Disenchantment & Ideology

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Disenchantment & Ideology par Mind Map: Disenchantment & Ideology

1. Industrial Revolution 1760

1.1. What?

1.1.1. Application of scientific knowledge to the problem of production

1.1.2. Shifting from hands to

1.1.2.1. Machines

1.1.3. Different interpretations

1.1.3.1. Technology

1.1.3.1.1. Iron Production

1.1.3.1.2. Water Power

1.1.3.2. Market

1.1.3.2.1. Prices on new Inventions

1.1.4. Radical changes in industries

1.1.4.1. Textile

1.1.4.2. Chemical

1.1.4.3. Iron & Steal

1.2. Causes

1.2.1. Stable country

1.2.1.1. Parliamentary monarchy

1.2.2. A lot of coal !

1.2.3. Colonies

1.2.4. High wages

1.2.4.1. Wealth

1.2.4.2. Investments

1.2.5. Population growth

1.2.6. Mindset

1.2.6.1. Open to progress

1.2.6.2. Individualism

1.2.6.3. Hard workers

1.2.7. Revolution 1688

1.2.7.1. Class-system created

1.2.7.1.1. workers available

1.2.7.2. Glorious revolution

1.2.8. Agricultural Revolution

1.2.8.1. Privatized land

1.2.8.1.1. enclosure

1.2.8.1.2. Reconstruct land

1.2.8.2. Liberal economy

1.2.8.3. More mass production

1.2.8.3.1. Small farms gone

1.2.9. Spinning (Jenny) Engine 1764

1.2.9.1. Textile Factories

1.2.9.2. Cotton Mills (1780)

1.3. Why a 'Revolution'?

1.3.1. Economic change

1.3.1.1. Capatalism

1.3.2. Globalisation

1.3.2.1. Colonies

1.3.2.2. Export

1.3.3. Fabrics and Engines

1.3.4. Unplanned

1.3.4.1. ( / unwanted)

