Scientific Writing

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Scientific Writing by Mind Map: Scientific Writing

1. Do not hyphenate Latin expressions or non-English-language phrases used in adjectival sense

2. The article and the noun (adjectivation)

2.1. Countable nouns

2.1.1. No article before proper nouns

2.1.2. Singular

2.1.2.1. Definite: the

2.1.2.2. Indefinite: a/an

2.1.3. Plural

2.1.3.1. Definite: the

2.1.3.2. Indefinite: ø

2.2. Uncountable nouns

2.2.1. Singular

2.2.1.1. Definite: the

2.2.1.2. Indefinite: ø

2.3. Proper nouns

2.3.1. Lakes do not take article, e.g.: Lake Ontario

2.3.2. Most countries do not take article

2.3.3. Rivers, mountain ranges, seas and oceans should be preceded by the article "the"

2.4. Adjectivation

2.4.1. Adjectives precede nouns

2.4.2. Adverbs precede adjectives

2.4.3. Avoid qualifying adjectives

3. Tenses and concordance

3.1. Tenses

3.1.1. Past tense

3.1.1.1. Describe the rationale, objectives and what was done

3.1.1.1.1. Used in Methodology and Results sections

3.1.2. Present tense

3.1.2.1. Appropiate for accepted facts

3.1.2.1.1. Used in the Introduction and for general findings

3.1.2.2. Discuss results that may be applicable

3.1.2.2.1. Used in the Conclusion section

3.1.3. Future tense

3.1.3.1. Used to describe things that may happen in the future

3.2. Concordance

3.2.1. Subject and verb need to agree in number

3.2.2. For terms that can be either singular or plural

3.2.2.1. Use the plural verb if the term refers to individual members or components

3.2.2.2. Use the singular verb if the term refers to a unit, amount, discipline or organization

4. English passive and actives

4.1. To form the passive: Be + past participle

4.2. Intransitive verbs can't use passive

4.3. Use the passive when the subject is acted upon

4.4. Use the active voice when the subject is the actor

4.5. Why using the passive?

4.5.1. It lets facts stand on their own

4.5.2. It removes accusation of bias

4.5.3. It presents a feeling of logic

5. Connectors: coordinate and subordinate sentences

5.1. Used to link ideas and information

5.1.1. Coordination: equal terms (e.g. and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet)

5.1.2. Subordination: inequality or a relationship of dependence or limitation (e.g. if, as, when, because)

5.2. Specialized linking words

5.2.1. To signal a reinforcement of ideas

5.2.2. To signal a change in ides

5.2.3. To signal a conclusion

6. Spelling conventions

6.1. Do not mix American and British spelling

6.2. If language requirements are defined, use the given spelling rules

6.3. Divide words only if necessary

6.4. Never use contractions

6.5. Use nonbreaking spaces and hyphens

6.6. Capitalized words

6.6.1. Proper nouns

6.6.2. Key words in titles

6.6.3. First words in sentences

6.7. Avoid abbreviations

6.7.1. In titles and abstracts

6.7.2. At the beginning of a sentence

6.8. Check grammar, spelling and punctuation