Elements of Empires Project

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Elements of Empires Project Door Mind Map: Elements of Empires Project

1. Ottoman Empire: Presented By Corrigan Knittle

1.1. (Strong Government and Military)

1.1.1. -The Ottoman empire had an Absolute Monarchy, where one ruler, the Sultan would govern the military, people, and economy of the Ottoman empire. -The Ottoman empire was one of the largest and longest surviving civilization and empire.This form of government was strong, because it provided effective control of the military, and people. -Also, rank and status could be earned through hard work and dedication, as well as being passed down to family or inherited. -Moreover, the state ran the education, judicial branch, created alliances, and took the successes of society and previous civilizations and used them to create their own.

1.1.1.1. -The Ottoman empire had a strong military, because the force was very centralized and organized, having a standing army with cavalry and ground troops with spears or bows. -Also, the Ottoman empire increased their Naval fleet size, and number of troops employed. The troops were trained discipline and respect, and had specialized divisions of men, either being grenadiers, foot soldiers, or Calvary. -Furthermore, the troops were taught modern, and revolutionized battle tactics and strategies, in order to defeat the enemy. -Additionally, having the army being paid by the government for the time they served, and not earning their payment through looting or pillaging enemy villages. -Similarly, the Ottomans developed new weapons with the uses of gunpowder, cannons, and handguns, learning from weapon engineers from European countries such as France, England, and Italy.

1.2. (Religion)

1.2.1. -The Ottoman empire’s main religion was Islam because majority of the territory of the Ottoman empire included the middle east where Islam is largely practiced, so Islam was the predominant religion of the Ottoman empire. -Islam was apart of everyday life for the people living under Ottoman rule, having inscriptions on currency, jewelry, texts, and during prayer. -One of the many reasons to why the Ottoman empire was so powerful was because of their religion, having their armies united through the Islamic code, and also united people through Islamic organization. -This Ottoman empire coin has Islamic inscriptions and lettering, reminding of how religion was apart of everyday life.

1.3. (Economy & Trade)

1.3.1. -The Ottoman Empire during the beginning mainly traded in agriculture in a closed economy within the boundaries of its own empire. -Because the Ottomans did not focus on the manufacturing or industrial side of the economy, they quickly resorted to taking territory from other countries through the use of their sizable navy and military. -By doing so, also trading with other countries for their agriculture, such as Venice. -The Ottoman empire had many valuable agricultural products that many European countries desired, such as silks, spices, jewels, perfumes and Gold.

1.3.1.1. -The Ottomans traded food items such as vegetable and animal food products. -As the Ottomans began taking land and power, as well as trade, they begun a turn of their own industrial revolution by building one of the largest fleet of navy vessels and weaponry. Through the new industrial expansion the Ottomans began improving improving architecture, and began utilizing slave labor for the increased production of agriculture trade with other countries. -Through the use of taxes, they employed the Venetians to do the trading for the Ottoman empire, having them take the goods to the countries wanting of said goods, being paid by the Ottomans through the taxes on the goods themselves. (Middle Man)

1.4. (Science & Technology)

1.4.1. -The Ottomans wanted to advance the military output and size to compete with the other countries, employing and utilizing weapon engineers to produce cannons, handguns and other uses for gunpowder. -Also, the Ottoman empire spent a plentiful amount of time in military organization and efficiency, having education and scholars being an important role in their society. -As education was becoming more and more accessible and a necessity for the ever-improving Ottoman empire, they advanced in science and technological teaching. -Having this new education, the Ottoman empire taught their students distinctive and organized classes including most that would be needed after their completion of schooling and teaching.

1.4.1.1. -The Ottoman empire during its earliest periods of civilization, developed and contributed numerous commodities that are in science and technology today. -The Ottomans established hospitals and a healthcare system for its citizens, also the Ottoman Empire witnessed an advance in medicine/health-care, military, mineral extracting/mining. -The Ottoman empire also began a new study of astronomy, mathematics, geography, philosophy and faith/religion. -As astronomy was a big contributor to modern day knowledge of what's beyond Earth, the Ottomans studied stars and constellations such as this rug with references to the sun and sky.

1.5. (Geography & Agriculture)

1.5.1. -The Ottomans lived in a mountainous region on the coasts of North Africa, and became more flat as you moved inland. -The Ottoman empire, at its height, included included the areas of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. It had a maximum area of 7.6 million square miles. -This geography made the Ottoman empire perfect for sea trade and land trade -In these regions, there was plenty of river trade, using the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Nile and the Danube, the rivers spanned from WEstern Europe and Africa through the Ottoman empire and so on, and so forth.

