Russia-Revolution to WW2

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Russia-Revolution to WW2 by Mind Map: Russia-Revolution to WW2

1. Before the Revolution

1.1. Karl Marx

1.1.1. German Philosopher and economist who thought that the working class was supposed to be in control of society from the middle class

1.2. 1848, Fredrich Engels and Marx wrote a communist manifesto, and their ideas were well-known throughout the world

1.2.1. "The workers of the world to unite and rebel against capitalism"

1.3. 75% of Russia's population were peasants

1.3.1. The Russian government was completely out of touch with its common people

1.4. Factors that led to the Revolution

1.4.1. Social Factors Severe class distinction

1.4.2. Economic Factors Large difference between the rich and poor. Russia fell behind western European countries regarding the industrial revolution. Soldiers were poorly equipped against Germany's modern soldiers Most were peasants who couldn't read or write

1.4.3. Political Factors Despotic country, people had no rights, no rule of law whatsoever. The Duma (parliament), could not pass laws, they could only criticize The Tsar's government, and make recomendations which were usually ignored. Vladimir Lenin led a violent revolutionary group called The Bolsheviks Tsar's government used violence against its people. Bloody Sunday, the government had thousands of its people executed for opposing the government.

1.5. Tsar Nicholas and Alexandra's family was exiled to Siberia

2. Russian Revolution

2.1. The Russian Revolution marked the first outbreak of communism in Europe

2.2. There were two revolutions during 1917, this revealed a true Marxist revolution

2.3. March Revolution 1917

2.3.1. Peasants were unhappy with many things The lack of real representation Tsar's dismissal of the Duma The influence of Rasputin on Alexandra Hunger and food shortages Food riots began in St. Petersburg Industrial working conditions Losses of WW1

2.3.2. Tsar tried to return to Russia by train but was stopped by troops and forced to give up his power. A provisional government was led by Alexander Kerensky (socialist and prince Lvov) The provisional government failed because it

2.3.3. A true Marxist revolution built upon the theories of Marx in the communist manifesto

2.4. November Revolution 1917

2.4.1. Vladimir Lenin realized the time had come to conquer the revolution Lenin wrote the "April Thesis"

2.4.2. The provisional government was in complete collapse

2.4.3. Lenin promised Peace with the Central Powers Redistribution of the land Transfer of factories to the owners The recognition of the Soviets as the supreme power in Russia

2.4.4. Led by Lenin

2.4.5. Why the Bolshevik Revolution of Nov 1917 succeeded The provisional government had problems Bolsheviks had good slogans Newspaper called Pravda (truth), got their ideas across German money The Germans financed the Bolsheviks because they knew Lenin would take Russia out of the war, this money went towards their campaign Lenin Lenin was a brilliant leader and the Bolsheviks were well-led Army Private Bolshevik army (Red Guards), gave Bolsheviks the military power needed to win Organization Very well organized, membership grew to two million in three months. The group demanded full obedience so they were well-disciplined

3. Civil war and early days of communist government in Russia

3.1. Lenin gained power and promised to end the war with Germany

3.1.1. Germany was in a good negotiating position and it was hard for the Russians to gain any privilege

3.2. Socialist Revolutionaries won the constituent assembly election, Dec 1917

3.2.1. Initially supported the goals of Russia's peasantry. Peasants didn't believe the Bolsheviks would give land to the peasants, like how they claimed

3.3. The Cheka (The Secret Police) played a large role

3.3.1. Lenin governed as The T'sars did, denouncing the Cheka as evil

3.4. Entente Powers

3.4.1. Basically Britain and France

3.4.2. Not happy with Russia's withdrawing from the war

3.4.3. When anti-Bolshevik forces appeared, the Entente gave them arms and money In hope to defeat the government and re-join the war against Germany Beginning of Russian Civil War

3.5. Civil War

3.5.1. Britain, France, USA, Japan, and Polish armies invaded Russia in order to aid the anti-Bolshevik forces

3.5.2. Beginning of Civil War, the Tsar and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks

3.6. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Civil War?

