The European Revolutions of 1848 by Phillip Vane

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The European Revolutions of 1848 by Phillip Vane von Mind Map: The European Revolutions of 1848 by Phillip Vane

1. The Background

1.1. After the French Revolution, the conservatively inclined alliance of powers that had been ranged against Napoleon attempted to re-impose the sovereign powers of Monarchies and Empires.

1.2. European states faced challenges from an increase in population creating more demands for foods, housing and employment.

1.3. Industrialization begun to occur and sometimes impacted on established craft industries bringing about displacement into unemployment. Many young people with middle class backgrounds finished their years of education or training and emerged into an economic situation that was unwelcoming to their skills.

1.4. Levels of payment for both urban and rural workers made it difficult for them and their families to live.

2. France

2.1. Where the revolution in Europe originated.

2.2. Had problems with food, diease, crops, etc.

2.3. France was a monarchy under Louis Phillipe but had few real supporters. Elections were held on the basis of quite limited suffrage - only some 170,000 wealthy men could legally vote.

2.4. The authorities banned a "banquet", one of a series of some seventy or so that had been held in Paris and in the provinces to protest against such things as limitations on the right of assembly and the narrow scope of the political franchise, with the result that the it was postponed by its organisers.

3. Germany

3.1. In the unsettled and challenging times invitations had already been sent out several days earlier by a self-appointed group of liberals based in Heidelberg that were intended to lead to the convening in Frankfurt on the 31st March.

3.2. 190 Berliners who had fallen in the street fighting were given a state funeral with their funeral observances being attended by representatives of all branches of the government, wearing their golden chains of office.

4. Austria

4.1. The Emperor of Austria, authorised the convening of a Hungarian political assembly, or Diet, at Pressburg in 1823. and the representatives there to sought the recognition of the Magyar tongue as being appropriate for use in the administrative and judicial courts which was assented to by the Habsburg authorities.

4.2. Kossuth seemed to expect that the principal linkage with Austria would be that of a personal union through the monarchy of Kings of Hungary who were simultaneously Emperors of Austria.

5. Vienna

5.1. Viennese citizens were deeply alienated by the use of military force against the civilians.

5.2. After mid-March when news of the recent serious civil unrest in Vienna reached Milan there was civil turmoil where an estimated ten thousand persons actively sought the the freedom of the press, the replacement of the existing police force by a newly formed civil guard and the convening of a national assembly.

5.3. Austrian authorities issued an Imperial Patent which offered to provide constitutional arrangements for the future governance of most of the non-Hungarian and non-Italian lands of the Austrian Empire and radically inclined opinion in Vienna tended to object to the imposition of a Constitution by the authorities.