My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education por Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives

1.1. Functionalism

1.1.1. Functional values and functional perspectives believed that moral values were what allowed society to function successfully and as a whole unit. Functional schools group students based on appropriate values, and group students according to their individual abilities. The functional point of view created structures, programs, and curricula that encourage moral values and social unity.

1.2. Conflict Theory

1.2.1. Conflicts theories of education do not believe that social unity is held together by share value. In this perspective, the glue that holds society together is economic, political, cultural, and military forces and power. This perspective believed that dominant groups should force their beliefs on the less dominant groups by force, manipulation, and cooptation. Social unity is not a collective choice or agreement. The Weberian approach of education spun from this perspective. This approach viewed school organizations and processes as status competition and organizational constraints. Willard Waller's perspective associated children noncompliance with school rules as a form of rebellion because they were forced to go to school against their will. Karl Marx's perspective believes that their is a direct relationship between society and education and until

1.2.2. Interactionalism

1.2.2.1. This critique arises from the beliefs that functional and conflict theories are very abstract and focuses on the large scales social processes such as, social stability, instead of the smaller social processes. Small scale social processes focus on interactions between individuals, group discussions, and group dynamics. This theory argues that the functional and conflict theories do not provide a realistic snapshot of what schools are like on an everyday level.

1.3. 5 Effects of schooling on Individuals

1.3.1. Employment- Most of society believes that graduating from college will lead to greater job opportunities, they are right. Most larger corporations require a higher education level for many of their job opportunities. Society agrees that schooling is important to land these types of jobs, but studies show that the amount education is unrelated to job performance. Evidence also shows that schooling determines who gets the high status occupations, but schooling does not teach essential job skills. Individuals learn how to do their job by doing them . Individuals that obtain a college degree, is related to higher income. Obtaining a college degree is important for earning more money, but education alone does not throughly explain the differences in levels of income.

1.3.1.1. Knowledge and Attitudes- Sociologist disagree about the amount of knowledge and attitudes that are obtained from schooling. Society does not disagree that schooling has a positive impact on student development, but there is controversy surrounding how significant school effects are, when students social class background is taken into account. There is a direct correlation between higher social class background and achievement level. Research indicated that the type of school a student attends matters. Differences in academic programs and policies make a difference in learning. Ron Edmonds was one of the first researchers to prove this theory to be true. He proved that academically oriented schooling produces higher rates of successful learning. Education is also related to an individuals sense of self and self-esteem. In conclusion, more years of successfully schooling leads to greater knowledge and greater participation in society.

1.3.1.1.1. Education and Mobility- Americans believe that higher education levels lead to economic and social mobility and that individuals rise and fall based on their individual worth. Hopper made a point that their is a difference in educational route and the amount of education one obtains. The number of years of education is a measure of educational attainment, but where people obtain their education affects their individual mobility. For example, when a student attends a private school instead of a public school. The students may have the same amount of education, but the private school diploma may look more appealing because is presents a more prestigious route. However, data reveals that education alone does not provide individuals with significant amounts of economic and social mobility.

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. Education Reform

2.1.1. I believe one of the most important reform movements was The Rise of the Common School and to make education available to more children. This period took place from 1820-1860. By 1820, the schools that had been created by the pre-war generation were not functioning correctly, effectively, and those schools were not giving all children the opportunity to have an education. Most children did not attend school at all. They would get in trouble and reformers believed that proper schooling would help them escape poverty and help create good citizens.The majority of Americans in this Ear were not illiterate, they were just denied proper education. The struggle for free public education was led by a Massachusetts lawyer named Horace Mann. I read about Mann's childhood and he can relate to not having proper education because he only attended school 10 weeks a year and the rest of the time was spent on the family farm. Horace Mann campaigned for the first state board of education that was eventually established in 1837 in Massachusetts. Mann also helped establish the first normal school in Lexington Massachusetts, in 1839. This movement helped create taxes to build better schools, increased teachers salaries, and to implement training schools for teachers to teach those essential qualities to be successful in the classroom. By the mid 1800's most states had accepted that public education should be free, that teachers should be trained properly, and children are required to attend school. Although this movement was essential for the beginning of many great educational laws that we still use in the 21st century, schooling was still not offered to everyone, particularly African Americans and Women. Horace Mann and this reform era, laid the foundation for creating equal education opportunities for everyone.

