Religion

EB
Ebbie B

chapter 7 notes

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Religion por Mind Map: Religion

1. Field Note

1.1. The useless relics in the Soviet Union are to remind the people of our victory and their freedom

1.1.1. The Russian Orthodox Church posed the greatest potential challenge to communist rule

1.2. In more remote corners of the Soviet Union, where Islam was firmly established, the communist rulers tolerated Islamic practice among the old, but not young

1.3. when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the Russian Orthodox Church revived dramatically

2. What Is Religion, And What Role Does It Play In Culture?

2.1. religion and language are the foundation of culture

2.1.1. both confer and reflect identity

2.2. religions diffuse through expansion diffusion, including both contagious and hierarchical, and religions diffuse through relocation diffusion.

2.3. cultural landscape is marked by religion

2.3.1. church, synagogues, temples, mosques, cemeteries, shrines, statues and symbols

2.4. Worship of the souls of ancestors who have taken place in natural objects

2.4.1. behaviors during waking hours through ritual and practice and during periods of sleep

2.5. prayer is common in many religions

2.6. Secularism

2.6.1. indifference to or rejection of formal religion

2.7. Regardless of the religion, or amount of adherents, or location, organized religion has a powerful effect on human societies

3. Where Did The Major Religions Of The World Originate, And How Do Religions Diffuse?

3.1. 3 categories based on their approaches to the concept of divinity

3.1.1. Monotheistic Religions

3.1.1.1. worship a single deity, God or Allah

3.1.2. Polytheistic Religions

3.1.2.1. worship more than one deity, even thousands

3.1.3. Animistic Religions

3.1.3.1. centered on the belief that inanimate objects such as mountains, boulders, rivers, and trees, possess spirits and therefore be revered

3.2. By 500 BCE, four major hearths of religion and philosophy were developed in the world

3.3. The World Maps Of Religions Today

3.3.1. any map of world religions is a generalization, and caution must be used when making observations from the map.

3.3.2. the shadings on the map show the major religion in an area, a significant number of followers.

3.3.3. some of the places that belong to a certain religion are places where the faiths have recently entered, and traditional religious thoughts influence the dominant faith

3.3.4. in a number of areas many people have moved away from organized religion entirely

3.3.5. Universalizing Religions

3.3.5.1. actively seeks converts because they see themselves as offering beliefs of universal relevance and appeal

3.3.5.1.1. few in number and of recent origin

3.3.6. Ethnic Religion

3.3.6.1. members are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought

3.4. From The Hearth Of South Asia

3.4.1. Hinduism

3.4.1.1. ranks third after Christianity and Islam as a world religion

3.4.1.1.1. one of the oldest religions in the modern world, going back 4000 years

3.4.1.2. Diffusion Of Hinduism

3.4.1.2.1. evolved in Pakistan and migrated to the Ganges River and diffused throughout South Asia and into Southeast Asia

3.4.2. Buddhism

3.4.2.1. broke from Hinduism over 2500 years ago

3.4.2.1.1. appeared in India as a reaction to questions about Hinduism's teaching at the time

3.4.3. Shintoism

3.4.3.1. found where Buddhism mixes with a local religion in Japan

3.4.3.1.1. related to Buddhism

3.5. From The Hearth Of The Huang He River Valley

3.5.1. Diffusion of Chinese Religions

3.5.1.1. Confucianism diffused early into the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia

3.5.1.1.1. the diffusion of Chinese religions even within China has been touched by the Chinese government's effort to suppress religion in the country

3.5.2. Taoism

3.5.2.1. the beginning is unclear, but scholars trace the religion to an older contemporary of Confucius, Lao-Tsu

3.5.2.1.1. concept of Feng Shui

3.5.3. Confucianism

3.5.3.1. mainly a philosophy of life, and had great impacts on Chinese life.

3.5.3.1.1. Confucius came to be revered as a spiritual leader after his death in 479 BCE

3.6. From The Hearth Of The Eastern Mediterranean

3.6.1. Judaism

3.6.1.1. grew out of the belief system of Jews, one of the several nomadic Semitic tribes living in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago

3.6.1.1.1. lie in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one God

3.6.2. Diffusion of Judaism

3.6.2.1. the scattering of Jews after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem is known as the diaspora

3.6.2.1.1. Jews were sustained by extraordinary efforts to maintain a sense of community and faith

3.6.3. Christianity

3.6.3.1. can be traced back to the same hearth and Judaism

3.6.3.1.1. stems from a single founder, Jesus

3.6.3.2. Eastern Orthodox Church

3.6.3.2.1. suffered when the Ottoman Turks defeated Serbs in Kosovo in 1389, when the Turks too Constantinople in 1453, and when he Soviet Union suppressed Eastern Orthodox churches in the 20th century

3.6.3.3. Roman Catholic Church

3.6.3.3.1. claims the most adherents of all Christian denominations

3.6.3.3.2. during the Middle Ages, Roman Catholic authorities showed their power in an autocratic manner and distanced themselves from the masses

