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Theories 저자: Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivist (TeAchnology, 2012), (Hein, 1991), (, 2013), (NDT Resource Centre, 1993),

1.1.1. Build knowledge from experience

1.1.2. Learners construct knowledge from themselves.

1.1.3. Learner construct knowledge individually and socially.

1.1.4. An active process. Learners must engage with the world.

1.1.5. Construction takes longer periods of time.

1.1.6. New information is linked to prior knowledge.

1.1.7. Learning as discovery and experience

1.1.8. Problem based learning

1.1.9. Use manipulative interactive and physical materials.

1.1.10. Encourage student critical thinking, and ask thought provoking questions. Teacher should be 'asking,' not 'telling' Teachers are in continuous conversation with students.

1.1.11. Teacher as a facilitator

1.1.12. Encourage student initiative and autonomy

1.2. Connectivism (Gutierrez, 2008), (Siemens, 2012)

1.2.1. Theory of the digital age

1.2.2. Learning consists of using non-human devices.

1.2.3. Decision making is itself a learning process.

1.2.4. Learning is a process of connecting information sources. ability to see connections Maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning. Learning is not about content, but rather connection.

1.2.5. Focuses on diversity of opinion.

1.2.6. Inclusion of technology

1.2.7. Give students numerous opportunities to connect with social networks.

1.2.8. Teachers provide the activities, so that students can make the connections.

1.3. Cognitive Load, (OLL, 2006)

1.3.1. Two types of memory: Working memory and long-term memory. Working memory is limited to the amount of information it can hold. Long-term memory is essentially unlimited.

1.3.2. Learning requires students to be actively engaged in the comprehension of instruction material.

1.3.3. If the resources of working memory are exceeded, then learning will be ineffective.

1.3.4. Teachers should reduce repetitive information as muhc as possible.

1.3.5. Use auditory and visual information

1.3.6. Chunking information

1.3.7. Use goal-free problems

1.3.8. Students learn better when words are presented as speech.

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Media Ecology (Jenanie, 2012), (Logan, 2006)

2.1.1. Media Ecology influences society.

2.1.2. Technology changes society and the environment we have grown from.

2.1.3. Medium is the message

2.1.4. Technology influences all walks of life.

2.1.5. Media as environments

2.1.6. Study the complex communication systems

2.2. SCOT (Shaping Science Policy, 2012), (ecsb, 2009)

2.2.1. Social Construction of Technology

2.2.2. Human interests shape technology

2.2.3. No 'right' or 'wrong' technologies, as all have the potential to be shaped differently, depending on which groups are using them.

2.2.4. Examine the social context of technological innovation.

2.2.5. Variety of social groups competing to control a design.

2.2.6. Technology cannot be understoodwithout understanding how that technology is embedded in social contexts.

3. TPACK (Kohler, 2012)

3.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.1.1. Content Knowledge: Teacher's knowledge about the subject to be learned or taught. Includes theories, ideas, concepts, knowledge of proof and evidence etc.

3.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge: Teacher's knowledge about the processes/practices or methods of teaching and learning. Inlcudes how students learn, classroom management skills, lesson planning, student assessment.

3.1.3. Technology Knowledge: Knowledge about certain ways of thinking about, and working with technolohy,tools and resources. Includes understanding technology and knowing how to apply it productively.

3.2. Framework that identifies the knowledge teachers needs to teach effectively with technology.

3.3. TPACK theory is represented as a venn diagram with each perspective (Technology, Pedagogy, Content) overlapping

3.3.1. Goes beyond seeing the three knowledge bases in isolation- they all influence each other and work together.

3.4. Teachers ensure that every situation is unique and dynamic, based on culture, demographics, and school-specific factors.

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. Philosophy of teaching shares your beliefs on your teaching practices.

4.2. Philosophy of teachnology includes your beliefs on using technology in the classroom based on your teaching practices.