Teaching, Learning, and Development

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Teaching, Learning, and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and  Development

1. Week One (Ch. 1; p. 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 19-23, 23-25, 26-27)

1.1. Article: Learners in the Driver’s Seat

1.1.1. Creating road maps and promoting learner driven learning helps students to problem solve more effectively and be more successful/motivated to learn Elements of promoting learner-driven learning Reviewing our planning Identifying the way ahead Recognize the reservations of teachers Naming the problem Recognize the tensions for teachers

1.2. Video: Stop Stealing Dreams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXpbONjV1Jc

1.2.1. Educators & administrators should have a discussion and agree on the purpose of school

1.2.2. Educators should facilitate more problem solving, cooperation and less memorization classroom, teacher, student, curriculum Teacher/student focuses on teaching students with less emphasis on topics and environment, the students fail to meet curricular standards Teacher/topic focuses on teaching the subject whith less emphasis on the students/environment, it fails to take student needs into account

1.2.3. Educational Psychology – understanding how psychology is involved in the teaching & learning process Nine foundational topics in educational psychology assessment and evaluation, social and cultural influences, behaviour and classroom management, motivation, individual differences, development, teaching and instruction, learning and cognition Four common places of education Five steps of conducting research 1. Observe phenomena 2. Form questions 3. Apply research methods 4. Develop guiding principles 5. Develop theories

1.2.4. Reflective Practice A teacher who reflects on their practice and assesses the effects of their teaching Best serves students Helps teacher be more effective in their teachings

1.2.5. Three ways teachers can relate to research about professional practice (socket, 2008) understands the research presented and used its conclusion as hypothesis to see if it is valid teacher applies whatever research says to do teacher evaluates how effective ideas are and adopts to practice (learns from them)

1.3. Textbook

1.3.1. Teacher Planning Five considerations of good planning type of environment how and when students will be assessed what will be taught teaching methods and materials used order in which it will be taught Instructional planning Self-regulated learning: The students’ ability to calmly stay focused/alert, which involves self-control Constructivism Curricular planning Use diagnostic tools Top-down approach Three elements of the curricular planning process Two rules of lesson planning

1.3.2. Ten best practices of good teaching teach students to use discourse management teach for understanding, appreciation, and life application address multiple goals at the same time using inquiry models have awareness of misconceptions/representations/trajectories De-brief students Use artifacts Promote metacognition and self-regulated learning Social aspects of learning Plan authentic activities

1.3.3. Twelve generic guidelines of good teaching promote supportive learning environment deliver content that makes sense provide multiple learning opportunities cover all aspects of curriculum do learning introductions assess using goals establish achievement expectations use cooperative learning provide opportunities to practice/apply concepts facilitate thoughtful discussion help students with tasks when needed model/teach effective learning strategies

2. Week Two (Ch. 2; p. 36-51, 70)

2.1. Late August: Considering Child and Adolescent Development

2.1.1. Development: A series of physical cognitive and social changes that occur within children

2.1.2. Anderson's four executive functions

2.1.3. Developmental principles important to teachers because… They apply to all students Differences exist How and why students learn

2.1.4. Five developmental principles follows orderly logical progression gradually progresses quantitative/qualitative changes different rates of development nature vs. nurture

2.1.5. Paris, Morrison, and Miller (2012) – important influences on children’s pathways into school

2.1.6. Five key teaching considerations teach each topic in the right order allow time and practice to fully understand concepts improve how students know students learn at different rates teachers can impact how each kid reaches their potential

2.1.7. Psychosocial development Erikson stages

2.1.8. Piaget – schemas/adaptation PIAGET 4 STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - sensiorimotor, Pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational

2.1.9. Bronfenbrenner (Make a connection to microsystem)

2.1.10. Kohlberg

2.2. Growth Mindset

2.2.1. Video: The power of believing that you can improve Abilities can be developed Tell kids “Not yet” instead of telling them, so they can develop the abilities

2.3. Video: What adults can learn from kids

2.3.1. Give students opportunities to succeed and follow their passions

2.3.2. The world needs childish thinking big ideas and creativity

3. Week Three

3.1. Cognitive Theory

3.1.1. Main theorists Piaget Vygotsky Video: Vygotsky & Scaffolding https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AoLk5nbliM Social interaction/shared activities help create cognitive structures Zone of proximal development Kids learn more/better when they receive assistance from someone more knowledgeable

