Research as storytelling: Current literature regarding the use of video in mixed methods research

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1. Properties of video as a tool for storytelling/research

1.1. Video as an epistemological tool - Goldman, R. (2007). Video representations and the perspectivity framework: Epistemology, ethnography, evaluation, and ethics. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 37, 3–37. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Video+representations+and+the+perspectivity&ots=0p8M_d3y0M&sig=kVsEiC03EOLA0ul9wV2WJlw2s1w

1.2. Video Research as ethnography and ethnographic stroytelling - Goldman, R. (2007). Video representations and the perspectivity framework: Epistemology, ethnography, evaluation, and ethics. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 37, 3–37. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Video+representations+and+the+perspectivity&ots=0p8M_d3y0M&sig=kVsEiC03EOLA0ul9wV2WJlw2s1w

1.3. Video as antidotes makes the video research more impactful and meaningful than statistical data - Miller, K., & Zhou, X. (2007). Learning from classroom video: What makes it compelling and what makes it hard. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 321–334. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA321&dq=learning+from+classroom+video&ots=0p8M_eYwZM&sig=72Tp4PpzvaEJybW7wT9a7ViWukc

1.4. Video as entertaining and artistic. It can be pleasurable to watch

1.4.1. Difference in creating video for popular consumption versus more realistic, ethnographic videos - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

1.4.2. Video as social scientific articles and works of art; video as entertaining and artistic - Tobin, J., & Hsueh, Y. (2007). The poetics and pleasures of video ethnography of education. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 77–92. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA77&dq=poetics+and+politics+of+video+ethnography&ots=0p8M_d4v2J&sig=23zeUZ8TSzXIGc9Shh3Jg7bkv5E

1.4.3. Ethnographic documentary has a strong narrative that pulls the viewer through the video - Erickson, F. (2007). Ways of seeing video: Toward a phenomenology of viewing minimally edited footage. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 145–155. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA145&dq=Ways+of+seeing+video&ots=0p8M_d4y0M&sig=ArYspFB9QDHGXtersPFY1ythXz4

2. Properties of the camera/video itself

2.1. Devices and avenues for sharing

2.1.1. Youtube can be used to popularize research - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.1.1.1. Creates an open, participatory, collaborative style of research - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.1.2. Using a website to present multi-media research - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.2. Constraints with video

2.2.1. Confidentiality - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.2.2. Acting for the camera - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.2.3. Adopted without proper consideration - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.2.4. Difficulty disseminating research - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.2.5. When and what to record- selectivity - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.3. Cameras increase our ability to look and see

2.3.1. Confusion is minimized when referring back to video footage - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.3.2. Video can be used to help teachers distance themselves from their experience and objectify their teaching and classroom - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.3. Having predetermined shooting goals (not having to capture everything) and focusing on protagonists - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.3.1. Having "key informants" but also interviewing a wide variety of subjects - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

2.3.4. Videography is interpretive - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.5. Different camera modes- Responsive (looks & explores, but doesn't interfere), Interactive (interviews, filmmaker and subjects in film), Constructive (editing) - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.6. Video can challenge and disrupt assumptions - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.7. Video capture is selective, not everything is shown - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.8. Being thoughtful about representativeness when presenting a phenomena - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

2.3.9. Allows for exploratory research - MacDougall, D. (2011). Anthropological filmmaking: An empirical art. The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 99–113. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA99&dq=anthropological+filmmaking&ots=HJSxkeUqiZ&sig=6ehyecczEEBrMB_M-n-QNxt5tMk

3. Properties of the person/researcher

3.1. Researcher as participant-observer - Rollwagen, J. R. (2014). Anthropological Filmmaking: Anthropological Perspectives on the Production of Film and Video for General Public Audiences. Routledge. Retrieved from Anthropological Filmmaking: Anthropological Perspectives on the Production of Film and Video for General Public Audiences by J.R Rollwagen - Books on Google Play

3.1.1. QUESTION: Can a classroom be a culture?

3.1.2. This causes bias and the video helps objectify the teacher - Roth, W.-M. (2007). Epistemic mediation: Video data as filters for the objectification of teaching by teachers. In Ricki Goldman, Roy Pea, Brigid Barron, Sharon J. Derry (Ed.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 367–382). Lawrence Erlbaum Ass Mahwah, NJ. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA367&dq=Epistemic+mediation+video+data+as&ots=0p8M_eZv_K&sig=cG0ssBe4m8_rAqy26f7CogGQfLg

3.1.3. Video as a tool for reflecting on our own teaching - Roth, W.-M. (2007). Epistemic mediation: Video data as filters for the objectification of teaching by teachers. In Ricki Goldman, Roy Pea, Brigid Barron, Sharon J. Derry (Ed.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 367–382). Lawrence Erlbaum Ass Mahwah, NJ. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA367&dq=Epistemic+mediation+video+data+as&ots=0p8M_eZv_K&sig=cG0ssBe4m8_rAqy26f7CogGQfLg

3.1.3.1. Video creates opportunities to reflect and revisit the situation - Sossi, D. (2013). Digital Icarus? Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development, 339. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7VsrAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA339&dq=%22Digital+icarus%22&ots=xlQecLscPH&sig=01id9h68hDzlEtxqtWTYnXbDJ3E

3.2. Video researcher wears many hats- producer, instructional designer, researcher, teacher - Derry, S. J. (2007). Video research in classroom and teacher learning (Standardize that!). Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 305–320. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA305&dq=video+research+in+the+classroom+and+teacher+learning&ots=0p8M_d5B3M&sig=cJvc9nTTPr_dVzQ7EgXDJ4pbDZA

4. Properties of consuming video as a researcher/viewer

4.1. Converting materials from observation to records to artifact to dataset to pattern

4.1.1. Emergent coding of video - Knoblauch, H., & Tuma, R. (2011). Videography: An interpretative approach to video-recorded micro-social interaction. The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods, 414–430. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=upJFnpgpF5wC&oi=fnd&pg=PA414&dq=knoblauch+Tuma&ots=HJSxkeUwmT&sig=SsATmSdUSD-nuDDetNqg8BjZ2fs

4.1.2. Images deserve same seriousness and rigor in research as other materials. See conclusion - Newbury, D. (2011). Making arguments with images: Visual scholarship and academic publishing. In Eric Margolis & (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods. na.

4.1.3. Coding video doesn't have to be quantitative/counting - Barron, B. (2007). Video as a tool to advance understanding of learning and development in peer, family, and other informal learning contexts. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 159–187. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA159&dq=video+as+a+tool+to+advance+understanding&ots=0p8M_d4C1O&sig=2hwjX9iiDF1-YH52vwLXSZ_uCUk

4.2. Each viewer brings own filter to the content and can see the event differently

4.3. Ways to evaluate video: Wholeness, Being there/being with, Perspectivity, Genre consistency, Authenticity, Chronological verisimilitude, Conviviality, Resonance, Immersion, Commensurability - Goldman, R. (2007). Video representations and the perspectivity framework: Epistemology, ethnography, evaluation, and ethics. Video Research in the Learning Sciences, 37, 3–37. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7HZ9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Video+representations+and+the+perspectivity&ots=0p8M_d3y0M&sig=kVsEiC03EOLA0ul9wV2WJlw2s1w