Pedagogical Grammar

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Pedagogical Grammar por Mind Map: Pedagogical Grammar

1. Concept. Pedagogical process, pedagogical content, combinations of process and content

2. Theories 1. Prescriptive: standardization of language, simplify teaching and learning, reject changes, facilitates writing & speaking skills. 2.Descriptive:analysis of: syntax, morphology, phonetics, phonology, semantics , lexis. Nonstandard forms or structures, importance of language use. 3. Internalized system: a complex neurological system, capacities and limitations of human brain, competence & performance. 4. Axiomatic system: a set of axioms, a highly formalized analysis, prepositional phrases.

3. Reasons for teaching grammar. - Instructional time: time spent , a fraction of proficiency, a continuous process. - Learner Independence: cover language in detail, grammatical sophistication. - Fossilization: interlanguage competence, time to master complexities. - Expert guidance: interlanguage structures, interlanguage competence.

4. Evolution. 1. Traditional Grammar: grammar analysis, translations, parts of speech. 2. Structural grammar & Audiolingual: sound system (phonology), units of meaning (morphology), meaning for communication (syntax). Stimulus - response, drills & repetitions. 3. Functional approach: learners' communicative needs. Presentation, Practice & Production. 4. Universal Grammar: a generative process innate, human brain, based on syntax. 5. Cognitive approach: deductive learning, mental processing, analytical linguistics skills. 6. Communicative & Humanistic: positive feelings , a natural process, linguistic competence, input +1(Krashen). 7. Focus on form: grammatical forms & meaning, notice forms (linguistics) & form (meaning), structures in context. 8. Consciousness raising: instructional forms & meaningful input, explicit & declarative knowledge, internalize grammatical structures. 9. Interaction for grammar learning: comprehensible output, linguisitc and sociolinguisitc skills, internalization of l2. 10. Discourse-based: natural learning, different genres, authentic context, communicative purposes.

5. Roles - Age: children- ideas, adolescents & adults, linguisitc terminology. -Proficiency level: beginner - short explanation, intermediate & advance - explicit grammar. - Educational background: low -quite difficult, advanced -easy to understand. - Language skills: grammar focused, depends on the skill. - Style: formal: lectures, academic essays, less formal: emailing.

6. Principles - The E factor: efficiency, economy-ease, efficacy. Short explanations, understanding. - The A factor: appropiacy. Age, level, group size, needs, interests, cultural factors, previous background.

7. Techniques Charts: patterns, realia, communication practice. Maps & drawings: pair or group work. Dialogues: practice some forms.

8. Grammar Balance form and meaning input.based, output-based deductive - inductive feedback Explicit grammar for advanced level

9. A rule is good: -true , clear, simple, familiar, relevant