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Chemistry by
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# Chemistry

## Semester 2

### Chapters

Stoichiometry (Chapter 9, Pg 250), Definition, A Branch of Chemistry where quantities in chemical reactions are calculated., Mole-Mole Calculations, Examples, Mass-Mass Calculations, Examples, 9.1 The Arithmetic of equations, 9.2 Chemical Calculations

Chemical Quantities (Chapter 7, Pg 189), 7.1 The mole: A measurement of matter, 7.2 Mole-mass and Mole- volume relationships, 7.3 Percentage Composition and chemical formulas, Definition, The percent by mass of each element in a compound., Formula, %Mass of element = (Grams of element/grams of compound) * (100/1), Using the Formula:

States of Matter (Chapter 10, Pg), 10.1 The nature of gases, 10.2 The nature of liquids, 10.3 The nature of solids, 10.4 Changes of state

The Behavior of Gases (Chapter 12, Pg), 12.1 The properties of gases, 12.2 Factors affecting gas pressure, 12.3 The gas laws, Boyles Law, Charles Law, Gays Law, 12.4 Ideal gases, 12.5 Gas molecules: Mixtures and Movements

Reaction Rates and Equilibrium (Chapter 19, Pg 544), Equilibrium, What can alter Equilibrium?, Pressure, Concentration, Temperature, Catalyst, Although can effect changes such as pressure we say there's no effect when a catalyst is added., 19.1, 19.2, 19.3

Acids and Bases (Chapter 20, Pg), 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4

Neutralization (Chapter 21, Pg), 21.2, New node

### Formulas

D = (M/V), Density = (Molar Mass/Volume)

n = (N/Na), Mole = (Representative Particles/Avogadro's Number)

n = (m/M), Mole = (Mass/Molar Mass)

nRT = PV, New node

n = (V/Vo), Mole = (Volume/Molar Volume), (P1V1/T1)=(P2V2/T2), (Pressure1*Volume1/Temperature1)=(Pressure2*Volume2/Temperature2)

Using the Formulas:, n = (N/Na), Eg: How many moles of Pb is 9.3*10^15 atoms of Pb? n = (9.3*10^15 / 6.02*10^23) n = 1.5*10^-8 mol, D = (M/V), Eg:, n = (m/M), Eg: How many moles of CO2 is 12.3 grams of CO2? n = (12.3g / 44g/mol) n = 0.279mol, n = (V/Vo), Eg:

### Definitions

Avogadro's Number, 6.02*10^23, Symbol - Na

Mole, The amount of a substance that contains 6.02*10^23 representative particles of a substance., Symbol - n

Gram atomic Mass (gam), The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams.

Gram Formula Mass (gfm), Formula mass of an ionic substance expressed in grams.

Gram Molecular Mass (gmm), The mass of one mole of a molecular compound.

Representative Particle, The atoms, molecules, or ions present in a substance., Symbol - N

Molar Mass, Mass (in grams) of one mole of a substance., Symbol - M

STP, Standard Temperature and Pressure

Molar Volume, 22.4 L of gas at STP, Symbol - Vo

Percentage Composition, The percent by mass of each element in a compound.

Empirical Formula, The lowest whole-number ratio of atoms of the elements in a compound.

Molecular Formula, Describes the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound.

Standard Pressure, 101.3 kPa or 1 atm

Molar Road Map, A mean of relating mass, numbr of particles, and gaseous volume of a substance.

Standard Temperature, 0 oC or 273 K

Stoichiometry, A branch of chemistry where quantities in chemical reactions are calculated.

Kinetic Theory, New node

Kinetic Energy, New node

Amorphous, New node

Unit cell, New node

Crystal, New node

Normal Boiling Point, New node

Barometer, New node

atmospheric pressure, New node

melting point, New node

Sublimination, New node

Boiling point, New node

Allotrope, New node

Vapor pressure, New node

Evaporation, New node

Supercooled Liquid, New node

Collision Theory, New node

Chemical Equilibrium, New node

Le Chateliers Principle, New node

### Symbols

Molar Mass, M (g/mol)

Mass, m (grams)

Mole, n (mol)

Density, New node

Molar Volume, Vo (22.4 L)

Avogadro's Number, Na (6.02*10^23)

Volume, V (L)

Representative Particles, N

Universal Gas, R (8.31)