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal School Interpretation

2.2.1. Democratic-liberals believe in providing equality of education and opportunity for all. These specific interpretations strived to expand educational opportunities to all segments of society and decrease the view that school was only for the privileged and rich. They longed to provide expansion of equal opportunities and a more stable purpose for education. This involved more diverse groups of students went to school for longer periods of time, the educational goals became more diverse, and to implement social goals as much as intellectual goals. American education should be provided to anyone who wants one!

3. Politics of Education

3.1. The Purposes of Education

3.2. 1. Intellectual Purpose- To develop the basic cognitive skills such as mathematics, reading, writing, etc. These types of skills help students acquire higher order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

3.3. 2.Political Purpose- To teach children to be a good citizen,what it means to participate in democracy, and teach children the laws of our society.

3.4. 3. Social Purpose- To help children develop social an moral responsibility. This purpose helps students develop into the various roles of society, which is referred to as socialization.

3.5. 4.Economic Purpose- To prepare students for future occupational preparation. Each schools roles in this preparation varies, ,but most schools have an indirect effect in this process.

3.6. The Role of School

3.7. Liberal Perspective- The Liberal perspective aims at providing ALL students with the necessary educational tools to receive an EQUAL opportunity needed to succeed in society. The liberal perspective stresses the importance of social and moral roles in society. They also stress the importance of understanding and respecting the deep cultural diversity in society. This understanding will help children successfully fit into a diverse society. The liberal perspective also finds it very important to be educated on citizenship in a democratic society and the many laws of society needed to be a good citizen. The liberal perspective also stresses the importance of schools enabling individuals to develops their sense of self.

3.8. Explanations of unequal performance

3.9. The liberal perspective believes that children start school with different life situations, such as socioeconomic status, leading to some students having an advantage over others. Liberals believe that society must attempt to level the playing field with these unfortunate differences through implementing policies and procedures so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have the EQUAL opportunity to succeed as other students.

3.10. Definition of educational problems

3.11. The liberal perspective argues that: 1. Schools limit the opportunities of poor and minority children. These students are treated unequal and the problem of underachievement by these disadvantaged groups is a critical issue. 2. They believe schools are placing too much emphasis on discipline and losing opportunities to help students develop as individuals. 3. The difference between the quality of schools with low socioeconomic backgrounds and high socioeconomic backgrounds is a critical problem related to skewed and unequal results. 4. The traditional curriculum leaves out the importance of teaching children about the many diverse group that makes up society.

4. Philosophy of Education- Pragmatism/Progressivism

4.1. Pragmatism/Progressivism- This specific philosophy encourages students to find strategies that work in order to achieve their end goals. The creators of this philosophy were thought to be Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. There are European researchers from earlier periods such as, Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques that were believed to practice pragmatism. Rousseau. Generic Notions- Dewey's theory formed the idea that gaining an education would better our society. Children could learn skills experientially, from books, and traditional information that would help them participate in a democratic society. Dewey's idea of education is often referred to as progressive, meaning that education start with the needs and interest of each individual child, allow more participation in in planning their course of study than traditional classrooms, implement group discussions and learning, and rely on experiential learning. This progressive method relied on the idea that children are continuously growing and changing and their curriculum should reflect their stages of development. Democracy was very important to Dewey and enable students to participate successfully in society would help maintain the democratic way of society. Goal of Education- Dewey's vision of education was linked to social order and education should help students prepare to successfully participate in a democratic society. Dewey believed that taking a diverse group of students and uniting them cohesively to participate in a democratic society. The book states that the most important role of education was growth ( personal and societal), to make quality meaning of their personal experiences and their ability to direct those specific experiences, and humans that will actively participate in the creation of a good society. Role of the Teacher- In the progressive setting , the traditional method of teaching where the teacher is the ONLY authoritarian is old news. The teacher in this role is considered a facilitator and encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps the students implement courses of study. The teacher also writes the curriculum with many different methods for teaching because student are widely diverse. Methods of Instruction- This philosophy integrated that children learn individually and in groups.Children showed their interest by asking questions about what they wanted to know and learn. This method is known as the problem-solving inquiry method today. Traditional instruction was eliminated and classrooms used books that were written by teachers and students, more field trips were implemented, and projects were used in each course of study. Even the layout of a traditional classroom was discarded and trades for tables and chairs that could be moved around as needed. Curriculum- The curriculum for progressive schools follow a core curriculum or integrated curriculum and all the academic and vocational disciplines worked in interconnected and interchanging ways.The curriculum is not set in stone, the curriculum changes as the social order changes or as students interests and needs change. This is such a great student centered philosophy that teaches students so much more than a passing standardized tests. This philosophy prepares students for their future endeavors.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Elements of change