3.6.3.4. Protestants

3.6.3.4.1. compose the third major branch of Christianity

3.6.3.5. Largest and globally the most widely dispersed religion

3.6.3.5.1. claims more than 1.5 billion adherents

3.6.4. Diffusion of Christianity

3.6.4.1. the dissemination of Christianity occurred as a result of expansion combined with relocation diffusion

3.6.4.1.1. a form of contagious diffusion took place as the religious ideas spread throughout western Europe

3.6.5. Islam

3.6.5.1. youngest of the four major religions

3.6.5.1.1. traced back to a single founder

3.6.5.2. divided between Sunni Muslims (great majority) and the Shi'ite or Shiah Muslims (concentrated in Iran

3.6.5.2.1. occurred after Muhammad's death

3.6.6. Diffusion of Islam

3.6.6.1. Muhammad and his followers had converted kings on the Arabian Peninsula to Islam

3.6.6.1.1. spread the faith across the Arabian Peninsula through invasion and conquest

3.6.7. Indigenous and Shamanist

3.6.7.1. Indigenous Religions

3.6.7.1.1. local in scope, have a reverence for nature, and are passed down through family units and groups of indigenous peoples

3.6.7.2. Shamanism

3.6.7.2.1. faith in which people follow their shaman- religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary

3.6.8. The Rise Of Secularism

3.6.8.1. hundreds of millions do not practice a religion at all

3.6.8.1.1. the level of secularism throughout much of the Christian and Buddhist worlds varied from country to country regionally within countries

3.6.8.2. secularism is increasing in the United States

3.6.8.2.1. the division between secularism and fervent adherence is not confined to the Christian world

4. How Is Religion Seen In The Cultural Landscape?

4.1. marks cultural landscapes with houses of worship such as churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples

4.1.1. In ancient human history, sacred spaces were typically features in the physical geographic landscape

4.1.1.1. features in the physical geographic landscape remain sacred to religious groups

4.2. Sacred Sites of Jerusalem

4.2.1. the ancient city of Jerusalem is sacred to Jews, Christians, and muslims

4.2.1.1. Jews saw it as sacred before the birth of Jesus

4.2.1.1.1. the Temple Mount was the site of the two great temples of the Jewish people

4.2.2. For Christians, it is sacred because of the sacrifice of Abraham was willing to make of his son at the Temple Mount and because Jesus' crucifixion took place outside of the city's walls

4.2.3. Muslim armies took control over the city from the Byzantine Empire

4.2.3.1. Muslims constructed a mosque called the Dome of the Rock

4.2.3.1.1. Christians and Muslims fought the Crusades over the control of Jerusalem

4.2.4. Muslims ultimately retook Jerusalem in 1187

4.3. Landscapes of Hinduism and Buddhism

4.3.1. traditional Hinduism is a way of life

4.3.1.1. the cultural landscape of Hinduism is the cultural landscape of India

4.3.1.1.1. when Buddha received enlightenment, he sat under a large tree, the Bodhi, at Bodh Gaya in India

4.3.2. Buddhism's architecture includes the famed structures at Borobudur in central Java

4.3.2.1. we can see evidence of religion in the cultural landscapes of the dead

4.4. Landscapes of Christianity

4.4.1. the cultural landscapes of Christianity's branches reflect the changes the faith had undergone over the centuries

4.4.1.1. in medieval Europe the cathedral, church, or monastery was the focus of life

4.4.1.1.1. because of mercantilism, and colonialism, Europeans exported the ornate architecture of European Christian churches wherever they settled

4.4.2. other churches in secular regions are closing their doors or decreasing services significantly

4.4.3. not all of Europe's sacred sites have become secularized

4.5. Religious Landscapes in the United States

4.5.1. demonstrates considerable diversity in its religious cultural landscapes

4.5.1.1. the New England is strongly Catholic; the South's leading denomination is Baptist; the Upper Midwest has large numbers of Lutherans; and the Southwest is predominantly Spanish Catholic

4.5.1.1.1. the variation in cultural landscapes within regions is very interesting

4.6. Landscapes of Islam

4.6.1. mosques rise above the townscape dominate Islamic cities, towns, and villages

4.6.1.1. five times a day, from the minarets, the faithful are called to preyer

4.6.1.1.1. Muslim architects incorporated earlier Roman models into their designs

4.6.2. Hajj

4.6.2.1. Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca

4.6.2.1.1. some sects of Islam see non-hajj pilgrimages at non-Islamic

4.7. The Former Yugoslavia

4.7.1. A number of religious and linguistic fault lines run through the Balkan Peninsula

4.7.1.1. divisions between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church

4.7.1.1.1. the Balkan Peninsula is also a dividing line for language in Europe

4.7.1.2. continued in 2006 when Montenegro voted for independence in a referendum

4.7.2. Albanian Muslims in Kosovo demanded autonomy

4.7.2.1. The Serbian leadership responded with a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Kosovo Albanians in 1999

