Social and spatial disparities in Belfast

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Social and spatial disparities in Belfast by Mind Map: Social and spatial disparities in Belfast

1. Spatial disparities between Neighbourhood Renewal Areas (NRA) and Non-NRAs

1.1. What are NRAs ?

1.1.1. "NRAs are the 36 most severe areas of multiple deprivation chosen to receive support under the Department of Social Development's People and Place strategy"-Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency 15 of them are located in Belfast

1.2. Birth rate

1.2.1. According to the Department of Social Development, in Greater Shankhill in 2009 the percentage of birth rate by unmarried mother is 2.5 times higher than the birth rate by unmarried mothers in non NRAs

1.2.2. According to the same study, the percentage of birth rate of teenage mothers in Greater Shankill (and in all the NRAs) is twice as high as the birthrate of teenage mothers in Non-NRAs

1.3. Education

1.3.1. The percentage of school leavers with no qualification is twice higher in NRAs than in Non-NRAs between 2005 and 2009

1.3.2. In Greater Shankill, this statistic is three times higher than in Non-NRAs and 2.5 times higher than the national average

1.3.3. In Greater Shankhill, school leavers with qualification is twice less important than in Non-NRAs and than the national average

1.4. Services

1.4.1. There were 2 times more opticians and post offices, 3 times more dentists and jobs, 4 times more GP premises and 5 times more A&E Hospitals and pharmacists,in Non NRAs than in Greater Shankill in 2010

1.4.2. There were twice less GP Premises, A&E hospitals and post offices, three times less dentists, pharmacists,opticiens and jobs in NRAs than in non NRAs in 2010

1.5. Crimes

1.5.1. Unlike Belfast, burglary, violent crimes and antisocial behaviours tend to increase in Greater Shankill

2. Racism and xenophobia

2.1. Hate crimes

2.1.1. Towards Foreigners and ethnic minorities

2.1.1.1. In 2014, there was an average of one race crime every 3 hours (that is to say 8 race crimes per day) in Northern Ireland.

2.1.1.2. Ugandian and Romanian families burned out of their homes

2.1.1.3. Chinese pregnant women and new mothers forced out of terrasses

2.1.1.4. Dozens of Chinese people harrassed and attacked monthly

2.1.1.5. Chinese people are sometimes harrassed in the streets.

2.1.1.5.1. Eggs and Ice-creams are thrown at them

2.1.1.5.2. Their shopping bags can be stolen

2.1.1.6. 3 cars burned down by "racially motivated" criminals in October 2017

2.1.1.7. A Beligian man was nearly killed when he was relaxing at home

2.1.2. Segragation and violence towards the Muslim community

2.1.2.1. Local authorities' constant refusal to build a proper mosque instead of letting Muslims pray in overcrowded houses in residential areas

2.1.2.2. At least 8 families have been forced out of their homes from April 2003 and January 2004

2.1.2.3. Muslim people were often refered to as "Osama Bin Landen" or "Sadam Hussein" in the streets

2.1.2.4. One family has been shot at through their windows

2.1.2.5. Offencing graffities such as "No Muslims" are swastikas are often drawn. The last time it happened at "a large scale" was on September 24 2017 in East Belfast.

2.1.3. An ever-increasing data

2.1.3.1. From September 2014 and April 2015, hate crimes have increased by 43%

2.1.3.2. East and South Belfast have the highest proportion of hate crimes in the whole city

2.2. Why does it happen ?

2.2.1. As foreigners avoided going to Belfast during the Toubles, a culture of sectarism has developped there.

2.2.1.1. Racial discrimination legislation has only been introduced in the 1990s

2.2.2. Northern Ireland is at the same stage as Britain was in 1950s in the field of ethnic mixity and the population response.

2.2.3. Chinese people are the most attacked ethnic group since they are the largest in Belfast

2.2.4. Working class areas are the areas more enclined to make hate crimes ?

2.3. Local communities' fear

2.3.1. Elderly Chinese people tend not to leave their houses after 3 pm

2.3.2. Is largely due to the local authorities' indiference

2.4. Solutions

2.4.1. The campaign "Don't turn your back on hate crimes" has been created by the city council of Belfast in 2013

3. Religious issues between Catholic and Protestant communities

3.1. Very distinct communities

3.1.1. Catholic and Protestant communities are organised in blocks.

3.1.1.1. Catholic comunities occupy the West of Belfast

3.1.1.2. Protestants occupy mainly the North, the South and the East of Belfast

3.1.1.3. The population in Protestant and Catholic wards is often composed by 80 or 100% of their respective religious affliations

3.1.1.4. Only 15 wards are not inhabited by 60% of either Catholic or Protestant populations.

3.1.2. Movements between Catholic and Protestant areas are controlled

3.1.2.1. So-called Peace lines, that is to say huge walls, have been built between certain Catholic and Protestant neighbourhoods

3.1.2.2. Only a few gates are opened between certain times of the day, some of them are electronically controlled. This policy has been introduced to avoid violent behaviour between Catholics and Protestants

4. Solutions

4.1. Sharing neighbourhoods between different social classes.

4.2. Urban Regeneration

4.2.1. Reimagining Lenadon and Suffolk through the regeneration Suartstown road will

4.2.1.1. Improve social mixity between Catholic and Protestant

4.2.1.2. Help the town economically in times of globalisation

4.2.1.2.1. By attracting

4.2.1.3. Improve social mixity

4.3. Government spending in house development on outskirts where Catholics felt safe

4.4. Anti-segregation laws

4.5. Fostering the development of services and special educational programmes in NRAs

5. Outskirtisation against inner-city vitality

5.1. Sectarian divisions between Catholics and Protestants

5.1.1. Led to Catholic isolation in the West of the city

5.1.1.1. And eventully led to the creation of ZUS

5.1.2. Inner cities Protestant neighbourhoods are deprived (for example in terms of educational achievements and community initiative)