5.1.1. 1. Conflict is a vital part of change in the school system. School will allow problems or challenges to resurface, so conflicts can be resolved properly. 2.New behaviors must be acquired. Change requires news relationships and behaviors to be acquired, so an effective change process contains communication, trust, proving leadership the chance to solve the conflict, communicate effectively, and collaborate . 3. Team building is essential for the entire school. Decisions that need to be made must be ongoing and shared throughout the school, so that the school does not create a resistance to change.4. Process and content are directly correlated with each other and are equally important. The solidity of a project depends on the trust and collaboration of the team and the school. The outcome of the project will acquire and effect future commitments and relationships among the staff, school, and others involved.

5.2. State and Local Education Stakeholders

5.2.1. State Senators- Jeff Sessions and Richard Shelby. House of Representatives- Terri Collins. State of Superintendent- Cynthia McCarty. Representative on State School Board-Billy Rhodes. Local Superintendent- Bill W. Hopkins. Local School Board- Michele Gray King, Peggy Baguette, Karen Duke, Dwight Jett, Donnie Lane.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. The Developmentalist curriculum

6.1.1. This curriculum it student centered and directly based on the needs and interests of the children at particular developmental stages, rather than focusing on societal needs. This curriculum originated from Dewey's view on the relationship between the child and the curriculum and content was equally as important as the process of teaching. The main focus is reaching the maximum capacity of each individual child and the flexibility of the teaching process and curriculum helped accomplish this goal. The developmental curriculum found ways to relate schooling to personal experiences in ways that would create meaningful experiences for students. Growth was very important and teachers are facilitators not dictators in the classroom.

6.2. The Transformative tradition

6.3. This tradition believes that the main purpose of education is to meaningful change students individually, spiritually, intellectually, creatively, and emotionally. The transmission of knowledge is not the only essential quality of education and this tradition rejects the teacher as the authorities figure in the classroom. The tradition belies that teaching and learning are interrelated. Students are an active part of their own learning process and the use of questioning is a huge part of this methodology.

6.4. The Mimetic tradition

6.5. Is a very traditional approach to education where teachers transmit knowledge to students through lecture or presentation.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. 1.Class- Students comes come from many different backgrounds and social classes. Social classes directly correlates to the different kind of educational backgrounds students will have. We all know education is expensive. The longer students stay involved in school, the larger chance that the student will need monetary support from his/her parents. This is more likely to occur with the wealthier families and middle class families, while less likely to occur with the underclass and working class families. Wealthier families are likely to put more pressure on their children to finish school. Schools typically represent the values on the middle and upper classes. Studies have shown that the number of books within a family’s home is related to the academic success of its children. Standard English is more likely to be used by the middle and upper class children because they have access to more books. Teachers tend to think more highly of middle and upper class students than they do of the working class or underclass children because they do not speak Standard English. This leads to teachers labeling students based on their social class backgrounds. Data proved that peer groups have a significant effect on students’ motivation toward learning. Social class is directly correlated to success and to educational achievement. There is also a direct correlation between family income and children’s performance on tests. Money leads to a better education as well as more motivation and engagement to succeed. 2.Race- Unfortunately, race still plays a major role in the amount of education one will achieve. For example, more African American and Hispanic students are more likely to drop out of school before white students. Lower levels of proficiency among these minority groups leads to lower SAT scores compared to white students. SAT scores are directly correlated to admission to college and scholarships for study in post secondary institutions. Society has made if difficult to decipher between race and class. Minority students receive fewer educational opportunities compared to white students. The reason this occurs varies within society. 3.Gender- In the past, women were less likely to attain the same level of education as men. In the 21st century, women are less likely to drop out of school and have higher levels of reading and writing proficiency compared to men. Men tend to score higher in mathematics. Teachers tend to automatically assume that female will not do as well as males in math, so females are not given the same opportunity as males. Gender differences in educational attainment have been significantly reduced between men and women. There are still significant advantages for men in society. Society still finds ways to discriminate against women in occupational roles and societal roles.

