Teaching, Learning and Development

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Teaching, Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development

1. Week 1: Planning for the upcoming school year

1.1. Stop Stealing Dreams

1.1.1. School’s purpose to produce obedient consumers

1.1.2. Greater value should be placed on a student’s experience rather then the outcome itself

1.2. Learners in the Drivers Seat

1.2.1. Promoting learner-driven learning

1.2.2. “Rather then talk about students in terms of deficits, can we think about their experience to date and whether we have helped them master it yet?”

1.2.3. Teaching students to connect vs. collect the dots

1.3. Educational Psychology in our Classrooms

1.3.1. Educational Psychology uses knowledge and methods of psychology and related disciplines to study teaching and learning

1.3.2. The goral of Educational Psychology is to improve the teaching and learning process

1.4. Reflective practitioners

1.4.1. Are open minded and amiable to change

1.4.2. Embrace self-enquiry

1.4.3. Feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning

1.4.4. Choose to analyze and reflect on their practice

1.4.5. Assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

1.5. What needs planning?

1.5.1. What will be taught

1.5.2. When it will be taught

1.5.3. How and when learning will be assessed

1.5.4. What teaching methods and materials will be used

1.5.5. How to establish the type of learning environment needed

1.5.6. Results of effective planning

1.5.6.1. Excellent instruction

1.5.6.2. Enhanced student learning

1.5.6.3. Exemplary environments

1.6. Instructional Approaches

1.6.1. Teacher-centered approach – Teacher determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone

1.6.2. Student-centered approach – Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

2. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Adora Svitak – Childish Thinking

2.1.1. Childish thinking

2.1.1.1. Bold Ideas

2.1.1.2. Wild Creativity

2.1.1.3. Optimism

2.1.2. I think it is important to ensure that I learn from my students as much as they learn from me. Kids think of great things, without the “insiders knowledge”.

2.1.3. “If you don’t trust you put limitations or restrictions”

2.1.4. “To show that you really care, we listen”

2.2. The Power of Yet

2.2.1. Growth Mindset

2.2.1.1. Leads to a desire to learn and therefore a tendency to…

2.2.1.1.1. Embrace Challenges

2.2.1.1.2. Persist in the face of setbacks

2.2.1.1.3. See effort as the path to mastery

2.2.1.1.4. Learn from criticism

2.2.1.1.5. Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others

2.2.2. We are currently trying to educate students to help empower them to be critical thinkers and problem solvers. We don’t know what their reality will look like in our every changing world

2.2.3. I like the concept of the power of yet and using the powers of praise for process rather then end result

2.3. Instructional Approaches

2.3.1. Instruction that both responds to the various needs of a diverse group and precisely tailored to individual needs is needed for student achievement for all students