1.3.5. Big change in short time

1.3.6. Social&Mental structure society changed

1.3.7. Healthcare

1.3.7.1. Free

1.4. Consequences

1.4.1. Capitalism

1.4.1.1. Rights around work-conditions

1.4.1.1.1. Eventually

1.4.1.2. New middel class

1.4.1.3. All about profit

1.4.1.3.1. time is money

1.4.2. Less farmers

1.4.2.1. femine danger

1.4.3. Family lifes

1.4.3.1. Children working

1.4.3.2. Small houses

1.4.4. Healthcare

1.4.5. Telegraph invented

1.4.6. Transport

1.4.6.1. Locomotive

1.4.6.2. Bicycle

1.4.6.3. Mapping

1.4.7. Beginning of pollution

1.4.8. Globalization

1.4.8.1. Competition between nations

1.4.9. Luddites

1.4.9.1. Against technology

1.4.9.2. They burn factories

1.5. Nowadays

1.5.1. Globalization

1.5.2. Wealth

1.5.3. Capitalist mindset

1.5.3.1. Focus on Growth

1.5.4. Healthcare

1.5.5. Inovations

1.5.6. Cities

1.5.7. (Women)Rights

1.5.8. Education

2. French Revolution1789

2.1. Why?

2.1.1. Financial crisis

2.1.1.1. Marie Antoinette

2.1.1.1.1. Clothes

2.1.1.1.2. Gambling

2.1.1.2. Support American Revolution

2.1.1.3. Taxation problem

2.1.1.3.1. Nobility refused to pay

2.1.2. People mad at the king

2.1.2.1. king fired Necker

2.1.3. Ferturnity, liberty and equality

2.2. Phases

2.2.1. The Moderate '89-'91

2.2.1.1. State General

2.2.1.1.1. 1 vote per estate

2.2.1.1.2. 3 Estates

2.2.1.1.3. Third Estate

2.2.1.2. 1791

2.2.1.2.1. New constitution

2.2.1.3. Many discussions and gossip

2.2.1.4. King supports a revolution

2.2.2. The Radical '91-'94

2.2.2.1. 1793

2.2.2.1.1. King executed

2.2.2.2. Why

2.2.2.2.1. Create a common belief

2.2.2.3. Jacobins started it

2.2.2.3.1. Voice of the people

2.2.2.3.2. Robbers Piere

2.2.3. The Directory '94-'99

2.2.3.1. Third Constitution

2.2.3.1.1. Republic

2.2.3.2. 5 men Directory

2.2.3.3. Napoleon overthrow

2.2.3.3.1. France was unstable

2.2.4. 1804

2.2.4.1. Napoleon crowned himself

2.2.4.1.1. France = Empire

2.2.4.2. Constitution of the year 8

2.3. Communism

2.3.1. Freedom first

2.3.1.1. Equality later

2.4. Napoleon already loved

2.5. Ancient vs Post-Rev.

2.5.1. Power by birth

2.5.1.1. vs

2.5.1.1.1. Power by money

2.5.2. Class system

2.5.2.1. vs

2.5.2.1.1. No classes (intention)

2.5.3. Church&State

2.5.3.1. vs

2.5.3.1.1. Separation

2.5.4. Religious social contracts

2.5.4.1. vs

2.5.4.1.1. Social contract

2.5.5. 3 parties in State Generale

2.5.5.1. vs

2.5.5.1.1. More parties

2.5.6. .

2.5.6.1. vs

2.5.6.1.1. Feeling of Citizenship

2.5.6.1.2. Equality

2.5.6.1.3. abolished slavery

2.5.6.1.4. Caucasian Males part in politics

2.6. Democracy

2.6.1. Totalitarianism

2.6.1.1. End goal

2.6.1.1.1. state has to go

2.6.1.2. Reduce life to Politics

2.6.1.3. Totalitarian

2.6.1.3.1. Absolute and collective purpose

2.6.1.3.2. Perfect scheme of things

2.6.1.4. Too Radical

2.6.1.5. Part of tradition/history

2.6.2. Liberalism

2.6.2.1. Politics = error

2.6.2.2. Society = experiment

2.7. Politics of Modernity

2.7.1. Design society

2.7.1.1. Based on certain ideals

2.7.2. Separation church&state

2.7.2.1. Live happy Individual

2.7.3. Mass Politics

2.7.3.1. Equal

2.7.4. Ethics

2.7.5. Multiple parties

2.7.5.1. Different ideals represented

2.7.6. More National

2.7.7. More intellectual

2.7.8. Meritocracy

2.7.9. Private Propert

2.8. Jacobins

2.8.1. Equality first

2.8.1.1. Freedom later

3. Tocqueville&Democracy

3.1. Who?

3.1.1. French Diplomate

3.1.2. Died 1859 Tuberculose

3.1.3. Influenced by

3.1.3.1. Voltaire

3.1.3.2. Rousseau

3.1.3.3. Montesquieu

3.1.3.4. Individualism

3.2. Development of Democ.

3.2.1. 3 causes America

3.2.1.1. Geographical

3.2.1.1.1. New space

3.2.1.1.2. No enemies

3.2.1.1.3. Already modern equipment

3.2.1.1.4. Free from Tradition

3.2.1.1.5. Little military forces

3.2.1.1.6. Minimal diplomatic obligations

3.2.1.2. Laws & Government Structure

3.2.1.2.1. Principal of sovereignity

3.2.1.2.2. General principles

3.2.1.2.3. Decentralized power

3.2.1.2.4. Checks&Balances

3.2.1.2.5. Bicameralism

3.2.1.2.6. Plurality in parties

3.2.1.2.7. Trias Politica

3.2.1.2.8. Voluntary organisation

3.2.1.2.9. Freedom of press

3.2.1.2.10. Capatalism

3.2.1.3. Manners, customs, religion

3.2.1.3.1. Religion

3.2.1.3.2. Faith

3.2.1.3.3. Segregation

3.3. Equality

3.3.1. America

3.3.1.1. Protestant

3.3.2. Equality planned

3.3.2.1. Long before democracy

3.3.3. More people gained wealth

3.3.3.1. Equality possible

3.3.4. Toc wished

3.3.4.1. Social Equalization

3.4. America vs France

3.4.1. Decentralized power

3.4.1.1. vs

3.4.1.1.1. Centralized power

3.4.1.2. Trias Politica

3.4.2. General ideas represented by parties

3.4.2.1. vs

3.4.2.1.1. Idealism within parties

3.4.3. Educated

3.4.3.1. vs

3.4.3.1.1. Uneducated

3.4.4. Religion possible with democracy

3.4.4.1. vs

3.4.4.1.1. Religion attacked/enemy

3.4.5. Circulation of meterial

3.4.5.1. vs

3.4.5.1.1. People held on the property

3.4.6. Collective goal

3.4.6.1. vs

3.4.6.1.1. No collective goal

3.4.7. .

3.4.7.1. vs

3.4.7.1.1. Constant struggle old vs new

3.4.7.1.2. Constructed ideas implemented

3.4.8. Equal born

3.4.8.1. vs.