3.2. Social-Cultural/Constructivist Approach

3.2.1. Main theorists John Dewey He believed the classroom is the perfect research laboratory for educational exploration Bruner

3.2.2. "The benefit of imagining learning as cartography instead of hurdles you have to jump over is that sometimes, you see a bit of coastline and you want to go around the bend to see a little more" – John Green Video: Constructivist Learning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PK2NILj3BrU students come in with a certain amount of knowledge and when you learn more you might be interested in pursuing the topic further

3.2.3. Video: Constructivism – use a learning theory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xa59prZC5gA

3.2.4. Constructivism equates learning with creating meaning from experience Learning is meaningful when students interact with a problem/concept Helps engage/motivate students to be active in the learning process Ex. Roleplaying, simulation, debate, real world activities

3.2.5. Ecological Theory – describes influences that environmental factors have on social development five environmental systems Microsystem – influences from family, peers, neighbourhood Mesosystem – influences from different microsystems Exosystem – influences from social settings person is not involved in Macrosystem – cultural influences/values/beliefs Chronosystem – environmental patterns/socio-historical circumstances

3.2.6. Language Development Noam Chomsky - Thought that humans have a language acquisition device (Innate ability to learn/understand language) Piaget – cognitive thinking structure comes first, language second When children talk to themselves it’s because of egocentrism Vygotsky – inner language builds cognitive structures because the language is used to perform tasks (Ex. Planning/problem solving)

3.3. Behaviourist Approach

3.3.1. no longer used in the classroom because research in 70's/80's found that we can choose to do or not do certain actions based on our conscience (Not just stimulus-response)

3.3.2. Behaviourism - idea that behaviour can be controlled/modified based on the antecedents and consequences of a behaviour Video: Behaviourism – Use a learning theory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYDYzR-ZWRQ Used to shape student behaviour Ex. Punctuality, participation, obedience Behaviour more or less likely to reoccur if reinforcements/consequences follow (rewards/punishments)

4. Week Four (Ch. 3; p. 75, 78-79, 88, 90)

4.1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

4.2. Video: Tony Wagner – Most Likely to Succeed https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=5&v=AYwCkCecwNY

4.2.1. Knowledge based economy is now irrelevant

4.2.2. Skills & motivation are more important

4.3. Video – The Myth of Average: Todd Rose https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eBmyttcfU4

4.3.1. US Airforce banned the average

4.3.2. Design to the edges/use technology

4.3.3. Analogy for how we should model education

4.4. Textbook

4.4.1. Five global principles of effective classroom management Develop caring/support relationships Organize lessons to optimize student access to learning Encourage student engagement in academic tasks Promote development of social skills/self-regulation Use appropriate interventions to help students with behaviour problems

4.4.2. Foster a resilient mind set in students So they have good self-esteem, are hopeful/optimistic

4.4.3. Three fundamental understandings that direct teacher actions when implementing DCM positive behaviour support classroom discourse research Teach students self-regulation

4.4.4. Three fundamental student needs to belong/feel connected and to believe that students believe in them feel ownership/responsibility/accountability for actions feel competent/successful and accomplished

4.4.5. Six strategies to nurture student needs provide orientation to clearly show class expectations develop realistic behaviour/learning expectations reinforce responsibility provide opportunities to make choices/solve problems establish self-discipline help students deal with mistakes and failures

5. Week Five (Ch. 4; p. 126-136)

5.1. Video: Zoe Brannigan-Pipe: Let Students Hack Their Lesson Plan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLENqU4hPJU

5.1.1. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

5.1.2. Create a classroom environment that allows students to learn and is accessible

5.1.3. Differentiated Instruction is providing the same content in many ways to allow all students to learn based on their unique learning style

5.2. Universal Design for learning

5.3. Textbook

5.3.1. Universal instructional design (UID) Create a welcoming classroom environment that emphasizes academic/behavioural success Determine essential academic components Provide students with clear expectations, as well as feedback Use a variety of instructional methods Provide variety of assessment Use technology to enhance learning Allow discussions about learning topics/expectations between teacher and students Accessible and effective for all students

5.3.2. Three ways to motivate students use challenging/meaningful tasks allow students to develop learning/problem solving skills build classroom relationships between students and teacher/student