3.6.1. They had interior lines of communication and had control of many of the nations railways To transport the army

3.6.2. Bolsheviks had a clear purpose of unified command Whites were indecisive with their decisions

3.6.3. The whites alienated the peasants by giving land back to the landlords This turned a lot of neutral peasants into Bolshevik supporters

3.6.4. People of Britain, France, and USA had no interest in their government continuing the war. They had fought 4 years against Germany and thought that was enough

3.7. Lenin's Economic Policies 1917-1921

3.7.1. Government Changes

3.7.2. Communist State

3.7.3. Communist Society

3.7.4. Terror

3.7.5. War Communism

3.7.6. Holding back food was a "counter-revolutionary act"

3.7.7. 1921, it was clear that Lenin's economic policies were not working Lenin then reversed many of his positions and introduced the "New Economic Plan" Russia began to act like a more conventional Country Kulaks

3.8. Lenin was willing to form an agreement with Germany, which seemed to benefit them both

3.8.1. Treaty of Rapallo 1922 In secret, Russia agreed to manufacture war material for Germany This benefited Germany to start building more of a complex army, than the Treaty of Versailles allowed Germany agreed to give help to Russia in setting up steel manufacturing The two "Outlaw states" were beginning to work together

3.9. 1922, Bolshevik Party changed its name to the Communist Party

3.9.1. Russia's name was also changed to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Today, it is known again as Russia

4. Stalin creates the Soviet Union into a greater power

4.1. Soviet Union under Stalin from 1924-1941 (German Invasion)

4.2. When Lenin died, people looked to a person who could be a great leader

4.2.1. This person was Stalin, people saw this great leadership in him because he was the head of major committees and he was able to control patronage appointments

4.3. Food was needed to fuel the industrialization of Russia

4.3.1. Farms were collectivized This was a disaster to farmers Many starved and if they protested, they were sent to slave camps in Siberia or killed

4.4. 'Cult personality': Russian people owed everything to the leader, the government, and the country

4.5. 1928, The Soviet Union began planning economic development according to a larger plan

4.5.1. Problem was clear Soviet industries were not growing at all, some areas of production were behind what it had been under the Tsar Soviet farmers were not growing enough food to feed the Soviet Union The government felt that the only way to solve these problems was the develop central plans for the whole economy They needed more money to be dispursed into the basic industry ex; Coal mining, Iron mining, and steel manufacturing Needed more money to be put into developing transportation systems

4.5.2. Soviet Union largely catched up with the industrialized nations over a very short time period However, some factors plagued the Soviet industry to the end Serious problems with the quality of production Large amount of lying by the officials to make it look like they had fulfilled their jobs

4.6. Socialized farming, consisted of collective and state farm systems, established in 1930's

4.6.1. In 1938, 93.5% of all farms were socialized

4.6.2. Related to the ideology of Karl Marx Mark believed that large farms, like large factories, produce goods more cheaply than smaller ones

4.6.3. In 4 years, more than half of the livestock in the Soviet Union had disappeared

4.6.4. Marx's dream, "In accordance with a common [state] plan" This idea was that peasants would pool their privately owned fields, equipment, and livestock to make large farms to take advantage of the economy A farm would have 100-150 families working on it Ex; a peasant on a small plot of land wouldn't be able to afford a tractor, but the collective farm would be large enough to afford all of the equipment and as well as increasing productivity Peasants would now only sell their produce to the government for a fixed price

4.6.5. Part of Stalin's plan for agriculture was to make a more productive system that would require fewer workers so that people could go to the cities and work in Stalin's new factories Plan required the destruction of the kulaks and that agriculture be in the form of collectivization

4.6.6. Peasants burned their homes and slaughtered their livestock to not let the collectives have them Stalin had 10 million peasants arrested and sent to forced labour camps 1932,famine in a lot of parts of USSR

4.7. Kulaks (successful peasants) were looked at as enemies and attacked by the secret police

4.7.1. Kulaks made a part of their profits from hiring others to work for them Stalin thought this was evil

4.8. Second Five year plan paid more attention to the lives of the Soviet people

4.8.1. Agricultural production increased

4.8.2. Grain harvests were the largest in history

4.8.3. Food became more balanced By 1935, food rationing system was abolished

4.8.4. Food prices declined

4.8.5. A high % of this food was grown on the small pieces that the system let peasants farm which they were allowed to sell privately Stalin had won his battle with the peasants