3.4.8.1.1. Materialistic 'equality'

3.5. Toc

3.5.1. Succes = Being wealthy

3.5.1.1. Capitalism needed for democracy

3.5.1.2. Wealthy people often seen as being right

3.5.1.2.1. not true

3.5.2. Without right conditions

3.5.2.1. Democracy becomes Despotism

3.5.3. Atomism

3.5.3.1. Danger of too much individualism

3.6. Democratization and Capitalism

3.6.1. It advances and undermines

4. Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

4.1. Who?

4.1.1. Marx

4.1.1.1. Sociologist&economist

4.1.1.2. 2 Periods

4.1.1.2.1. Youthful period

4.1.1.2.2. Older period

4.1.1.3. Born in Trier

4.1.1.4. Seen as radicalist

4.1.1.4.1. thus banned from

4.1.1.4.2. Ended up in London

4.1.1.5. influenced

4.1.1.5.1. by Hegel

4.1.1.5.2. By social question of the IR

4.1.2. Engels

4.1.2.1. Capitalist

4.1.2.1.1. financed Marx

4.1.2.2. Factory holder in Manchester

4.1.2.3. Wrote

4.1.2.3.1. Conditions of the English working class

4.1.2.4. Worked with statistics

4.1.2.4.1. Comparing factories to coutnryside

4.2. Critics on Capitalism

4.2.1. Modern-work

4.2.1.1. Too specialised

4.2.1.1.1. Alienation

4.2.2. Modern-work

4.2.2.1. Insecure

4.2.2.1.1. Fear of being replaced

4.2.3. Antagonistic

4.2.3.1. oppressor vs oppressed

4.2.4. Capitalist vs Proletariat

4.2.4.1. New class from farmers, handworkers etc.

4.2.5. It opposes ideologies on society

4.2.5.1. e.g. time is money

4.2.5.2. Happy/wealthy means money

4.2.6. Profit is theft

4.2.6.1. Exploitation of workers

4.2.7. It will leas to a revolution by the majority

4.2.7.1. self-destruction of the capitalist system

4.2.8. Only religion keeps people going

4.2.8.1. Religion is the soul of the soulless conditions

4.2.8.2. Religion is opium for the people

4.2.8.3. Gives falls hope for the people

4.2.8.4. Religion as a sort of protest against alienation

4.3. Ideas

4.3.1. Base of society

4.3.1.1. = economic forces & relations, production relations

4.3.1.1.1. it defines Class Struggle

4.3.1.2. To change society

4.3.1.2.1. change the base

4.3.2. Communist Manifesto 1848

4.3.2.1. Propeganda pamphlet

4.3.2.2. Main theme

4.3.2.2.1. Class struggle

4.3.2.2.2. Labor

4.3.2.3. Context

4.3.2.3.1. Revolution in Europe

4.3.2.3.2. Bigger Middle Class

4.3.2.3.3. Liberal forces arise

4.3.2.4. Marx

4.3.2.4.1. Production FOR human development

4.3.2.5. Communist revolution will be the end goal

4.3.2.6. Solution

4.3.2.6.1. No private property

4.3.2.6.2. Centralized

4.3.2.6.3. Incomes shared equally

4.3.2.6.4. Free public education

4.3.2.6.5. People allowed to develop multiple talents

4.3.2.6.6. Leisure time

4.3.2.6.7. Abolish nationality

4.3.3. Condition of the British Workingclass

4.3.3.1. Conditions

4.3.3.1.1. Low wages

4.3.3.1.2. Long hours

4.3.3.1.3. Bad Health

4.3.3.1.4. Child labor

4.3.3.1.5. Poverty

4.3.3.1.6. Small houses

4.3.3.1.7. Famine

4.3.3.2. Why

4.3.3.2.1. French Revolution

4.3.3.2.2. Industrial Revolution

4.3.3.3. Everything is in constant change

4.3.3.3.1. Influenced by Hegel

4.4. Theoratical concepts

4.4.1. Materialism

4.4.1.1. Engine of industry

4.4.1.1.1. machinery

4.4.2. Dialectics

