Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Week 6: Knowing that the students know

1.1. Understanding by Design

1.1.1. We teach and assess for understanding and transfer instead of content regurgitation

1.1.2. What is worth understanding?

1.1.3. How do we properly assess for understanding and how do we teach that way?

1.2. How People Learn

1.2.1. Learner Centered Children construct new knowledge by building upon their own prior knowledge and experiences

1.2.2. Knowledge Centered Teachers help each student “Build a Bridge” from prior knowledge to the new topics they are learning

1.2.3. Assessment Centered Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts

1.2.4. Community Centered Respectful learning environments where individual ideas are welcomed

1.3. Assessment

1.3.1. Done Poorly No formative process Targets unclear No student involvement in the process No discussion of results One-shot deal No exceptions or flexibility Humiliation

1.3.2. Done Well Multiple opportunities to improve Provision of useful and timely feedback No marks until the final attempt Clear targets in student friendly language Students able to self and peer assess Affirmation of capability Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

1.4. Big Ideas

1.4.1. 1: Assessment serves different purposes at different times It may be used to find out what students already know and can do It may be used to help students improve their learning Or may be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

1.4.2. 2: Assessment must be planned and purposeful Backward Design Three Stages

2. Week 7: Individual differences

2.1. Do Schools Kill Creativity?

2.1.1. Educated OUT of creativity

2.1.2. Purpose of education is to take us to a future that we can’t grasp

2.2. What is Special Education?

2.2.1. Accommodating the special learning and needs of students with exceptionalities

2.2.2. Specialized instruction based on the assessment of student’s abilities

2.3. Intelligence

2.3.1. What is intelligence? Ability to learn from experience Ability to adapt to one’s environment Definition: The ability (or abilities) to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world

2.3.2. How is intelligence measured? Aptitude Tests – Predict ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education Achievement Tests – measure what the student has learned or the skills they have mastered

2.4. Exceptionalities

2.4.1. High-Incidence: Mild disabilities – typically include learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities

2.4.2. Low-Incidence: Moderate and severe disabilities – typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

2.5. Access to Curriculum – students need both physical and cognitive access in order to succeed in the general curriculum

2.5.1. Physical access Includes sensory and motor access. Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials

2.5.2. Cognitive access The ability to understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in various media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively Students with learning disabilities may encounter cognitive barriers when using traditional materials or digital materials if they are not designed in a flexible manner

2.6. Inclusion

2.6.1. Acceptance of differences

2.6.2. Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions

2.6.3. Material being taught is made accessible to all students

2.6.4. UNESCO sees inclusive education as a process of addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education

2.6.5. Children are different, all children can learn Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender

2.6.6. Change the system to fit the child

2.6.7. Components of inclusion Teachers who treat each student as a uniquely important individual and who are knowledgeable about research based practices that assist students with diverse learning needs to learn Program philosophy which emphasizes the value of diversity, multiculturalism, social justice, and belonging for everyone

3. Week 8: Socio-cultural considerations

3.1. How Culture Drives Behaviors

3.1.1. “When you conform to a society, then you can benefit from diversity”

3.1.2. Norms are different in different cultures, and emotional feedback changes .

3.1.3. The lens in which we see the world differs on our experience. Understanding is key to embracing and accepting diversity

3.2. The Danger of a Single Story

3.2.1. Be wary of tokenizing minorities

3.2.2. If you are experiencing a culture from a single lens, you are doing that culture a disservice

3.2.3. Important for all people to be represented in pop culture! So that kids can visualize their potential in others

3.3. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

3.3.1. Is knowledge constructed because of socio-cultural influences?

3.3.2. Critical consciousness is crucial

3.3.3. Teachers need to have a culturally responsive practice

3.4. Stereotype Threat

3.4.1. Fear that one’s behavior will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group

3.4.2. Those with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable

3.4.3. Can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

3.5. Socio-Economic Status

3.5.1. Compared to all other social or cultural attributes, an individual’s socio-economic status has the greatest impact on scholastic schievement

3.5.2. Children from Low SES Homes Development is at risk Economic hardships Scarcity of resources More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

3.6. Multicultural Education

3.6.1. Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect

3.6.2. Views Diversity valued – no culture considered dominant Dominant culture stressed – surviving in the real world Diversity and dominant culture – valued striking a balance

3.6.3. Dimensions Content integration Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture and social structure Prejudice reduction Knowledge construction process