2.3.2. Three instructional approaches form the basis

2.3.2.1. Universal Design for Learning

2.3.2.2. Differentiated Instruction

2.3.2.3. Response to Intervention

2.4. Development

2.4.1. What is development?

2.4.1.1. Physical, cognitive, and social changes

2.4.1.2. Learning becomes more organized

2.4.1.3. Behaviors become more adaptive

2.4.2. Principles of Development

2.4.2.1. Orderly progression/gradual process

2.4.2.2. Periods of rapid and slow growth

2.4.2.3. Quantitative and qualitative changes

2.4.2.4. Individuals develop at different rates

2.4.2.5. Genetics set developmental potential

2.4.2.6. Environment determines potential realized

2.5. When a student is having difficulty…

2.5.1. Has the student acquired the prerequisite skills?

2.5.2. Does the student typically learn slower than others?

2.5.3. Has the student had enough practice?

2.5.4. Was the material presented in meaningful ways?

3. Week 3: Views of learning

3.1. Cognitive – Focuses on the internal processing of how information is received, organizes, stores and retrieved

3.1.1. Teaching Strategies

3.1.1.1. Mnemonic devices

3.1.1.2. Visual Aids

3.1.1.3. Graphic organizer

3.1.1.4. Scaffolding

3.1.1.5. Self-regulation

3.1.2. Disequilibrium is necessary for learning

3.1.2.1. Balance is the goal

3.1.2.2. Delete irrelevant information in the process

3.1.3. Brain is Like a Computer (Info- processer)

3.1.3.1. Short term and working memory

3.1.3.2. Computer build to mimic brain

3.1.3.3. Built to understand cognitive processes

3.1.3.4. Environmental factors affect how the brain stores information

3.1.3.5. Rejecting Road Learning

3.1.3.5.1. Focuses on the process

3.1.3.5.2. Deeper learning

3.1.3.5.3. Build off the students

3.1.3.6. Assimilation and Accommodation

3.1.3.6.1. Brain’s innate ability to organize and adjust/adapt

3.2. Behavioral – Idea the behavior can be controlled or modified based on consequences or rewards

3.2.1. Positive Reinforcement

3.2.1.1. Classroom Environment

3.2.1.1.1. Respect your peers

3.2.1.1.2. Classroom connections

3.2.1.1.3. Expectations and norms

3.2.1.2. Acknowledge Good Behavior

3.2.1.2.1. Good rewards and praise

3.2.1.2.2. Individual and specific praise

3.2.1.2.3. Teacher Models Behavior

3.2.1.3. Behavior Management

3.2.1.3.1. Assessment of Lagging Skills and Unsolved Problems

3.2.1.3.2. Problem Solving

3.2.1.3.3. Every Student has Potential

3.2.1.3.4. Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences

3.3. Social-Cultural/Constructivist - A learning theory that equates learning with creating meaning from experience

3.3.1. Scaffolding

3.3.1.1. Adjusting support

3.3.1.2. Zone of proximal development

3.3.1.3. Partial independence

3.3.1.4. Challenging yet attainable tasks

3.3.1.5. Building on previous knowledge

3.3.2. Interactive Teaching Strategies

3.3.2.1. Differentiated instruction

3.3.2.2. Teacher is facilitator

3.3.2.3. Engaging and motivating

3.3.2.4. Project based

3.3.2.5. Collaboration

3.3.2.6. Higher – order thinking skills

3.3.2.7. Debates, role-play, real world applications, group projects

3.3.3. Facilitating Self Regulation

3.3.3.1. Stress-performance relationship

3.3.3.2. Increases learning efficiency

3.3.3.3. Aware of own thinking habits

3.3.3.4. Self-reflection

3.3.4. Student Centered

3.3.4.1. Students are active learners

3.3.4.2. Increases student engagement

3.3.4.3. Students construct meaning

3.3.4.4. Blended learning environment

3.3.5. Previous experience

3.3.5.1. Teacher created safe learning environment

3.3.5.2. Learning is more meaningful when created from experience

3.3.5.3. Reflect on past experiences to create understanding

3.3.5.4. Importance of cultural and social context

4. Week 4: Establishing a positive learning environment

4.1. Myth of Average

4.1.1. When we design for the average, we design for no one! Destroys talent

4.1.2. The average hurts everyone

4.1.3. Ban the average and design to the edges

4.1.3.1. Students vary on many dimensions – jagged learning profile

4.1.4. We design our learning environments like textbooks – for the average student

4.2. Most Likely to Succeed

4.2.1. How do we best prepare our kids for the innovation era?

4.2.2. We no longer have a knowledge era

4.2.2.1. No competitive advantage in knowing more than the person beside you

4.2.2.2. What are the skills, dispositions and habits of heart and mind the world demands?

4.2.2.3. Skills matter more and motivation matters most

4.3. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed and structured classroom

