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Semioticians par Mind Map: Semioticians

1. Roland Barthes

1.1. Theory: Roland Barthes reinvented four dichotomous concepts of Saussure's linguistic sign and modifies them for semiological analysis.

1.1.1. Example: The animal Fox *Denotation: a wild mammal belonging to the dog family that has a pointed face and ears, a wide tail covered in fur, and often reddish-brown fur. *Connotation: apromiscuous woman

1.2. The fourth and the most important dichotomy pertains to the terms denotation and connotation. - Denotation is the relationship between a sign and its reference or technical meaning. - Connotation is posed as the reference of a sign posed by a culture.

2. Ferdinand de Saussure

2.1. Theory: Saussure's theory is dichotomous because it is formed by opposite pairs that in turn are complementary. For Saussure, linguistic studies can be diachronic or historical or synchronic over a concrete moment. In his general linguistics course, he proposes language as the object of study of linguistics as a system of signs that is found in everyone's mind. In this sense language is social and homogeneous. On the other hand, speech is the individual manifestation of language, that due to its variety and individuality it is impossible to study it. However, these are related to each other as language makes speech understood and speech the push to become established.

2.1.1. Example:the word computer (singifier) Picture and definition of computer (signified)

2.2. Saussure understood that the sign consists of the association of an acoustic image called signifier and a concept that he called signified and the relationship that exists between the two is arbitrary.

3. Charles S. Pierce

3.1. Theory: For Peirce the sign is constituted by three elements: - Representamen (it is the sign, a material quality, sounds, words, etc.) - Object (it is the element of reality to which the sign refers) - Interpreter (it forms a new sign).

3.2. For Peirce the new sign formed by the process of the triad is called "infinite Semiosis" is given when every sign can be interpreted by another sign, that is to say that a sign can give way to a new one and is formed by the relationship between the sign and the object. This can be explained through three levels: * Icon: is a symbol that is similar to its object. * Index: The object has a direct connection with the signifier. * Symbol: the sign is not shown exactly as the signifier.

3.2.1. Example: The sound of rain is the representative The rain is the object The interpretant is what we know will cause the rain.

4. Jacques Derrida

4.1. Theory: Derrida is known for his "deconstruction work" which is basically a critique of concepts that we cannot eliminate but need them in order to think, which means to make a deep revision of all our statements. He also mentioned about the game of signification.

4.1.1. Example: *dogs: loving, homely, quiet, calm *cats: mischievous, noisy, sleepy

5. Emile Benveniste

5.1. Theory: * He divided a mor complex system of the sing in three parts: - Language -Discourse -Subjectivity *He promoted that it is impossible to have a sign or a meaning without having both parts, that is, "I" and "YOU".

5.1.1. Example: * A theatrical play: "Romeo and Juliet".