1.5.1.1. -The agriculture of the Ottoman empire was mostly in items consisting of cocoa, tobacco, silks, olive oil, sugar, grains, spices, and beginning a trade and development of cotton. -The Ottoman Empire would be considered an agrarian economy, labor scarce, land rich and capital poor. -Most of the citizens and people living in the Ottoman empire had farms and lived with a small family. -The Ottoman Empire grew different sorts of grains, such as wheat, barley, and other sorts of crops, later on, nearing the fall of the empire, the empire almost killed off all of the natural wildlife and had to produce more crops. (-> = Image)

1.6. (Social Structure & Family Life)

1.6.1. -The Ottoman empire had a hierarchy in which there are four main classes of citizens within the empire, depending on wealth, family, and history. -The four classes were Men of the pen: This includes scholars, and those well educated. Men of the sword: Does who work in the military. Men of negotiation: merchants, artisan, and others who sell things through negotiation. -The social class was considered nonexistent during education/schooling, or prayer and religious ceremonies, everyone was equal during these times. -The Ottoman Empire had a tax on everyone and almost everything, the high classes or the more wealthy paid lower taxes, while the lower classes and "peasants" and farmers paid higher taxes. (-> = Image)

1.6.1.1. -Family life during the Ottoman Empire was very different considering your social class and status in the empire. -Most women were confined to their homes and weren't allowed to be seen outside the home without their husband accompanying them. -The men would go find work, the sons would accompany the father when old enough, and the women would stay home and tend the homes, cook, etc. -In a rural household, the families had to usually live off the land. In a city, where the wealthy resided, most items needed for survival or need, were accessible through markets and sellers within a city or town in the empire. (-> = Image)

1.7. (Arts & Education)

1.7.1. -The age of Süleyman (r. 1520–66) witnessed the zenith of Ottoman art and culture. Among the most outstanding achievements of this period of architecture, were the mosques, caravanserais and religious complexes built by Sinan (ca. 1500–1588) -The Ottoman art was very extravagant and bright/colorful, majority of the art consisted of nature or human elements. -The Ottoman empire also had religious themes, portraying scenes of Islamic history or major events, all using simple, or colorful imagery and colors. -The Ottomans also appreciated decorative jars, carpets, decorative calligraphy, and painted ceramics. The art of the Ottomans represents the diversity of their empire. The Ottomans were famous for their naturalistic style eventually became the preferred theme for ceramics and other art. (-> = Image)

1.7.1.1. -The first stage of elementary education and teaching in the Ottoman Empire has been called as Sibyan Schools (Sibyan Mektepleri). -Sibyan Schools was the education set for its citizens, they would go through the classes and would end their education here as well. - Religion was a very important role in Ottoman society, students would be taught Qu'ran recitation which was required in these schools. -There was no divide of social class or race, all students were taught mathematics, astronomy, geography, faith, philosophy, and teachings of jobs for labor and other necessary services. (-> = Image)

