Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality

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Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality por Mind Map: Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality

1. Field Note

1.1. Today, in the United states, brick-making is done by technology, and not by hand

1.1.1. Gender

1.1.1.1. a culture's assumptions about the differences between men and women

1.1.1.2. their characters, the roles they play in society, what they represent

1.2. Factory managers in poorer countries hire young female workers because they see women as an expendable labor pool

1.2.1. young women are primarily the supporters of their families in poorer countries

1.2.1.1. often, they migrate from rural areas and travel to cities or central industrial locales to produce and earn a wage that they send home

1.3. In the US, labor is gendered by when work requires heavy lifting that needs to be done, it needs to be done by men, and unionized, well paying jobs go to men

1.4. society creates boxes in which we put people and expect them to live

1.4.1. rarely do the social relations that create gendered divisions of labor focus only on gender

2. What Is Identity, And How Are Identities Constructed?

2.1. Identity

2.1.1. How we understand ourselves

2.2. Identifying against

2.2.1. we first define the "other", then ourselves

2.2.1.1. One of the most powerful ways to construct an identity

2.3. State nationalism has been a powerful force

2.3.1. identities that can trump state nationalism in certain contexts and certain scales of interaction

2.3.2. beyond this, we use language and religion, race, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality also help to create identities as well

2.4. Race

2.4.1. the product of ways of viewing minor genetic differences that developed as modern humans spread around the world

2.4.1.1. In precolonial Africa, lines of division sometimes reflected differences in skin tones among people who Europeans all viewed as "black" during the colonial time period

2.4.2. Racism

2.4.2.1. socioeconomic differences can fuel the sense of superiority attached to the race

2.4.3. differences in skin color, eye color, and hair color likely result history of adaptation to a certain environment

2.4.3.1. humans living in low latitudes had darker skins

2.5. Race And Ethnicity in the United States

2.5.1. race is an identity that is commonly more assigned

2.5.1.1. residential segregation, racialized divisions of labor, and the categories of races recorded by the USCB and other gov't and non gov't agencies

2.5.1.2. in many respects, racial identity is not a self-consciously constructed collection of characteristics, but a condition which is imposed by a set of external social and historical constraints

2.5.2. Tiger Woods defines himself as a Cablinasian

2.5.2.1. Caucasian, Black, American Indian, and Asian

2.5.3. to be Hispanic

2.5.3.1. excludes people from Latin America who are not native Spanish speakers

2.5.3.2. Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin

2.5.4. in 2000, the most prevalent race was White

2.5.5. the population of “everyone else” projected to surpass the population of “White, non-Hispanic” in the U.S

2.5.5.1. this is predicted to happen in 2042

2.6. Residential Segregation

2.6.1. degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment

2.6.2. U.S. city was the most racially segregated for African Americans in 2010

2.6.2.1. Milwaukee, Wisconsin

2.6.2.2. American Indians and Alaska Natives was Phoenix-mesa, Arizona

2.6.2.3. Asians/Pacific Islanders was San Fransisco

2.6.2.4. For Hispanics/Asians, Baltimore, Maryland

2.6.3. in some of the most segregated cities, people know where the "other" lives and will purposefully choose to live in neighborhoods with people like themselves instead

2.7. Identities Across Scales

2.7.1. One way to view a person's many identities is to tree them as nested, on inside the other

2.8. The Scale Of New York City

2.8.1. New York City is the most diverse U.S. city

2.8.1.1. tithe most popular Hispanic cultures in NYC are Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans

2.8.2. Succession

2.8.2.1. when new immigrants to a city often move to low-income areas that are slowly becoming abandoned by older immigrants groups

2.8.3. the large-scale immigrant flow from the Dominican Republic in 1965 resulted in a distinct neighborhood and cultural landscape

2.8.3.1. the cultural landscape of Washington Heights is clearly Dominican-from store signs to the presence of the color of their flag

2.8.4. Since 1990, the largest growth in the Hispanic population has been Mexican

3. How Do Places Affect Identity, and How Can We See Identities in Places?

3.1. Sense of place

3.1.1. State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certian character

3.1.2. identity is connected to our sense of place

3.1.2.1. by feeling that you belong to the place, you feel comfortable, or at home, because part of how you define yourself is symbolized by certain qualities of that place

3.2. Ethnicity and Place

3.2.1. stems from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a certain place over time