3.7. Aboriginal Education

3.7.1. Risk Factors Early school failures Moving from school to school Lack of parent support Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies Living in remote communities Lack of resources Special needs

3.7.2. Protective factors Early intervention Resiliency Positive self-image Family engagement Community involvement Relevant programming Aboriginal role models

4. Week 9: End of school year

4.1. Standardized Tests

4.1.1. Criteria Contain the same questions for all test-takers Are administered to all test-takers in the dame fashion Are scored in systematic and uniform manner Are different from teacher0made tests and aptitude tests

4.1.2. Test Types Criterion-referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to establish criteria Norm-Referenced Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

4.1.3. Should… Enhance teaching and learning Improve curricular design Be minimally intrusive

4.1.4. Performance-level scores Classifications of student performance that describe and clarify standardized assessment results

4.1.5. Preparing students Convey positive attitudes about testing Teach test-taking skills Simulate use of time limits during testing Familiarize students with types of questions used Involve students in marking questions of each type

4.1.6. In Canada Federal – Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science) Provincial/Territorial – Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and grade 12 exit exams

4.1.7. Purpose – to assess effectiveness of instruction

5. Commitment to Students and to Student Learning

6. Professional Knowledge

7. Leadership and Community

8. The 5 bubbles in the middle relate to the learning objectives of the course and I have connected the content to match where the information I have learned connects to the different areas of my professional practice as a teacher

9. Week 1: Planning for the upcoming school year

9.1. Stop Stealing Dreams

9.1.1. School’s purpose to produce obedient consumers

9.1.2. Greater value should be placed on a student’s experience rather then the outcome itself

9.2. Learners in the Drivers Seat

9.2.1. Promoting learner-driven learning

9.2.2. “Rather then talk about students in terms of deficits, can we think about their experience to date and whether we have helped them master it yet?”

9.2.3. Teaching students to connect vs. collect the dots

9.3. Educational Psychology in our Classrooms

9.3.1. Educational Psychology uses knowledge and methods of psychology and related disciplines to study teaching and learning

9.3.2. The goral of Educational Psychology is to improve the teaching and learning process

9.4. Reflective practitioners

9.4.1. Are open minded and amiable to change

9.4.2. Embrace self-enquiry

9.4.3. Feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning

9.4.4. Choose to analyze and reflect on their practice

9.4.5. Assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

9.5. What needs planning?

9.5.1. What will be taught

9.5.2. When it will be taught

9.5.3. How and when learning will be assessed

9.5.4. What teaching methods and materials will be used

9.5.5. How to establish the type of learning environment needed

9.5.6. Results of effective planning Excellent instruction Enhanced student learning Exemplary environments

9.6. Instructional Approaches

9.6.1. Teacher-centered approach – Teacher determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone

9.6.2. Student-centered approach – Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

10. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

10.1. Adora Svitak – Childish Thinking

10.1.1. Childish thinking Bold Ideas Wild Creativity Optimism

10.1.2. I think it is important to ensure that I learn from my students as much as they learn from me. Kids think of great things, without the “insiders knowledge”.

10.1.3. “If you don’t trust you put limitations or restrictions”

10.1.4. “To show that you really care, we listen”

10.2. The Power of Yet

10.2.1. Growth Mindset Leads to a desire to learn and therefore a tendency to… Embrace Challenges Persist in the face of setbacks See effort as the path to mastery Learn from criticism Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others

10.2.2. We are currently trying to educate students to help empower them to be critical thinkers and problem solvers. We don’t know what their reality will look like in our every changing world

10.2.3. I like the concept of the power of yet and using the powers of praise for process rather then end result

10.3. Instructional Approaches

10.3.1. Instruction that both responds to the various needs of a diverse group and precisely tailored to individual needs is needed for student achievement for all students

10.3.2. Three instructional approaches form the basis Universal Design for Learning Differentiated Instruction Response to Intervention

10.4. Development

10.4.1. What is development? Physical, cognitive, and social changes Learning becomes more organized Behaviors become more adaptive

10.4.2. Principles of Development Orderly progression/gradual process Periods of rapid and slow growth Quantitative and qualitative changes Individuals develop at different rates Genetics set developmental potential Environment determines potential realized

