Linking clauses

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Linking clauses por Mind Map: Linking clauses

1. Because = porque Because of = por, debido a

2. Reason (Razón).

2.1. ¿POR QUE? ¿DEBIDO A?

2.2. La diferencia entre ambos nexos es que el primero va seguido de una oración (con sujeto y verbo) y el segundo va seguido de nombre.

2.3. BECAUSE + CLAUSE

2.4. We moved to another city because my father got a new job.

2.5. BECAUSE OF + NOUN

2.6. We moved to another city because of my father’s new job.

2.7. As /since = como, puesto que. - As it is your birthday, I’ll lend you my best clothes.

3. Purpose (Propósito).

3.1. To + infinitivo - I went to the university to talk to one of my teachers.

3.2. In order to / - I went to the university in order to talk to one of my so as to teachers. (more formal)

3.3. observacion. En frases negativas, se emplea generalmente in order not to /so as not to (no not to sólo): - I hurried so as not to miss the bus. Este tipo de nexo sólo se usa cuando el sujeto del verbo y el del infinitivo es el mismo.

3.4. So that + can(n’t) /will (won’t) → para referirnos al presente o futuro

3.5. + would(n’t) / could(n’t) → para referirnos al pasado

4. Resultado (Result).

4.1. So = así que - She was ill so she couldn’t take the exam.

4.2. I failed my English test and therefore I took it

4.3. As a result / therefore = again in September.

4.4. por tanto, como consecuencia - I failed my English test. Therefore, I took it again in September.

4.5. so / such....that = tan........que

4.6. SO + ADJECTIVE / ADVERB + THAT

4.7. The ticket for the concert was so expensive (that) we couldn’t buy it.

4.8. SUCH + (ADJECTIVE) + NOUN THAT

4.9. It is such a big city (that) I always get lost.

5. De tiempo (Time)

5.1. When / as: cuando

5.2. -As I was walking down the street, I saw my ex-boyfriend.

5.3. While = mientras (que)

5.4. -I love the mountains while my husband prefers the sea.

5.5. As soon as = tan pronto como

5.6. -I’ll phone you as soon as I know the answer. -As soon as he had finished studying, he left.

5.7. Before / after = antes de (que) /después de (que)

5.8. -The train had left before they got to the station. -She went to the gym after she had done her homework.

5.9. Until = hasta (que).

5.10. - We were waiting until she arrived .

5.11. Nota: Las oraciones temporales siguen la regla de la secuencia de tiempos. Esta consiste en que cuando el verbo de la oración principal está en presente o futuro, el verbo de la subordinada está en presente (caso de los ejemplos de when, as o as soon as). Cuando el verbo de la oración principal está en pasado, el verbo de la subordinada también está en alguna de las formas de pasado.

6. De contraste.

6.1. -In spite of / Despite = a pesar de -Although / even though / though = aunque

6.2. La diferencia entre ambos nexos es que los segundo van seguidos de una oración (con sujeto y verbo) y los primeros van seguidos de nombre o un verbo sustantivado (en – ing).

6.3. ALTHOUGH / EVEN THOUGH / THOUGH + CLAUSE

6.4. Although he didn’t have money, he bought the most expensive car.

6.5. IN SPITE OF / DESPITE + NOUN / -ING FORM

6.6. In spite of not having money, he bought the most expensive car.

6.7. Despite the rain, we went out for a walk.

6.8. Nota: Podemos también usar in spite of the fact / despite the fact (that) + clause = a pesar del hecho de que.

6.9. In spite of the fact that it was raining, we went out for a walk.

6.10. While y whereas = mientras que

6.11. - He is lively and easygoing whereas his sister is rather shy

6.12. However, nevertheless, yet = no obstante, sin embargo, aun asi.

6.13. - She didn’t want to have more children.. However, she might change her mind. - Joshua felt ill, yet he went to work.