroom conditions, they must do so from an instructional position of reasonable consistency

5.3. Culture vs. Individual

5.3.1. Stereotyping and generalizing is more damaging than accurate

5.3.2. On the one hand, it is unrealistic to expect every teacher to become an expert in every represented culture However it is important for both teachers and students to be exposed to and educated about social and cultural diversity

5.3.3. “Culture” is not a definite set of norms, but a very personal concept

5.3.4. Teachers should know a student's family and community and understand how particular influences from these contexts may, or may not, need to be considered

5.4. Socio-Economic Status (SES)

5.4.1. Describes people based on education, occupation, and income

5.4.2. 5 Levels of SES Lowest Lower-middle Middle Upper-middle Upper

5.4.3. SES is a good predictor of academic achievement; the higher your SES, the higher your likelihood of academic success

5.4.4. Poverty is extremely (and consistently) detrimental to academic success

5.5. Parenting Styles

5.5.1. Authorotarian The parents attempt to shape, control, and measure children's behaviours against fairly rigid standards; they convey a strong emphasis on respect for authority, obedience, and traditional values and mostly discourage open discussion of such topics and children's objections.

5.5.2. Permissive The parents are openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all children's actions, rarely making behavioural demands or invoking restrictions, and does not purposefully distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable actions

5.5.3. Authoritative The parents perform a balancing act between expectation demands and encouragement to achieve, between establishing rules and providing discipline

5.6. Multicultural Education

5.6.1. There are differing views on how to deal with this. Some researchers stipulate that diversity is of utmost importance and that no culture or race should be described as superior or inferior; others claim that it is important to assimilate to the dominant culture in order to be a fully-functioning member of that society

5.6.2. How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim We see the world through a very culturally-biased lens, whether we realize it or not It is important to "change our cultural glasses" (i.e. to see the world in new ways

5.6.3. Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv Key Elements Print-rich environments Colour Learning centres “Arranged optimality” Multiple libraries Technology (utilized and prominently displayed) Student work displayed Rules and expectations displayed Classroom Strategies Call & Response Action Thermometre Raise your righteous hand Think, pair, share Pick-a-stick Bottoms up, heads together Music around the room

6. Following these practices creates and engaging and productive environment for self-motivated students

7. The most effective parenting style is Authoritative - a balance is required.

8. By Colin Grimm

9. Week 3: Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

9.1. Cognitive

9.1.1. Executive cognitive functioning: individuals organize, co-ordinate, and react on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes This means that the brain uses different mechanisms based on the environment and situation it is presented

9.1.2. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years) 2. Preoperational (2-6/7 years) 3. Concrete Operations (6/7-11/12 years) 4. Formal Operations (11/12 years - adulthood )

9.1.3. Use a Learning Theory: Cognitivism

9.2. Behavioural

9.2.1. Student-regulated learning: individuals are autonomous and take responsibility for their own leaning

9.2.2. Student-centred learning 1. Specific learning outcomes allow students to see where and how new and specific information is related to larger frames of knowledge 2. Students construct their own meaning and knowledge teacher’s guidance 3. Students engage in problem-based learning and project-based learning

9.2.3. Zone of proximal development

9.2.4. Yerkes-Dodson Law While learning performance increases with task challenge, tasks that are either too easy or too challenging actually decrease learning

9.2.5. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory 1. Microsystem: Includes influences from an individual’s family, peers, school, etc. and the way an individual exert influence over individual and setting 2. Mesosystem: Links influences between microsystems 3. Exosystem: Includes influences from distant social settings within which the individual does not have an active role 4. Macrosystem: Involves cultural influences including respective values and beliefs 5. Chronosystem: Involves influences from environmental patterns and transitions that arise from socio-historical circumstances