5.3.3. Meaningful learning occurs when students use the cognitive processes of select-organize-integrate

5.3.4. Direct Instruction Emphasizes well developed lesson plans with clear objectives Use explanations and help students understand concepts Allow students to practice the material and explain their understanding

5.3.5. Constructivism says learners are active in seeking meaning, social negotiation is important, are developing critical thinking skills and self-determination is needed for further development In constructivist classrooms there is dialogue, inquiry learning, problem based learning, teacher/peer learning, role modeling learning and collaborative learning

5.3.6. Problem, project and inquiry based learning Students help teachers design tasks Students complete tasks with their peers as a team Students create specific educational products Students reflect on their learning experience

5.3.7. Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation

5.3.8. How people learn framework Knowledge-centeredness Learner-centeredness Community-centeredness Assessment-centeredness

6. Week Six (Ch. 4; p. 114-125)

6.1. Video: What is understanding by design? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8F1SnWaIfE

6.1.1. Backwards design, plan in teams, “think big, start small, go for the early win”

6.2. How People Learn Prezi

6.2.1. Teacher, student, assessment, and community learning

6.3. Lecture

6.3.1. Assessment Done Well Multiple opportunities to improve Provide useful/timely feedback Don’t give marks until last attempt Clear expectations Self and peer assessment Lets students know they’re capable Students know how well they’re doing/how to improve

6.3.2. Backward Design General expectations (& enduring understanding), specific expectations, how you will assess, and then begin developing the specifics/ways you will deliver your lesson plans in the unit with these things in mind

6.3.3. Purposes of assessment Find out what students already know/can do Help students improve their learning Let students/family know how much student has learned in a period of time Three types of assessment performance task, criteria referenced assessment, unprompted assessment and self-assessment

6.3.4. Teach for understanding Teach big ideas, essential questions, performance requirements and evaluation criteria at the beginning of the unit (Students should be able to describe these things)

7. Week Seven (Ch. 6; p. 193-199, 201-208, 220-227)

7.1. Video: Do Schools Kill Creativity – Ken Robinson https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG9CE55wbtY

7.1.1. Kids are not afraid of being wrong, but by the time you’re done school you are afraid to make mistakes because mistakes are seen as bad

7.1.2. Teaching kids not to be creative because being creative = making mistakes

7.2. Article: Learning for All

7.2.1. Universal Design for Learning, Differentiated Instruction, and tiered approach to prevention and early intervention flexibility and inclusion, safety, simplicity, appropriate space design Safe way to promote learning, challenge students’ abilities, create new ideas/skills

7.3. Article: Including students with exceptionalities

7.3.1. School principle is important in developing inclusivity in schools

7.3.2. Environment and culture of school impacts acceptance of students with exceptionalities

7.3.3. Including students with exceptionalities doesn’t impact overall academic achievement of the classroom

7.3.4. There are social benefits for all students when students with exceptionalities are in the classroom

7.3.5. Assessment Types: Assessment for learning – gives teachers information to differentiate learning/teaching activities Assessment as learning – develop/support student metacognition Assessment of learning – confirm what students know/can do (i.e. demonstrate curriculum expectations) Diagnostic vs formative assessment

7.3.6. more in depth than class profile

7.3.7. know your students develop class profile of students – strengths, learning styles, needs, interests deferentiate instructuction, incorporate interests into lesson, meet student needs develop student profiles

7.4. Textbook

7.4.1. Gardiner’s theory of multiple intelligences Linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic

7.4.2. Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of human intelligence Analytics/componential, creative/experiential, practical/contextual

7.4.3. Learning disabilities have different levels of severity and may interfere with acquisition and use of oral language/reading/written language/math

7.5. Lecture

7.5.1. Special Education Accommodate learning needs of students with exceptionalities Specialized instruction based on the assessment of student abilities Inclusivity/inclusive education High incidence exceptionalities v. Low incidence

7.5.2. Intelligence Ability to learn from experience and adapt to one’s environment Ways to measure intelligence: Aptitude tests and Achievement tests

7.5.3. Students need physical and cognitive access to the curriculum

7.5.4. School process for identifying and supporting students Best interest of student, collaboration, communication, school/board procedures and circumstance

7.5.5. Inclusivity Everyone learns differently Everyone has different backgrounds “teachers who are prepared to teach students with exceptional needs become more skillful teachers of all students because they develop deeper diagnostic skills and a wider repertoire of strategies that are useful for many students who learn in different ways” – Banks et. al

