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1. Future

1.1. Infinitive + e, as, a, emos, an

1.2. Used to describe an object in the future

2. Present

2.1. Drop the ar/er/ir at the end of the verb and add:

2.2. (AR) o, as, a, amos, an

2.2.1. (ER/IR) o, es, e, imos, en

2.3. Used to express what you are doing.

2.3.1. ex: I eat.

3. Subjunctive

3.1. Adverbial Caluses

3.1.1. A fin de que, a menos que, a no se que, antes de que, con tal de que, en caso de que, no sea que, para que, sin que

3.2. Adjective Clauses

3.2.1. Replaces the adjective, so use the adjectival when the antecedent is non-existent

3.3. Nominal Clauses

3.3.1. A noun clause takes the place of a noun.

3.3.2. Anything “triggers” subjunctive except truth or certainty.

3.3.3. W.E.I.R.D.O

3.4. Imperfect: hubiera, hubieras, hubiera, hubieramos, hubieran

3.4.1. Perfect: haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan

4. Present Progressive

4.1. The present progressive is formed by combining the verb "to be" with the present participle

4.2. Drop the ending and replace:

4.3. Ar-ando

4.4. Er/Ir- iendo

4.5. Used to describe what you are doing.

4.5.1. ex: I am eating

5. Preterite

5.1. AR= e, aste, o, amos, aron

5.2. ER/IR= i, iste, io, imos, ieron

5.3. Completed actions, specific events, specific times, beginning/end, summary, non-action verbs

6. Infinitive

6.1. To+Verb=infinitive

6.2. When to is missing: special verb+direct object+infinitive-to

7. Ser vs Estar

7.1. Ser

7.1.1. Characteristics, origin, profession, time, posession

7.1.1.1. To be (name, lazy, smart, etc.)

7.1.1.2. ex: Soy Jonathan (I'm Jonathan forever, I'm never not going to be Jonathan)

7.1.2. Soy, eres, es, somos, son

7.2. Estar

7.2.1. Location, state, progressive

7.2.1.1. How someone/something is at the moment.

7.2.1.2. ex: estoy triste (I'm sad for the moment, but I could be happy later.)

7.2.2. Estoy, estas, esta, estamos, estan

8. Saber vs Conocer

8.1. Saber

8.1.1. To know facts, to know how to do something

8.1.1.1. ex: I know when the war of 1812 was.

8.2. Sustantivo + ser + dar + dueno

8.2.1. Mi, tu, su, nuestro, su

8.2.1.1. ex: My mother; Mi madre.

8.3. Conocer

8.3.1. To be familiar with someone or something

8.3.1.1. ex: I know a little about Madrid.

9. Possesion

9.1. To indicate ownership

9.1.1. There are 5 possessive adjectives: mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro

9.1.1.1. Three possessive adjectives (mi, tu, su) have only two forms, singular and plural. Mi-mis, tu-tus, su-sus

9.1.1.1.1. Ex. Mi comida esta fria. My food is cold

10. Imperfect

10.1. AR= aba, abas, aba, abamos, aban

10.2. ER/IR= ia, ias, ia, iamos, ian

10.3. Descriptions, background, age, time, action verbs

11. Progresive

11.1. Part 1.

11.1.1. Estar= estoy, estas, esta, estamos, estan

11.1.1.1. I am doing something

11.1.1.1.1. ex: I'm talking -> Estoy hablando.

11.2. Part 2.

11.2.1. Gerund- verb+ando/iendo

11.2.1.1. I do something

12. Articles

12.1. Definite arcticles

12.1.1. ex: give me that cookie.

12.1.1.1. Indefinite articles

12.1.1.1.1. ex: give me a cookie.

12.2. el, la, los, las

12.2.1. a few

12.2.2. un, una, unos, unas

13. Perfecto

13.1. Replaces an adjective

13.1.1. Pluperfect: habia, habias, habia, habiamos, habian

13.1.1.1. had done something

13.1.1.1.1. ex: I had never done that before!

13.1.2. Present: he, has, ha, hemos, han

13.1.2.1. have done something

13.1.2.1.1. ex: I have never done something like that!

13.1.3. Futuro: habre, habras, habra, habremos, habran

13.1.3.1. will do something

13.1.3.1.1. ex: I will never do something like that!

13.1.4. Conditional: habria, habrias, habria, habriamos, habrian

13.1.4.1. would do something

13.1.4.1.1. ex: I would do that, but I don't have time!

13.2. Made up of a helping verb and a past participle

13.2.1. Helping Verbs extend the meaning of the verb

13.2.1.1. Past Participle: drop infinitive ending, add ado/ido

14. Por vs Para

14.1. Para=destination, purpose"in order to"do, deadline, comparison to the"norm", indicate employer, to/for whom

14.1.1. Ex. Este regalo es para Juan. - This gift is for Juan

14.2. Por= reason, cause, period of time, through space, imprecise location/time, means of communication/transportation, exchange,indicating substitution

14.2.1. Ex. Gracias por la informacion - thanks you for the information

15. Interrogatives

15.1. Que, cual, cuanto, quien, donde, como, por que,cuando

16. Imperativo

16.1. Presente "yo"

16.2. Drop "o"

16.3. Opposite Ending

16.4. Ex: Hablar: x, hables, hable, hablemos, hablen

17. Reflexive Verbs

17.1. A verb is reflexive when the subject and object are the same.

17.1.1. Ex. I wash myself. I being the subject, wash being the verb, and myself being the object.

17.1.2. Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive.

18. Directos y Indirectos

18.1. Direct= me, te, lo/la, nos, los

18.1.1. Indirect= me, te, le, nos, les

19. Indefinitvos y Negativos

19.1. Indefinitivos: alguien, alguno, algo, cualquiera, tambien, siempre

19.2. Negatives: nadie, ninguno, nada, tampoco, nunca

20. Conditional

20.1. Frequently used to express probability

20.1.1. would, cound have, probably, or must have

20.2. Infinitive + ia, ias, ia, iamos, ian

20.2.1. ex: hablar-> hablaria

20.2.1.1. comer -> comeria

21. Demonstratives

21.1. este (this), ese (that), aquel (that over there)

22. Comparativos

22.1. más (menos) + adjective + que más (menos) + adverb + que más (menos) + noun + que

22.1.1. Used to compare things

22.1.1.1. ex: You are taller than I am

23. Superlativos

23.1. Used to say that someone/something is the absolute best at something

23.1.1. definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de

23.1.1.1. ex: John is the smartest in the class

23.1.1.1.1. ex: Steve is the best athlete in the world.

24. Igualdad

24.1. Comparisons using like or as

24.1.1. tan + adjective (adverb) + como

24.1.2. ex: The book is as good as the movie.

25. La Voz Pasiva con Ser

25.1. You use SER + the past participial to form the Voz pasada.

25.1.1. The past participial agrees with the modified name

25.2. You do not use the voz pasiva with : verbs of emotion, progressive time.

26. La Voz Pasiva con Se

26.1. SE+the 3rd person singular or plural verb - to express those actions where there is not a specific subject.

26.1.1. Ex. Se habla Espanol, Se venden biciletas