Unit 2: Migration

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Unit 2: Migration by Mind Map: Unit 2: Migration

1. Types of Migration

1.1. Emigration

1.1.1. Moving away from one's home country, It is never easy.

1.2. Immigration

1.2.1. Moving to a new country, people who move to another country are called immigrants.

2. Migration Waves

2.1. First Wave

2.1.1. Began with the founding of the United States. Immigrants came Mostly from northern Europe.

2.1.1.1. Many were escaping from poverty and/or hunger. Some settled in cities, but most found land to farm

2.2. Second Wave

2.2.1. Late 1800s most immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe. Many were refugees fleeing war or prosecution because of religious beliefs.

2.2.1.1. Most found work in the growing cities of the United States.

2.2.1.1.1. Refugees - someone who seeks safety by going to another country. Persecution - the act of punishing or harassing someone, often repeatedly and usually for a particular reason such as one's religion, ethnicity, race, or political beliefs.

2.3. Third Wave

2.3.1. Late 1960s all the way to present day. Between 1970 and 2003 roughly 24 million people moved to the United States, about 75 percent came from Latin America and Asia.

3. Push and Pull Factors

3.1. Push Factor

3.1.1. Push Factors That Drive Emigration

3.1.1.1. 1. Political Push Factors: War can cause refugees as well as fear of the leader of that country. Or they may fear persecution.

3.1.1.1.1. These traits all have one thing in common: they are based on how the government treats its people. For example in 1959 in Cuba many Cubans came to America in fear of their leader.

3.1.1.2. 2. Environmental Push Factors: Changes in environment such as long-term droughts or plant diseases can push people out of their country.

3.1.1.2.1. Other environmental problems occur as a result of human activity.

3.1.1.3. 3. Economic Push Factors: The most common push factors are economic.

3.1.1.3.1. Early immigrants to the U.S were poor farmers or working people looking to improve their lives in a new country. That continues to happen today, and people usually choose the U.S to start a new beginning.

3.1.2. Something that encourages people to leave a place behind.

3.1.2.1. Examples are : War & Poverty

3.2. Pull Factor

3.2.1. Something that encourages people to move to a new place.

3.2.1.1. Examples Are: Freedom & Opportunities for a better life.

3.2.2. Pull Factors That Drive Immigration

3.2.2.1. 1. Family Pull Factors: The desire to reunite families is a very powerful pull factor. Usually young men go first then once they have a stable life they send for their wives, children and parents.

3.2.2.1.1. Between 1965 and 1975 about 142,000 Greeks. Almost all of them were joining relatives who already lived here.

3.2.2.2. 2. Education Pull Factors: Many families migrate so that their children can attend good schools. 1 out of 15 students in this country's schools were born in a different country.

3.2.2.2.1. In the 2003-2004 school year, there was more than 572,000 foreign college students in the United States.

3.2.2.3. Quality-Of-Life Pull Factors: Most people move to improve the quality of their lives. In the United States this hope is called the "American Dream". This is the belief that people can create a better life for themselves and their children here.

4. Effects of Migration

4.1. Effects on the immigrants

4.1.1. Adaptation and assimilation

4.1.2. Differing cultural values between generations

4.2. Effects on the host country

4.2.1. Social attitudes

4.2.2. Welfare issues

4.2.3. Economic impacts

4.2.4. positive and negative

4.2.5. real and perceived

4.2.6. Remittances

4.2.7. Loss of revenue

4.3. Effects on the home country

4.3.1. Families left behind

4.3.2. “Brain drain”

4.3.3. Population decrease

4.4. Multi-national issues

4.4.1. “Open border” policies

4.4.2. Immigration policies

4.4.3. Security issues

4.4.4. Human trafficking/slavery

5. Immigration affect on the U.S.

5.1. Economic Impacts

5.1.1. Brain Gain

5.1.1.1. People with new skills and experiences come to the U.S and those people can make life work easier for local community's affecting the economy in a positive way.

5.1.2. Jobs

5.1.2.1. Positive

5.1.2.1.1. The U.S rely on immigrants for labor. Some Immigrants fill up jobs most native born Americans don't want to fill. And some contribute to the economy in an important way.

5.1.2.2. Negative

5.1.2.2.1. Many native born american's resent having to compete for jobs with immigrants. Some say that immigrants are taking up all the jobs in the U.S.

5.1.3. Taxes

5.1.3.1. Immigrants have to pay taxes to so their tax money help many free services like schools, libraries and health clinics.

5.1.3.1.1. In states like California with a high number of immigrants the cost of providing such welfare services is high.

5.2. Cultural Impacts

5.2.1. Neighborhoods

5.2.1.1. Newcomers to the United States often live close to other people from their homeland. These immigrant neighborhoods make cities more interesting.

5.2.1.1.1. Examples of Neighborhoods: Chinatown & Little Italy

5.2.2. Foods

5.2.2.1. Some of the foods that immigrants bring to the U.S. have become fairly popular, like bagels and tacos.

5.2.3. Holidays

5.2.3.1. Immigrants have introduced new holidays to American life. People from many backgrounds enjoy celebrating other holidays like St. Patrick's Day, Chinese New Year and Cinco de Mayo.

5.2.3.1.1. Immigrants bring their art, music and stories with them as well. The outcome is a mix of ideas, sights and sounds

6. Emigration Affect on Homelands Left behind

6.1. Economic Impacts

6.1.1. Brain Drain

6.1.1.1. When people leave their homeland they take whatever they were contributing to the community. Experts call the loss of well educated people Brain Drain.

6.1.2. Brain Gain

6.1.2.1. Brain Drain can also turn into Brain Gain. Not all emigrants stay forever in their new countries. Sometimes, people just leave for school, and when they return they bring new skills and experience for their home country.

6.1.3. Remittances

6.1.3.1. Many immigrants send money back to their families. These payments are called remittances. In many countries, money sent by emigrants to their families is very important source of income.

6.1.3.1.1. Mexico receives more money from remittances than from anything else except tourism and the sale of its oil.

6.2. Social Impacts

6.2.1. Positive

6.2.1.1. The money that emigrants send home can have positive effects. Families may use remittances to care for aging parents or to send children to school. Some emigrants have sent enough money to help their home village build things that make their community have a better life experience.

6.2.2. Negative

6.2.2.1. When young people leave to find jobs in another country, families are detached. Family members sometimes remain separated for years. Emigrants may never return to their homelands.

6.3. Political Impacts

6.3.1. Many refugees have come to the United States to flee political unrest. Once here, some refugees work hard to bring democracy to their homeland.

6.3.1.1. Valdas Adamkus is a political refugee from Lithuania. He came to the United States in the 1940's. Adamkus returned in the 1990's to become president of Lithuania.

7. Involuntary and Voluntary Migration

7.1. Voluntary Migration

7.1.1. Voluntary migration occurs when people choose to migrate of their own free will.

7.1.1.1. During the 1800s, many Europeans willingly left their homelands to come to the United States. In the 1840s alone, some 1.4 million European emigrants left Europe to settle in the United States.

7.1.1.2. Another example of voluntary migration is the Great Migration that took place in the United States from about 1915 until 1970.

7.1.1.2.1. was a mass movement of about 6 million African Americans from the rural South to urban areas in the North.

7.2. Involuntary Migration

7.2.1. involuntary migration is also known as forced migration because the people involved are forced to migrate, often under threat of death or violence.

7.2.1.1. The transatlantic slave trade was one such example of involuntary migration. In fact, it is one of the largest involuntary migrations in human history.

7.2.1.1.1. involuntary migrations generally involve refugees fearing persecution rather than enslaved persons.