21st Century Teacher

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21st Century Teacher 저자: Mind Map: 21st Century Teacher

1. Professional Identity

1.1. Teacher Identity

1.1.1. The teacher can act as a "guide on the side" which is a more non-traditional style of teching. This involves understanding the needs of the student, giving many options for understanding, and more student lead projects

1.1.2. Teachers can also act as a 'sage on the stage" which would be a traditional method of teaching. These teachers teach the curriculum and to the test, they lecture in front of their students, have a quiet classroom and do nor deviate from the lesson plan

1.2. Educational Philosophy

1.2.1. "The idea that the focus of education should be the universal truths conveyed through the classic and profound thoughts and works that have lasted through the centuries and have recurred in each generation." (Martin, D & Loomis, K, 2006, pg 46)

1.2.1.1. Perennialism is the educational philosophy that everyone should be taught from classic literature , the teacher is a guide on the side but the students learning is based on a classic body of knowledge

1.2.2. The essentialist believes there are certain basic or essential knowledge, skills, and understandings students should master

1.2.2.1. Essentialism is an educational philosophy based on memorizing basic knowledge and skills to be a productive member of a workplace. They teach to the test, and a more back to the basics approach.

1.2.3. students determine what they need to study, guided, of course, by the teacher.

1.2.3.1. Teachers following the philosophy of Existentialism would base their teaching on the needs of the student. The student investigates themselves and make their own meaning of the world

1.2.4. Social reconstructionists believe that world crises require the use of education to facilitate the development of a new social order, one that is truly democratic in nature. Schools are seen as agents of the reformation of society rather than as transmitters of knowledge

1.2.4.1. Social Reconstructivism is focused on social justice and to educate students to become democratic citizens of the world

1.2.5. educational theory marked by emphasis on the individual child, informality of classroom procedure, and encouragement of self-expression

1.2.5.1. The philosophy of Progressivism gives students the freedom to create their own development. Focused on project based learning, teachers provide experiences to students

1.3. Theoretical Approaches to Learning

1.3.1. Humanism is the belief that humans themselves are intrinsic learners and will learn best when they can make personal connections with the subject at hand.

1.3.1.1. Maslows Hierarchy: When a person has their basic needs met they we become self-actualized (Theories of Educational Psychology Lecture)

1.3.2. Behaviorism is the use of different types of reinforcement to encourage certain behaviors. Positive reinforcement can be used in the classroom through treats, gold stars, stickers etc. Negative reinforcement such as writing names on the whiteboard or no recess can also be used to discourage negative behavior

1.3.3. Understanding Information Processing can also be important to consider when approaching learning. Students can encode information in their short term memory but also retrieve it from their long term memory. Sensory stimulation can also be used in learning

1.3.4. Constructivism is when students learn by constructing their own personal meaning in the subject

1.4. Self Reflection

1.4.1. "You don't know what you don't know strive for intellectual humility" (Sensoy, O & DiAngelo, R, 2012, pg 167)

1.4.1.1. Have an open mind, make connections, don't dismiss information, pose questions

1.4.2. "Everyone has opinions, opinions are not the same as informed knowledge" (Sonsoy, O & DiAngelo, R. 2012, pg 168)

1.4.2.1. when we have difficulty understanding a concept, the easiest thing is to give a personal response, use small groups to deepen understanding

1.4.3. "Let go of anecdotal evidence and examine patterns" (Sensoy, O & DiAngelo, R. 2012, pg 170)

1.4.3.1. teach social justice issues, let the framework of the course expand your own personal knowledge

1.4.4. "Use your reactions as entry points for gaining deeper self-knowledge" (Sensoy, O & Di Angelo, R. 2012, pg 171)

1.4.4.1. questions require research and knowledge than bold statements, if you accept information what may be ethically required

1.4.5. "Recognize how your social positionality informs your reactions to your instructor and those whose works you study in the course" (Sensoy, O & DiAngelo, R. 2012, pg 173)

1.4.5.1. What blind spots do you have, are their topics that you do not understand as well due to your positions and background

1.4.6. Grades and Effort

1.4.6.1. assignments must demonstrate comprehension, grades are not assigned for how hard the student works but on the outcome of that work, more focused on the what rather than the why