4.4. How does the teacher affect student achievement?

4.4.1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning

4.4.2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ

4.4.3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

4.5. Exemplary Learning Environments

4.5.1. Academic success is dependent on the learning environment

4.5.2. Creating Exemplary Learning environments requires good planning and good classroom management

4.5.3. Goal of classroom management is to provide all students with optimum opportunities or learning

4.5.4. Exemplary learning environments especially important for students with exceptionalities

5. Week 5: Making instructional decisions

5.1. Universal Design for Learning

5.1.1. Provide multiple means of representation

5.1.1.1. Perception, languages, expressions, symbols, comprehension

5.1.2. Provide multiple means of action and expression

5.1.2.1. Physical action, expression, communication, executive function

5.1.3. Provide multiple means of engagement

5.1.3.1. Recruiting interest, sustaining effort, persistence, self-regulation

5.2. What motivates students to learn?

5.2.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

5.2.2. Bring able to effectively use learning strategies

5.2.3. Having teacher support

5.2.4. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

5.2.5. Feeling that the teacher cares for them

5.3. Bloom’s Taxonomy – Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

5.3.1. Knowledge

5.3.2. Comprehension

5.3.3. Application

5.3.4. Analysis

5.3.5. Synthesis

5.3.6. Evaluation

5.4. Teaching for Critical Thinking

5.4.1. Ask not only what happened, but how and why

5.4.2. Examine facts to determine if there is enough evidence to support them

5.4.3. Argue in a reasoned way rather than through emotions

5.4.4. Recognize that there may be more than on right answer of explanation

5.4.5. Compare various answers and then judge which is the best

5.4.6. Evaluate and possibly question what others say

5.4.7. Ask questions and speculate beyond what we already know

6. Week 6: Knowing that the students know

6.1. Understanding by Design

6.1.1. We teach and assess for understanding and transfer instead of content regurgitation

6.1.2. What is worth understanding?

6.1.3. How do we properly assess for understanding and how do we teach that way?

6.2. How People Learn

6.2.1. Learner Centered

6.2.1.1. Children construct new knowledge by building upon their own prior knowledge and experiences

6.2.2. Knowledge Centered

6.2.2.1. Teachers help each student “Build a Bridge” from prior knowledge to the new topics they are learning

6.2.3. Assessment Centered

6.2.3.1. Emphasize concepts behind knowledge instead of relying heavily on memorization of facts

6.2.4. Community Centered

6.2.4.1. Respectful learning environments where individual ideas are welcomed

6.3. Assessment

6.3.1. Done Poorly

6.3.1.1. No formative process

6.3.1.2. Targets unclear

6.3.1.3. No student involvement in the process

6.3.1.4. No discussion of results

6.3.1.5. One-shot deal

6.3.1.6. No exceptions or flexibility

6.3.1.7. Humiliation

6.3.2. Done Well

6.3.2.1. Multiple opportunities to improve

6.3.2.2. Provision of useful and timely feedback

6.3.2.3. No marks until the final attempt

6.3.2.4. Clear targets in student friendly language

6.3.2.5. Students able to self and peer assess

6.3.2.6. Affirmation of capability

6.3.2.7. Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

6.4. Big Ideas

6.4.1. 1: Assessment serves different purposes at different times

6.4.1.1. It may be used to find out what students already know and can do

6.4.1.2. It may be used to help students improve their learning

6.4.1.3. Or may be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

6.4.2. 2: Assessment must be planned and purposeful

6.4.2.1. Backward Design

6.4.2.1.1. Three Stages

7. Week 7: Individual differences

7.1. Do Schools Kill Creativity?

7.1.1. Educated OUT of creativity

7.1.2. Purpose of education is to take us to a future that we can’t grasp

7.2. What is Special Education?

7.2.1. Accommodating the special learning and needs of students with exceptionalities

7.2.2. Specialized instruction based on the assessment of student’s abilities

7.3. Intelligence

7.3.1. What is intelligence?

7.3.1.1. Ability to learn from experience

7.3.1.2. Ability to adapt to one’s environment

7.3.1.3. Definition: The ability (or abilities) to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world

7.3.2. How is intelligence measured?

7.3.2.1. Aptitude Tests – Predict ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education

7.3.2.2. Achievement Tests – measure what the student has learned or the skills they have mastered

7.4. Exceptionalities

7.4.1. High-Incidence: Mild disabilities – typically include learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities

7.4.2. Low-Incidence: Moderate and severe disabilities – typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

7.5. Access to Curriculum – students need both physical and cognitive access in order to succeed in the general curriculum

7.5.1. Physical access

7.5.1.1. Includes sensory and motor access. Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials

7.5.2. Cognitive access

7.5.2.1. The ability to understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in various media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively

7.5.2.2. Students with learning disabilities may encounter cognitive barriers when using traditional materials or digital materials if they are not designed in a flexible manner

7.6. Inclusion

7.6.1. Acceptance of differences

7.6.2. Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions

7.6.3. Material being taught is made accessible to all students

7.6.4. UNESCO sees inclusive education as a process of addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education

7.6.5. Children are different, all children can learn

7.6.5.1. Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender

7.6.6. Change the system to fit the child

7.6.7. Components of inclusion

7.6.7.1. Teachers who treat each student as a uniquely important individual and who are knowledgeable about research based practices that assist students with diverse learning needs to learn