4.4.2.1. Way of thinking

4.4.2.2. Progress because of antagonism

4.4.3. Society

4.4.3.1. Defined by classes

4.4.4. Historical development

4.4.4.1. Ongoing with patterns

5. The New Inequality

5.1. Society as an organic body

5.2. Shift from

5.2.1. Ethonology

5.2.1.1. Culture

5.2.2. To Anthropology

5.2.2.1. Race

5.3. 18th C

5.3.1. Human equal to nature

5.4. 19th C

5.4.1. Human superior

5.5. Theocrats

5.5.1. Disenchantment

5.5.1.1. Since enlightenment

5.5.1.2. Rationalism

5.5.1.3. Human unity

5.5.1.3.1. Traditional image

5.5.1.3.2. Monogenism

5.5.1.4. Organic human

5.5.1.4.1. New image

5.5.1.4.2. Polygenism

5.5.2. Men driven by

5.5.2.1. Expression of their traditional social natures

5.6. Human sciences

5.6.1. Appeared

5.6.1.1. 18thC and 19thC

5.6.2. Mind and body

5.6.2.1. No longer separated

5.6.3. Concept of equality

5.6.3.1. Spread in 18th C

5.6.3.2. Legal equality

5.6.3.3. Biological equality

5.6.3.4. Christianity

5.6.3.4.1. Everyone equal in God's eyes

5.6.3.5. 19th C

5.6.3.5.1. Inequality returned

5.6.3.5.2. Scepticisme towards FR values

5.6.3.5.3. Several human sciences born

5.6.3.5.4. Why human sciences ?

5.7. Saint Simon

5.7.1. Telos of society justifies inequality

5.7.2. Organic society

5.7.2.1. Individuals should subordinate himself to the function of the whole

5.7.2.2. No competition

5.7.2.2.1. Everyone has a place to belong

5.7.2.3. Harmony as answer to the chaos of FR

5.7.2.3.1. Comte agrees

5.7.3. 3 Social functions

5.7.3.1. Brain man

5.7.3.1.1. Rational, Intellectual

5.7.3.2. Sensory man

5.7.3.2.1. Sensory-religious people

5.7.3.3. Motor man

5.7.3.3.1. Production people

5.7.3.4. Mix of the three leads to

5.7.3.4.1. Degeneration

5.7.3.4.2. Bad traits dominate the good

5.8. August Comte

5.8.1. 3 stages

5.8.1.1. Theological stage

5.8.1.1.1. Desire to explain with something "God"-ish

5.8.1.1.2. Based on moral judgement, virtue & sin

5.8.1.2. Metaphysical stage

5.8.1.2.1. Critical & scientific

5.8.1.2.2. Abstract principles to explain nature

5.8.1.3. Positive stage

5.8.1.3.1. Cut between abstract and reality

5.8.1.3.2. looks for laws

5.8.2. Positivism pioneer

5.8.2.1. Philosophy based on science

5.8.2.2. Positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena

5.8.3. All science can be reduced to

5.8.3.1. Principles of natural sciences

5.8.3.2. Development of science = progress

5.8.4. Understanding laws

5.8.4.1. In order to improve society

5.9. Thomas Hobbes

5.9.1. Materialistic (utilitarian) view

5.9.2. People driven bij pleasure or pain

5.9.2.1. Physical drives

5.10. Descartes & Locke

5.10.1. Autonomous inner directed thinking self

5.10.2. Decartes

5.10.2.1. Deductive rationalism

5.10.2.1.1. new foundation for certain knowledge

5.10.3. Locke

5.10.3.1. Possessive individualism

5.10.3.1.1. Autonomous self

6. Evolution Theory

6.1. Malthus

6.1.1. Idea of Struggle

6.1.2. Survival of the fittest

6.1.2.1. Best adaptations survive

6.2. Lyell

6.2.1. New species to replace the extinct

6.2.2. Look at the present to explain the past

6.3. Smith

6.3.1. Idea of invisible hand(?)

6.3.1.1. (Free market)

