My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education par Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Prospective

1.1.1. Individuals have ability to thrive in a market economy. Address issues on individual level

1.1.2. Supports back to basics - strengthening literacy & math skills

1.1.3. Includes minimum skill requirements for grade level advancement

1.2. Progressive View

1.2.1. Views schools as a means to solve societies problems

1.2.2. Includes radicals to left-wing liberals

1.2.3. Problems should be addressed to the society, not the individual

2. History of US Education

2.1. "Rise of the Common School" Reform movement

2.1.1. Led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts

2.1.2. Advanced publicly funded public schools

2.1.3. Set up the first teacher training schools or "normal schools"

2.2. Roberts vs. City of Boston

2.2.1. this ruling encouraged blacks to build separate schools

2.2.2. black schools were not publicly funded as the white schools were - they were funded by churches and abolishionists

2.2.3. Black universities sprung up but could not provide equal opportunity education compared to white schools

2.2.4. KKK, & Jim Crowe laws, & Black Codes continued to be an issue with equal education into the 20th century

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Outside the school

3.1.1. Employment - corporations require college degrees for white collar jobs

3.1.2. Social Mobility - people believe they rise and fall in society based on their educational merits

3.1.3. Knowledge & Attitude - Ron Edmonds: academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning, people with higher education often have greater self-esteem

3.2. Inside the school

3.2.1. Teacher behavior- teachers set expectations for the students - higher expectations may be set for students who are from a higher class or are believed to be more likely to succeed

3.2.2. Peer Groups & Alienation - groups of students that pressure each other to be "bad" will not achieve high grades, "tech" students are often seen as headed toward blue collar work, "college bound" groups support each other and strive for high grades

3.2.3. Inadequate schools - private and larger city schools have the means to provide a richer education than smaller urban or inner city schools

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Progressivism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Gain a better society through education - teaches students to work together in a democratic society

4.1.1.2. Curriculum should reflect the growth stages of children's development

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. John Dewey

4.1.2.2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.2.3. John Locke

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Improve social order (democracy) by striving for cooperative communities

4.1.3.2. Dewey- growth of social reform

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. facilitator

4.1.4.2. asks questions / offers suggestions

4.1.4.3. writes curriculum to align with social changes

4.1.5. method of instruction

4.1.5.1. independent or small groups

4.1.5.2. students are not made to be rigidly still - can move or whisper as needed

4.1.6. curriculum

4.1.6.1. changes as social order changes

4.1.6.2. balance between traditional curriculum with the needs and interests of the children

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. my US Senators

5.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.2. Jeff Sessions

5.2. my US Representatives

5.2.1. Mo Brooks

5.3. my AL Senators

5.3.1. Steve Livingston

5.4. my AL Representatives

5.4.1. James T. Hanes

5.5. AL state BOE

5.5.1. Dr. Tommy Bice - Superintendent

5.5.2. Jeffrey Newman- VP

5.5.3. Dr Yvette Richardson- Pres. Pro Tem

5.5.4. Mary Scott Hunter - District 8 - (includes Jackson County)

5.6. Jackson County BOE

5.6.1. Kevin Dukes - Superintendent

5.6.2. John Lyda

5.6.3. Kenneth Storey

5.6.4. Charles West

5.6.5. Cecil Gant

5.6.6. Chad Gorham

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Pedagogical Progressivism stresses the relationship between schooling and the activities of the adults within society

6.1.2. Standardized tests were developed to place students in similar ability classrooms

6.1.3. Sees school as a mechanism to adjust the individual to society

6.2. Sociological Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. Social Meliorist Curriculum: radical wing of Progressivism - stressed schools should change society

6.2.2. organized curriculum into categories: academics & vocational - for the most part, students took classes from one area or the other

6.2.3. the amount of academics or vocational classes offered in any given school are in direct correlation with the societal class of the students

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Achievement & Attainment of Hispanic American students

7.1.1. Still today lag behind white students

7.1.2. By and large, Hispanic Americans are working class; therefore, social aspects may effect school conditions and teacher effectiveness.

7.1.3. Low-income & minority students are less likely to be placed in advanced classes.

7.2. Response to the Coleman study

7.2.1. Round one- Coleman concluded school differences were not important in student outcomes (1966)

7.2.1.1. scholars set out to classify the characteristics of effective schools

7.2.1.2. sociologists examined & reexamined Coleman's data

7.2.2. Round two- Coleman compared public schools to private schools - private schools out performed public schools every time (1982)

7.2.2.1. Catholic schools were found to not have as much of an achievement gap as other private schools

7.2.2.2. Catholic schools seem to advantage low-income minority students while becoming more elite & like suburban public schools

7.2.3. Round three-

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Social Theory of Inequality- Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Families from lower socioeconomic classes do not have books and other educational stimuli at home.

8.1.2. Lower classes of people do not value the same things (education) as higher class people.

8.1.3. Oscar Lewis, anthropologist, advanced this thesis about poverty in Mexico.

8.2. School-centered theory of Inequality-Financing

8.2.1. Property taxes are based on land values. More affluent neighborhoods will raise more money for schools than will poorer neighborhoods.

8.2.2. Equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment allows for equal opportunity for all Americans - Legal actions have been taken because of the unequal distribution of school funds.

8.2.3. Federal financing would have to make up the difference between property tax revenues of affluent and poor neighborhoods. This is controversial because schools would be financed through federal income tax.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. school to work programs

9.1.1. allows students to explore different careers & see what skills are required

9.1.2. skills, obtained from structured training and work-based learning experiences, including necessary skills of a particular career as demonstrated in a working environment

9.1.3. valued credentials, establishing industry-standards benchmarks and developing education and training standards that ensure that proper education is received for each career

9.2. full service school

9.2.1. educate not only the whole child, but the whole community

9.2.2. focus on meeting the student's and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a collaborative fashion between school and community centers within neighborhoods

9.2.3. open extended hours to provide extra services: adult education, health clinics, rec facilities, after-school programs, mental health services, addiction programs, job placement programs, tutoring services