7.6.7.2. Program philosophy which emphasizes the value of diversity, multiculturalism, social justice, and belonging for everyone

8. Week 8: Socio-cultural considerations

8.1. How Culture Drives Behaviors

8.1.1. “When you conform to a society, then you can benefit from diversity”

8.1.2. Norms are different in different cultures, and emotional feedback changes .

8.1.3. The lens in which we see the world differs on our experience. Understanding is key to embracing and accepting diversity

8.2. The Danger of a Single Story

8.2.1. Be wary of tokenizing minorities

8.2.2. If you are experiencing a culture from a single lens, you are doing that culture a disservice

8.2.3. Important for all people to be represented in pop culture! So that kids can visualize their potential in others

8.3. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

8.3.1. Is knowledge constructed because of socio-cultural influences?

8.3.2. Critical consciousness is crucial

8.3.3. Teachers need to have a culturally responsive practice

8.4. Stereotype Threat

8.4.1. Fear that one’s behavior will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s identity group

8.4.2. Those with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable

8.4.3. Can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

8.5. Socio-Economic Status

8.5.1. Compared to all other social or cultural attributes, an individual’s socio-economic status has the greatest impact on scholastic schievement

8.5.2. Children from Low SES Homes

8.5.2.1. Development is at risk

8.5.2.2. Economic hardships

8.5.2.3. Scarcity of resources

8.5.2.4. More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

8.6. Multicultural Education

8.6.1. Developing cultural understandings and mutual respect

8.6.2. Views

8.6.2.1. Diversity valued – no culture considered dominant

8.6.2.2. Dominant culture stressed – surviving in the real world

8.6.2.3. Diversity and dominant culture – valued striking a balance

8.6.3. Dimensions

8.6.3.1. Content integration

8.6.3.2. Equity pedagogy

8.6.3.3. Empowering school culture and social structure

8.6.3.4. Prejudice reduction

8.6.3.5. Knowledge construction process

8.7. Aboriginal Education

8.7.1. Risk Factors

8.7.1.1. Early school failures

8.7.1.2. Moving from school to school

8.7.1.3. Lack of parent support

8.7.1.4. Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies

8.7.1.5. Living in remote communities

8.7.1.6. Lack of resources

8.7.1.7. Special needs

8.7.2. Protective factors

8.7.2.1. Early intervention

8.7.2.2. Resiliency

8.7.2.3. Positive self-image

8.7.2.4. Family engagement

8.7.2.5. Community involvement

8.7.2.6. Relevant programming

8.7.2.7. Aboriginal role models

9. Week 9: End of school year

9.1. Standardized Tests

9.1.1. Criteria

9.1.1.1. Contain the same questions for all test-takers

9.1.1.2. Are administered to all test-takers in the dame fashion

9.1.1.3. Are scored in systematic and uniform manner

9.1.1.4. Are different from teacher0made tests and aptitude tests

9.1.2. Test Types

9.1.2.1. Criterion-referenced: Student’s score determined by comparing performance to establish criteria

9.1.2.2. Norm-Referenced

9.1.2.2.1. Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

9.1.3. Should…

9.1.3.1. Enhance teaching and learning

9.1.3.2. Improve curricular design

9.1.3.3. Be minimally intrusive

9.1.4. Performance-level scores

9.1.4.1. Classifications of student performance that describe and clarify standardized assessment results

9.1.5. Preparing students

9.1.5.1. Convey positive attitudes about testing

9.1.5.2. Teach test-taking skills

9.1.5.3. Simulate use of time limits during testing

9.1.5.4. Familiarize students with types of questions used

9.1.5.5. Involve students in marking questions of each type

9.1.6. In Canada

9.1.6.1. Federal – Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

9.1.6.2. Provincial/Territorial – Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and grade 12 exit exams

9.1.7. Purpose – to assess effectiveness of instruction

10. Commitment to Students and to Student Learning

11. Professional Knowledge

12. Teaching Practice

13. Leadership and Community

14. Ongoing Professional Learning

15. The 5 bubbles in the middle relate to the learning objectives of the course and I have connected the content to match where the information I have learned connects to the different areas of my professional practice as a teacher