7.2. The Coleman Study

7.2.1. The Coleman Study compared the test results of sophomores in private and public schools. The studies revealed the private schools scored better in every subject over the public schools. The initial study showed that private schools were more effective in learning environments than public schools because they place a higher emphasis on academic activities and discipline. The activities that they use are more focused on student achievement. The private schools were known for demanding more from their students than public schools. In the 1985 study, Coleman found that there were difference in public and private schools, but in the terms on significant differences in learning, the results were not significant. In round three in 1966, Coleman argues that race and socioeconomic status directly correlated to academic success.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivations Theories

8.1.1. The cultural deprivation Theory suggest that the working class and nonwhite families lack the necessary resources, such as books and other educational resources to be successful in school. They believe that they have a major disadvantage. The theory also suggest that the poor have a a culture and live a life that lacks in value compared to the middle-class culture. Middle class culture values hard work, motivation, and engagement. This perspective also states that middle class culture values the importance of schooling in future success. The culture of poverty is totally different from the middle class culture. The poverty culture delays gratification for immediate reward, they do not believe in hard work and engagement for future success. Poverty does no view schooling as a mean for future success or occupational roles.

8.2. School- Centered Explanations

8.2.1. 1.School Financing- Public schools are funded through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. The majority of the funds comes from state and local taxes, including local property taxes. The property taxes are a proportional tax because they are based on the value of a property within a community. Property values are obviously higher in more affluent areas compared to poverty areas. This helps these affluent areas raise more money for schools in this form of taxation than poorer communities. Another important note is that the more affluent communities have higher incomes so they pay proportionately less of their incomes for their higher school taxes. In conclusion, the richer communities can provide more funding per student than poorer communities. 2. Effective School Research- Ronald Edmonds suggessted that researchers need to compare schools within the same type of socioeconomic communities. Ronald Edmonds argued that if there are differences among students within the same socioeconomic communities, then there must be school differences. This could imply that the teaching and learning practices are different and more effective. 3. Between school differences- Research has suggested that school climates affect academic performance and there has been extensive research to prove that there is class-based difference within schools. Bernstein studied schools in England and found that schools in working class communities are more likely to be driven by and authoritarian figure and students engage in teacher led intrusion rather than student centered approaches found in the middle class communities. Middle class communities have a less authoritarian led classroom and a more students centered approach to help prepare students for college. Upper class students are more likely to attend private schools with an authoritarian led classroom with a college led curriculum. 4. Gender and Schooling- Most Feminists argue that schooling restricts educational opportunities and later life chances for women. Women and men are given different opportunities through a variety of school processes. The curriculum illustrated men's and women's roles in society's stereotypical and traditional ways. The traditional curriculum often eliminates important aspects of women's history. Research shows that the gender roles are portrayed through classroom organization, instructional practices, and classroom interactions. Vivian Gornick argued that women deserve equality in the public and private school systems.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1) Privatization- Privatization is the process of turning the operation of public schools over to private companies. In the 1990's the difference between private and public schools became hard to distinguish differences between the two. For example, for profit companies such as Kaplan and Sylvan Learning Centers, have numerous contracts for supplemental learning under NCLB. School- 2) Business Partnerships- During the 1980's businesses took the initiative to partner with the nations schools to produce graduated that are ready to enter the workforce successfully. One of the most popular was the Boston Compact that began in 1982. In these agreements, Schools pledged to offer management assistance and training to implement a site- based management plan. Some of the other school-business partnerships consisted of scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs to help businesses adopt a school.

9.1.2. 1) School Finance Reforms- School finances become a problem when the funds are unequally distributed among the rich and poorer school districts. This causes unequal educational opportunities and outcomes for students. The reform passed in 1990 stated that more funding was needed in the poorer school districts to provide the same opportunities for students as the richer school districts received. The court also ruled additional funding to implement additional programs in order to diminish disadvantages within the poorer districts. In 1998 Abbott V implemented additional programs such as, preschool, renovation of school facilities, whole school reform, full day kindergarten, preschool and to provide additional space for all educational programs at Abbott schools. The School Finance Reforms strive to improve schools and provide equal educational outcomes for low-income and minority children. 2) No Child left behind- No child left behind was the most influential federal legislation governing state and local educational policies in U.S. history This educational policy was based on the findings that low income school districts are inadequate at supplying equal opportunities for their students. NCLB strives to eliminate the social class and race achievement gap. The key components of NCLB are: Annual testing, schools are required to report data on students test performance, states must set adequate yearly progress goals ( AYP), schools that don't meet AYP should be labeled in need of improvement, and schools must have qualified teachers for the core academic subjects. Advocates of NCLB thought that if students were given the same standards across the board, the achievement gap would diminsh.