4.7.2.1.1. drove out people in whole numbers

4.7.2.2. after failed attempts to reach an agreement, in 2008, the Kosovars unilaterally declared the founding of the new independent state of Kosovo

4.8. Northern Ireland

4.8.1. Northern Ireland and Great Britain, England, Scotland, and Wales form the UK

4.8.1.1. in the 1200s, the English began to infiltrate Ireland and take control of its agricultural economy

4.8.1.1.1. Protestants from the island of GB migrated to Ireland during the 1700s to Northern Ireland to take advantage of the political and economic power granted to them in the colony

4.8.2. The british treated the Irish catholics harshly

4.8.2.1. in the 1900s, the Irish rebelled against British Colonialism and were successful throughout most of the island (Catholic dominated)

4.8.2.1.1. economic stagnations for both populations worsened the situation, and the Catholics felt that they were being repressed

4.8.3. IRA

4.8.3.1. Irish Republican Army

4.8.4. The Troubles

4.8.4.1. nationalism, economics, oppression, access to opportunities, terror, civil rights, and political influence

4.8.4.1.1. Religion and religious history

4.8.5. Belfast Agreement & Good Friday Agreement

4.8.5.1. the April 1998 adoption of an Anglo-Irish peace agreement

4.8.5.1.1. Northern Ireland finally realized a tenuous peace in 2007 when the Northern Ireland Assembly was reinstated

4.8.6. Peace Walls

4.8.6.1. giant barriers between Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods

4.8.6.1.1. more have been constructed since the signing of the Belfast agreement

4.9. Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism

4.9.1. Religious Fundamentalists

4.9.1.1. religious leaders and millions of their followers who seek to return to the basics of their faith

4.9.2. Religious Fundamentalism

4.9.2.1. often caused because of frustration over the perceived breakdown of society's mores and values, lack of religious authority, failure to achieve economic goals, loss of a sense of local control, or a sense of violation of a religion's core territory

4.9.3. Religious Extremism

4.9.3.1. fundamentalism carried to the point of violence

4.9.4. Christianity

4.9.4.1. giving rise to disputes

4.9.4.1.1. birth control, family planning, and the role of women in the religious bureaucracy

4.9.5. Judaism

4.9.5.1. the most conservative of the three major sects of Judaism is Orthodox

4.9.5.1.1. much diversity exists among Orthodox Jews, with varying views on Israel, education, and interaction with non-Orthodox Jews

4.9.5.2. Kach and Kahane Chai

4.9.5.2.1. a Jewish extremist group

4.9.6. Islam

4.9.6.1. The Taliban regime seized control of much of the country during the 1990s and asserted the strictest fundamentalist regime in the contemporary world

4.9.6.2. Jihad

4.9.6.2.1. an Islamic holy war

4.9.6.3. Osama Bin Laden

4.9.6.3.1. one of the key people in the Islamic extremist movement of the past decade

4.9.6.4. Wahhabi Islam

4.9.6.4.1. called for a return to a purportedly pure variant of Islam from centuries earlier

4.9.6.5. the greatest potential for extremist support comes from those who feel that they are losers in the contemporary global economy

4.9.6.5.1. non-Islamic cultures need to convey an understanding of the gap between main stream and fundamentalist Islam, and support the economic and political efforts of genuinely democratic forces in Islamic countries

5. What Role Does Religion Play In Political Conflicts?

5.1. religious beliefs and histories can cause conflict between similar people

5.1.1. religious conflicts usually involve more than differences in spiritual practices and beliefs

5.1.1.1. the religious conflict in Ireland is not just about different views of Christianity, and the conflict between Hindus and Muslims in India has a strong political as well as religious dimension

5.2. Conflicts Along Religious Borders

5.2.1. some countries lie entirely within the realms of individual world religions , whereas others straddle interfaith boundaries

5.2.1.1. the boundaries between the world's major faiths

5.2.1.1.1. many countries that lie astride interfaith boundaries are subject to potentially divisive cultural forces

5.2.2. Intrafaith Boundaries

5.2.2.1. the boundaries within a single major faith

5.2.2.1.1. include divisions between Christian Protestants and Catholics, div's between Muslim Sunni and Shi'ite, and the like

5.3. Israel and Palestine

5.3.1. the region of Israel and Palestine is home to one of the most contentious religious conflicts in the world today

5.3.1.1. In the aftermath of World War I, European colonialism came to a region that had been controlled and fought over by Jews, Romans, Christians, Muslims and Ottomans

5.3.1.1.1. In the wake of World War II and the Holocaust, many more Jews moved to the region

5.3.2. The Israeli gov't controls the flow of Palestinians and goods in and out of the West Bank and Gaza Strip

5.3.2.1. the situation in Israel an Palestine today does not reflect a simple interfaith boundary

5.4. Nigeria

5.4.1. Nigeria is a good is fairly evenly divided between Muslims in the North and Christians in the South

5.4.1.1. Nigeria has witnessed persistent violence between these communities that has cost tens of thousands of lives

5.4.1.1.1. the causes of north-south violence is not only due to different religious beliefs