6.4. Lamarck

6.4.1. No extinction only transformation

6.4.1.1. Vertical evolution

6.4.2. Genisis

6.4.2.1. Purpose of perfection

6.4.2.2. Linear

6.5. Darwin

6.5.1. Voyage on the Beagle

6.5.1.1. Noted animals adapt to environment

6.5.2. Wife/cousin Emma

6.5.2.1. Rich

6.5.2.2. Orthodox Christian

6.5.2.3. Supported Darwin

6.5.3. Origin of Species 1859

6.5.3.1. 5 Theories

6.5.3.1.1. Evolution as such

6.5.3.1.2. Common Descent

6.5.3.1.3. Multiplication of species

6.5.3.1.4. Gradualism

6.5.3.1.5. Natural selection

6.5.3.2. No focus on humans but on organisms in general

6.5.4. Rejects

6.5.4.1. Supernatural phenomena

6.5.4.2. Centralism

6.5.4.3. Theology

6.5.4.4. Determinism

6.5.4.4.1. Theory based on chance

6.5.5. Created

6.5.5.1. Anthropocentrism

6.5.5.2. New conception of humans

6.5.5.2.1. We come from the apes

6.5.5.3. New scientific foundation of ethics

6.5.5.3.1. Social Darwinism

6.5.5.4. New thought, populism

6.5.6. Nature was first organic now it's a struggle for survival

6.6. Herbert Spencer

6.6.1. Survival of the best adapted

6.6.1.1. Better name according to Spencer

6.6.2. Social Darwinism

6.6.2.1. Theory applied to society

6.6.2.1.1. Mostly economy

6.6.3. No state regulation

6.6.3.1. Free market

6.6.3.2. Only hard workers should "survive"

6.7. Social Darwinism

6.7.1. Racisme

6.7.1.1. Bad genes

6.7.1.2. Bad generations should die

6.7.1.2.1. Survival of the fittest

7. Weber 1864-1920

7.1. Background

7.1.1. Travels through Germany

7.1.2. Worried about politics

7.1.3. Part of

7.1.3.1. Association for social politics

7.2. Solution

7.2.1. Integrate the working class

7.2.2. State had to embrace socialism

7.3. -Lisms

7.3.1. Socialism

7.3.1.1. Equality

7.3.2. Nationalism

7.3.2.1. Brotherhood

7.3.3. Liberalism

7.3.3.1. Freedom

7.4. Rationalism

7.4.1. Practical

7.4.1.1. Goal oriented action

7.4.2. Substatial

7.4.2.1. Value oriented action

7.4.3. Formal

7.4.3.1. Decision based on rule and law

7.4.4. Theoratical

7.4.4.1. Logic deduction

7.4.4.1.1. Scientific

7.5. Protestant ethics

7.5.1. Always feeling of Guilt

7.5.2. God loves hard work

7.5.3. All work is holy

7.5.4. Community before family

7.5.5. No miracles

7.5.5.1. Science to explain

7.5.6. Predestination

7.5.6.1. Succesfull as a sign of being chosen

7.6. Capitalism

7.6.1. Rationality

7.6.1.1. Disenchanted

7.6.1.2. Iron Cage

7.6.1.2.1. Dehumanizeing

7.6.1.2.2. Machine like

7.6.2. Efficiency

7.6.3. Bureaucratic

8. Mass Democracy

8.1. Weber

8.1.1. Bureaucracy = modernstate

8.1.1.1. 4 necessities

8.1.1.1.1. Hierarchy

8.1.1.1.2. Division of labour

8.1.1.1.3. Consistency

8.1.1.1.4. Qualification (by law)

8.1.1.2. Gives people citizenship

8.1.1.2.1. A sense of belonging

8.1.2. Knowledge is power

8.1.2.1. Laws have authority

8.1.3. Positive

8.1.3.1. Professionals will be elite

8.2. Michels

8.2.1. Moderation theory

8.2.1.1. Bureaucracy leads to oligarchy/elite

8.2.1.1.1. An elite

8.2.2. Pessimistic

8.2.2.1. Elite will be power craving people

8.3. Democracy evolution

8.3.1. Until 1860

8.3.1.1. More personal

8.3.1.1.1. Debates among people

8.3.1.2. Civil rights

8.3.1.3. Rational

8.3.2. 1870-1920

8.3.2.1. Right to vote

8.3.2.1.1. Mass democracy

8.3.2.2. Political rights & parties

8.3.2.3. Weber & Michels

8.3.2.3.1. Need for rationalisation

8.3.3. After 1920

8.3.3.1. Social rights

8.3.3.1.1. Health care

8.3.3.2. Citizenship

8.3.3.2.1. Legal

8.3.3.2.2. Political

8.3.3.2.3. Social

8.3.3.3. Marx & Engels

8.3.3.3.1. Equality and socialism needed

8.3.3.3.2. Liberalism still oppressed

9. Everything else

9.1. Concepts

9.1.1. Republican Democracy

9.1.1.1. Collective thinking

9.1.1.1.1. General will

9.1.1.2. Forced participation

9.1.1.3. Active citizenship

9.1.1.4. Solidarity

9.1.2. Individual

9.1.2.1. Choice to participate

9.1.3. Liberal Democracy

9.1.3.1. Matter of trial and error

9.1.3.1.1. Passive citizenship

9.1.3.2. Freedom as essence in spontaneity

9.1.3.3. Hobbes & Locke