9.2.6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYDYzR-ZWRQ&t=5s

9.3. Social Cultural/Constructivist

9.3.1. According to Deci, students will be more engaged if: They feel they belong and sense that teachers believe in them and will treat them with respect They feel autonomous and possess a sense of self-determination, and feel they are expected and 
permitted to have ownership, responsibility, and accountability for their actions They feel competent, successful, and accomplished

9.3.2. Teacher behaviour has an effect on student behaviour. Teachers can mitigate poor student behaviour in many ways, like : - providing positive feedback to students 

- responding supportively to students with behaviour problems 
 - asking questions that students are able to answer correctly - presenting learning tasks for which students have a high probability of success - maintaining a low ratio of punitive to positive interventions

9.3.3. Use a Learning Theory: Constructivism

10. Week 4: First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

10.1. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)

10.1.1. An approach to teaching where academic success is not the SOLE priority, but where teachers also acknowledge the emotional well-being, sense of safety, self-discipline, and self-motivation of students.

10.1.2. Principles, understandings, and implications 5 Principles for Effective Classroom Management 1. Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students 2. Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning 3. Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks 4. Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation 5. Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems 3 Understandings and Implications Positive Behaviour Support Classroom Discourse Research Cognitive Strategies

10.1.3. Fundamental Student Needs What are they? 1. To belong and feel connected, and to have a sense that teachers believe in and respect them 2. To feel autonomous and possess a sense of self-determination (i.e. responsibility, accountability for their actions and learning) 3. To feel competent, successful and accomplished How can we nurture them? Provide an orientation period at the beginning of the school year to plant the seeds for a positive student mindset of behavioural responsibility and an overall attitude that will promote a successful classroom climate Develop realistic expectations and goals for behaviour and learning, and make accommodations when necessary Reinforce responsibility by providing opportunities to contribute to the welfare of others Provide opportunities to make choices and decisions and solve problems, thus reinforcing a sense of ownership Establish self-discipline by learning to discipline effectively Assist students to deal more effectively with mistakes and failures

10.1.4. Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed With the changing times, teachers must adapt. How? Teaching students to learn, not just to test Fostering intrinsic motivation Teaching skills and not simply information

11. Week 5: Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

11.1. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

11.1.1. UID promotes differentiated learning and provides an engaging classroom setting Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan Using technology to create new and engaging learning experiences Allowing students to create their own assignments based on curriculum Challenging the European lecture-style classroom setting by moving around the classroom

11.1.2. Principles Creating a welcoming classroom environment that emphasizes academic and behavioural success Determining the essential academic components to be taught learned and the preferred behavioural outcomes Providing students with clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning progress and social conduct Implementing a variety of topically suitable instructional methods Providing a variety of ways for students to demonstrate what they have learned Making appropriate use of technology to enhance learning Encouraging and initiating teacher-student and student-student discourse about learning topics and behavioural expectations

11.1.3. Cognitive Strategies Selecting relevant information Organizing the selected information Integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

11.2. Direct Instruction (DI)

11.2.1. Systematic instruction that emphasizes mastery of smaller (chunked) concepts rather than an informational overload

11.2.2. Well-developed and carefully planned lessons with clear learning objectives

11.2.3. Teaching via explanation and guiding students through complex topics

11.2.4. Requires students to complete problems or exercises related to the material (i.e. practical application)

12. Week 2: Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

12.1. Developmental Influences

12.1.1. Development is an ongoing evolutionary experience, and is not limited to a certain age-group Principles of Development 1. Development follows an orderly and logical progression 2. Development is a gradually progressive progress, but does not occur at a constant rate 3. Development involves qualitative and quantitative changes 4. Individuals develop at different rates 5. Development results from a combination of nature (genetics) and nurture (environment)

12.1.2. As all students develop differently, so too do all students learn differently This is an important concept for teachers to understand, as failing to do so will lead to undifferentiated and ill-tailored education Grade-level structures are based on typical student development

12.1.3. To understand the developmental process, we, as teachers, should strive to learn from our students to get an understanding of their progress What adults can learn from kids