2. History

2.1. Residential Schools

2.1.1. Residential schools are schools that aboriginal children were sent to from 1876 to the late 20th century . The purpose of these schools was to assimilate the first nations people in canada

2.2. Quebec Act

2.2.1. The Quebec Act was passed in 1774 making Canada officially bilingual. This had profound implications for education in Canada as it was law for education to be provided in both English and French. This resulted in the francophone and french immersion programs that we have today (Dr. Frank Peters)

2.3. Charter of Rights and Freedoms

2.3.1. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms gave every person in Canada the right to an education in their pefered language of english or french

2.4. Influence of the Church

2.4.1. The christian influence was always very prevalent in the history of Canada. They wanted their children to learn about specific Catholic teachings in schools. This resulted in the Catholic schools and school boards that we have today (Dr. Frank Peters)

3. Structure and Institution Governing Education in Alberta

3.1. Curriculum

3.1.1. In the Ministerial Order the premier Jim Prentice said that, " students will study subjects learn reading, writing and mathematics"(J. Prentice, 2013) This reflects a more back to the basic approach to education as the premier is more focused on making sure that the students know the basic skills that they need to.

3.1.1.1. Various different parties including government, teachers, administration, and businessmen. For example, recently a parent discovered that her child did not have a good understanding in math, she then made a petition and successfully changed the curriculum

3.2. School Boards

3.2.1. In the province the school boards are responsible for ensuing that the curriculum is followed, deals with budget allocations, and highers new teachers for the district

3.3. Structure

3.3.1. In Alberta the ministry of education makes important decisions regarding the allocation of money to the school districts in the province. The money is then given to the schools boards which divide it out to the different schools in their district

4. Current Issues

4.1. Social Justice

4.1.1. The teaching of social justice issues has become a controversial issue in education today. These are issues and topics that must be dealt with in a sensitive manner. It is very important to judge when it is acceptable to teach social justice issues. Students can come from all different types of backgrounds, ethnicities, and religions and it is important to consider these when teaching.

4.2. Racism

4.2.1. "While race does not have scientific validity we must not underestimate its power as a social construct" (Ghosh, R., 2008)

4.2.1.1. Racism is an important and controversial topic in education as it can cause very unpleasant, hateful situations in schools. Racism is something that can be addressed through learning in the classroom but also in hidden curriculum introduced by the teacher

4.3. Gender and Homophobia

4.3.1. "Homophobic bullying is rife with political and social import"(Walton, G. 2004)

4.3.1.1. Homophobia and gender issues have become very important in education today since most of the LGBTQ population will discover their identity during adolescence. This is another topic that can be introduced into the classroom through hidden curriculum as well as through social justice issues

4.4. Aboriginal Issues

4.4.1. After the disturbing past of residential schools and assimilation, First Nations people have been heavily discriminated against in Canada. Its is very important that teacher foster safe and inclusive atmospheres in the classrooms in which First Nations students can comfortably express their unique languages and traditions without fear of racism and discrimination

4.5. Hidden Curriculum

4.5.1. Hidden Curriculum is when teachers include specific actions or methods into their teaching that outline certain aspects that should be followed in society. These teachings are not specifically outlined in curriculum or outlined in class, but the teacher includes them in the undertone of their teachings

5. Agents of Change

5.1. Inspiring Education

5.1.1. "Encourages students to be engaged thinkers who think critically and make discoveries and use technology to learn innovate and communicate." (Inspiring Education, 2010)

5.1.1.1. This is one of the visions of inspiring education in the future. To be an engaged thinker is to be able to use what they are learning in class and be able to apply it after school, think critically about what they hear in media and become life long learners.

5.1.2. Encourages students to have an entrepreneurial spirit who creates opportunities and achieves goals through hard work

5.1.2.1. Inspires students to be creative and pursue their dreams

5.1.3. "Encourages students to be ethical citizens who build up relationships based on humility, fairness and open-mindedness." (Inspiring Education, 2010)

5.1.3.1. This inspires students to be passionate but also considerate in their lives

5.2. All teachers have the ability to create change in their school environments this could involve starting a school for underprivileged youth, setting up an LGBTQ club at school, or simply asking a student if they are ok.