3.2.2. causes for racial conflicts

3.2.2.1. differences in economics, power, language, religion, lifestyle, or historical experience

3.2.3. Chinatown in Mexicali

3.2.3.1. the town of Mexicali is the capital of the State of Baja California

3.2.3.1.1. one of the largest Chinatowns in Mexico is located here

3.3. Identity and Space

3.3.1. space

3.3.1.1. social relations stretched out

3.3.2. place

3.3.2.1. particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together, over time, in that particular location

3.3.3. gendered

3.3.3.1. places seen as being appropriate for women of for men

3.3.4. in 2010, the Census added same-sex marriage to their counts

3.3.4.1. same-sex households are concentrated in cities with well-established gay and lesbian neighborhoods

4. How Does Geography Reflect And Shape Power Relationships Among Groups of People?

4.1. Power relationships

4.1.1. assumptions and structures about who is in control and who has power over others

4.2. Just Who Counts?

4.2.1. in our culture, white people are more powerful than others

4.2.2. the statistics gov't's collect, and don't collect, reflect power relationships by having less information to compare to others governments

4.2.2.1. the most commonly used statistic on productivity is the GNI (gross national income)

4.2.2.1.1. does not evaluate work in the home

4.2.2.1.2. doesn't include the unpaid women in the household, or the work done by rural women in less wealthy countries

4.2.3. the number of women in the "official" labor force is rising while the proportion of men in the labor force declined around the world between 1990 and 2010

4.2.3.1. women continue to get paid less and have less education and access to food than men

4.2.4. informal economic activity

4.2.4.1. privat, often home-based activity such as tailoring, beer brewing, food prep, and soap making

4.3. Vulnerable Populations

4.3.1. Vulnerability

4.3.1.1. fundamentally influenced by geographically specific social and environmental circumstances

4.3.1.2. Sarah Halvorson

4.3.1.2.1. studied differences in the vulnerabilities of children in northern Pakistan

4.3.1.3. Joseph Oppong

4.3.1.3.1. recognized that the spatial analysis of a disease can reveal what populations are most vulnerable in a country

4.3.1.3.2. HIV/AIDS is much more prevalent among homosexual and bisexual mean than among heterosexual men and women

4.4. Women in Subsaharan Africa

4.4.1. rural areas are dominated numerically by women

4.4.1.1. women have heavy responsibilities, couples in many places with few rights and little say

4.4.1.1.1. Women produce about 70% of the region's food

4.4.1.1.2. the women left in the villages often struggle for survival

4.4.2. In Uganda, South Africa, and Rwanda, women's political representation is improving

4.4.2.1. women hold more legislative seats

4.5. Dowry Deaths in India

4.5.1. dowry deaths

4.5.1.1. conflict over the dowry which is the price to be paid by the bride's family to the groom's father have led to the death of the bride

4.5.2. Oprah Winfrey and Lisa Ling rescaled the issue of dowry deaths

4.5.2.1. to the issue to the global scale- to create activism in the West and create change at the local scale in India

4.5.3. gender relations and power structures are changing in India

4.6. Shifting Power Relations Among Ethnic Groups

4.6.1. when the economy is booming, residents are more accepting of each other

4.6.1.1. when the economy takes a fall, residents often begin to resent each other

4.6.2. In California, and in much of the rest of the US, the "Asian" box is drawn around a stereotype of what some could call the "model minority"

4.6.2.1. myth of the model minority

4.6.2.1.1. paints Asians as good, hardworking people who, despite their suffering through discrimination, harassment, and exclusion, have found ways to prosper through peaceful means

4.6.3. Power Relations in Los Angeles

4.6.3.1. Over the past four decades, the greatest migration flow into California and the southwestern U.S. has come from Latin America and the Caribbean, especially Mexico

4.6.3.2. Barrioization

4.6.3.2.1. a dramatic increase in the Hispanic population in a given neighborhood

4.6.3.3. the buildings, signage, and landscape changed as "traditional Hispanic housescape elements, including the placement of fences and yard shrines as eel as the use of bright colors

4.6.3.4. In April 1992 Los Angeles was “engulfed in one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in U.S. history.

4.6.3.4.1. during the two days of rioting 43 people died

4.6.3.4.2. announcement of the "not guilty" verdict in the trial of 4 white police officers accused of using excessive force in the videotaped arrest of Rodney King