10.5. When a student is having difficulty…

10.5.1. Has the student acquired the prerequisite skills?

10.5.2. Does the student typically learn slower than others?

10.5.3. Has the student had enough practice?

10.5.4. Was the material presented in meaningful ways?

11. Week 3: Views of learning

11.1. Cognitive – Focuses on the internal processing of how information is received, organizes, stores and retrieved

11.1.1. Teaching Strategies Mnemonic devices Visual Aids Graphic organizer Scaffolding Self-regulation

11.1.2. Disequilibrium is necessary for learning Balance is the goal Delete irrelevant information in the process

11.1.3. Brain is Like a Computer (Info- processer) Short term and working memory Computer build to mimic brain Built to understand cognitive processes Environmental factors affect how the brain stores information Rejecting Road Learning Focuses on the process Deeper learning Build off the students Assimilation and Accommodation Brain’s innate ability to organize and adjust/adapt

11.2. Behavioral – Idea the behavior can be controlled or modified based on consequences or rewards

11.2.1. Positive Reinforcement Classroom Environment Respect your peers Classroom connections Expectations and norms Acknowledge Good Behavior Good rewards and praise Individual and specific praise Teacher Models Behavior Behavior Management Assessment of Lagging Skills and Unsolved Problems Problem Solving Every Student has Potential Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences

11.3. Social-Cultural/Constructivist - A learning theory that equates learning with creating meaning from experience

11.3.1. Scaffolding Adjusting support Zone of proximal development Partial independence Challenging yet attainable tasks Building on previous knowledge

11.3.2. Interactive Teaching Strategies Differentiated instruction Teacher is facilitator Engaging and motivating Project based Collaboration Higher – order thinking skills Debates, role-play, real world applications, group projects

11.3.3. Facilitating Self Regulation Stress-performance relationship Increases learning efficiency Aware of own thinking habits Self-reflection

11.3.4. Student Centered Students are active learners Increases student engagement Students construct meaning Blended learning environment

11.3.5. Previous experience Teacher created safe learning environment Learning is more meaningful when created from experience Reflect on past experiences to create understanding Importance of cultural and social context

12. Week 4: Establishing a positive learning environment

12.1. Myth of Average

12.1.1. When we design for the average, we design for no one! Destroys talent

12.1.2. The average hurts everyone

12.1.3. Ban the average and design to the edges Students vary on many dimensions – jagged learning profile

12.1.4. We design our learning environments like textbooks – for the average student

12.2. Most Likely to Succeed

12.2.1. How do we best prepare our kids for the innovation era?

12.2.2. We no longer have a knowledge era No competitive advantage in knowing more than the person beside you What are the skills, dispositions and habits of heart and mind the world demands? Skills matter more and motivation matters most

12.3. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed and structured classroom

12.4. How does the teacher affect student achievement?

12.4.1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning

12.4.2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ

12.4.3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

12.5. Exemplary Learning Environments

12.5.1. Academic success is dependent on the learning environment

12.5.2. Creating Exemplary Learning environments requires good planning and good classroom management

12.5.3. Goal of classroom management is to provide all students with optimum opportunities or learning

12.5.4. Exemplary learning environments especially important for students with exceptionalities

13. Week 5: Making instructional decisions

13.1. Universal Design for Learning

13.1.1. Provide multiple means of representation Perception, languages, expressions, symbols, comprehension

13.1.2. Provide multiple means of action and expression Physical action, expression, communication, executive function

13.1.3. Provide multiple means of engagement Recruiting interest, sustaining effort, persistence, self-regulation

13.2. What motivates students to learn?

13.2.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

13.2.2. Bring able to effectively use learning strategies

13.2.3. Having teacher support

13.2.4. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

13.2.5. Feeling that the teacher cares for them

13.3. Bloom’s Taxonomy – Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

13.3.1. Knowledge

13.3.2. Comprehension

13.3.3. Application

13.3.4. Analysis

13.3.5. Synthesis

13.3.6. Evaluation

13.4. Teaching for Critical Thinking

13.4.1. Ask not only what happened, but how and why

13.4.2. Examine facts to determine if there is enough evidence to support them

13.4.3. Argue in a reasoned way rather than through emotions

13.4.4. Recognize that there may be more than on right answer of explanation

13.4.5. Compare various answers and then judge which is the best

13.4.6. Evaluate and possibly question what others say

13.4.7. Ask questions and speculate beyond what we already know

14. Teaching Practice

15. Ongoing Professional Learning