8. Week Eight (Ch. 7; p. 245-252, 254-259)

8.1. Video: How Culture Drives Behaviour https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-Yy6poJ2zs

8.1.1. We see the world through cultural glasses (Our perspective is influenced by our cultural norms)

8.1.2. We need to change our cultural glasses

8.1.3. We can benefit from diversity

8.2. Video: Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_uOncGZWxDc

8.2.1. Multiple libraries

8.2.2. Technology – used/prominently displayed

8.2.3. Student work is displayed

8.2.4. Clear expectations

8.2.5. Print-Rich environment

8.2.6. Learning Centres

8.2.7. Colorful

8.2.8. Arranged optimally (e.g. desks in pods)

8.3. Video: The Danger of a Single Story https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg&feature=youtu.be

8.3.1. One person’s experience/perspective does not define an entire group

8.3.2. A person carries biases from their own experiences

8.4. Textbook

8.4.1. Critical Consciousness Political values and beliefs, ideological clarity and socio-cultural consciousness

8.5. Lecture

8.5.1. Inclusion Children are different (abilities, age, gender, culture, etc.) and all children can learn

8.5.2. Universal design for learning Three primary networks: Recognition learning, strategic learning, and affective learning Three principles: representation, action & expression, and engagement Three sets of UDL guidelines: Flexible ways to present what we teach and learn, flexible options for how we learn and express what we know, flexible options for generating and sustaining motivation (The why of learning)

8.5.3. Individualism vs Collectivism Act with unique identity and exclusive purpose = individual Act with shared identity and common purpose = collective

8.5.4. Culturally responsive practice Grow and change instructional base, broad cultural knowledge

8.5.5. Teachers must know: Their cultural assumptions, how to inquire about students’ backgrounds, how to develop approaches to teaching that meet needs of culturally diverse learners, establish links across cultures

8.5.6. Greatest impact on academic achievement is Socio-Economic Status Low SES = development at risk, economic hardship, resource scarcity and subjected to authoritarian parenting

8.5.7. Multicultural Education encompasses Content integration, equity pedagogy, empowerment, reducing prejudice and constructing knowledge

8.5.8. Aboriginal Education Risks: Early school failures, moving from school to school, lack of parent support, lack of teachers with knowledge of about Aboriginal studies, living in remote communities, lack of resources, special needs Protective factors: early intervention, resiliency, positive self-image, family engagement, community involvement, relevant programming, aboriginal role models

8.5.9. Instrumental value of education Degree to which students believe that doing well in school produces benefits

9. Week Nine (Ch. 8; p. 270-275, 277-281, 282-285)

9.1. Video: How EQAO tests are created, administered and scored https://vimeo.com/96207765

9.1.1. EQAO tests are reliable and high quality

9.1.2. Studies and processes ensure that they are reliable

9.1.3. Accommodate to students with exceptionalities

9.2. Article: Standardized testing: Fair or not?

9.2.1. Same tests, all written at the same time for all students, consistent instructions, each student has same amount of time to write test and are scored in the same manner

9.2.2. Scantron marks multiple choice-essays are marked by trained specialists

9.2.3. Issues that impact achievement test scores: situational/environmental factors, personal/emotional factors, grade-spread requirement

9.3. Article: What is the value of standardized testing?

9.4. Lecture

9.4.1. Standardized testing in Canada Federal – achievement levels of 13 year-olds (math, reading and science) Provincial/territorial – math and literacy at certain grade levels and gr. 12 exit exams

9.4.2. Types of standardized tests Criterion-Referenced (Performance to criteria) Norm-referenced (performance to that of other students)

9.4.3. Criticisms – biased tests, stressful, must teach the test, too much time, doesn’t help learning, test doesn’t reflect instruction

9.4.4. Large-scale assessments should… Based on curriculum, address same cognitive demands, similar tasks, common standards for judging work quality and use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

9.4.5. Making better standardized tests Tests are imperfect and problematic if used for improper applications Should enhance learning/teaching, improve curricular design, be minimally intrusive Convey positive attitudes about testing, teach skills to take the test, use time limits during testing, familiarize the type of questions used, involve students in marking

9.4.6. Standardized test scores Do they make sense, how do they compare with other students, does the score reveal learning growth