2. Aztec Empires: By Xavier Perez

2.1. Religon

2.1.1. Their religion is called mesoamerica because it was one of the first full blown religion

2.1.2. Believes in many gods, Most important was the sun god

2.1.3. They did a lot of human sacrifice for their religion

2.1.4. Stay away from “Bad gods“ and appease the “Good Gods” for good crops and safety

2.2. Military

2.2.1. Masters of Clubs,bows, and Darts for combat

2.2.2. Wore wooden helmets and cotton sewed clothes for battle

2.2.3. Went to war to appease gods and to conquer land

2.2.4. Used shields to deflect on coming arrows and darts from enemy attacks

2.3. Geography and Agriculture

2.3.1. Located at tenochtitlan at Modern Mexico CIty

2.3.2. Mild climate for farming crops

2.3.3. Farmed lots of corn and other veggies for food and trade

2.3.4. Lived in Mexico for its climate and location

2.4. Social Structure and Family Life

2.4.1. Working farms for family to trade and sell

2.4.2. Men hunted, Women stayed and cooked and cleaned

2.4.3. Children helped their own families with work

2.4.4. Had strict social structures in their empire

2.5. Economy and Trade

2.5.1. Used items like cacao beans as money

2.5.2. Traded gold, copper and jade for variety of items with allied neighbors

2.5.3. Wanted rubber, vanilla, and chocolate for their construction and to consume the chocolate

2.5.4. Grew tobacco, avocado, squash, hemp etc for trade

2.6. Science and Tech

2.6.1. None of their weapons were made from iron or bronze

2.6.2. Used obsidian and chert to craft all most all their tools

2.6.3. Created dugout canals to send their traded goods

2.6.4. Created many forms of medicine to keeps people as healthy as they can

2.7. Arts and Education

2.7.1. Made beautiful buildings and capital cities

2.7.2. Boys were taught for battle or political jobs while girls were taught how to do household chores.

2.7.3. They had two different school systems the nobility got taught things more in depth then the commoners

2.7.4. Art was very important to please the gods

3. The English Empire by Aidan Flanery

3.1. Strong government and military

3.1.1. Military was used more domestically than it was used internationally.

3.1.2. After the Elizabethan Religious settlement, Queen Elizabeth had supreme power over the church as well as the country.

3.1.3. Monarch

3.1.3.1. Divine right (God given right to rule)

3.1.3.2. One central power

3.1.4. House of Tudors

3.1.4.1. King Henry VII and VIII, and Queen Elizabeth I

3.1.4.2. Mostly Peaceful rule

3.2. Religion

3.2.1. British Christians of the Tudor Period were willing to die for their beliefs.

3.2.2. Anglican Church 1534

3.2.2.1. Created by King Henry VIII after seizing power of the Roman Catholic Church

3.2.3. Protestant Reformation 1517

3.2.3.1. Schism of the catholic church initiated by Martin Luther with the Ninety Five Theses.

3.2.3.2. Called themselves Protestants because they were ‘protesting’ the Roman Catholic Church.

3.2.4. Elizabethan Religious Settlement (unified protestants and catholics)

3.2.4.1. Act of Supremacy (Queen Elizabeth I supreme governor of the church)

3.2.4.2. Act of Uniformity (Reformed the church to be inclusive to protestants as well as Catholics)

3.3. Geography and agriculture

3.3.1. English Empire included Modern Britain and Scotland.

3.3.2. Mediterranean climate

3.3.2.1. Easier to grow crops

3.3.2.2. Easier to have domesticated animals

3.3.3. Surrounded by water

3.3.3.1. europe

3.3.4. Commercialized agriculture boomed after the agricultural depression and Black Death

3.4. Social structure and family life

3.4.1. The small villages of the 1400s grew in size and density during the 1500s.

3.4.1.1. London grew from a population of 50,000 in the 1500s to 500,000 in the 1700s.

3.4.2. By 1600, the population of England rose 2 fold (2 million to 4 million) since the 15th century.

3.4.3. The wealthy were expected to aid the poor

3.4.4. Diet

3.4.4.1. Rich ate meat

3.4.4.2. Poor ate coarse dark bread

3.4.4.3. Everybody drank

3.5. Economy and trade

3.5.1. Intercursus Magnus

3.5.1.1. Signed in 1496 by King Henry VII and Duke Philip IV

3.5.1.2. Greatly aided British exports

3.5.2. Wool was greatest export (exported to:)

3.5.2.1. colonies in the West indies

3.5.2.2. colonies in Northern America

3.5.2.3. colonies in India.

3.5.3. One third of the population lived in poverty

3.5.4. Population started to grow for the first time after the Plague and the agricultural depression of the late 1400s

3.5.4.1. Stimulated economic growth

3.5.4.2. Further commercialized agriculture

3.6. Science and technology

3.6.1. Gunpowder

3.6.2. Printing Press

3.6.3. Linear perspective drawing

3.6.4. Patent law

3.6.4.1. Protected inventor's ideas/ inventions from being stolen.

3.7. Arts and education

3.7.1. Education

3.7.1.1. Rich people started grammar schools

3.7.1.2. Children learned to read and write out of a hornbook (a wooden board with a handle. A paper with the English alphabet and ‘Our Father’ written on it. The paper was protected with a thin layer of animal horn, thus the name hornbook.

3.7.2. The Pan-European Renaissance

3.7.2.1. Started in Italy in the 14th century.

3.7.2.2. The English Renaissance started in 1485 when the War of Roses elected the House of Tutors.

3.7.2.3. The English renaissance included more Literature and music than visual arts.

3.7.3. Elizabethan Theater

3.7.3.1. William Shakespeare

3.7.4. Elizabethan Literature

3.7.4.1. Poetry

3.7.4.2. Accelerated after the birth of the printing press.