Jarvis' Theory

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Jarvis' Theory Door Mind Map: Jarvis' Theory

1. Disjuncture

1.1. The gap between our biography and our perception of our experience

1.2. A state in the life world (Jarvis, 2012: 1)

1.2.1. Not in harmony with it

1.3. Resolved by...

1.3.1. A variety of ways We give meaning to the sensation This resolves the disjuncture We find new explanations (learning) We find new knowledge (learning) We find new ways of doing things (learning) (Jarvis, 2012: 2) We raise questions What do I do now? What does that mean? What is that smell? Why? How? What does it mean? What is that sound?

1.3.2. Answer to question

1.3.3. Resolution to disjuncture

1.3.4. Doing, exploring, investigating (Jarvis, 2012: 15) We learn to memorise the outcome of the process so we can repeat past succesful acts

1.4. A sense of unknowing (Box 2)

1.4.1. At the heart of conscious experience

1.5. Is (in figure 2.3) caused by an inability to take the sensation for granted

1.5.1. We cannot give it meaning or we are unsure about the meaning we give it And so we need to resolve the dilemma If people do not contradict us, we can assume our answer is socially acceptable, and then we take it for granted

1.6. Can occur in senses, cognition and emotions (Jarvis, 2012: 7)

1.7. Disjuncture can be created by

1.7.1. Teaching (in formal situations) - often didactically created (Jarvis, 2012: 8)

1.7.2. Interaction (in everyday life)

1.7.3. Can occur naturally in environment

1.7.4. Disjuncture is most likely to happen in a social situation

1.7.5. Disjuncture can happen when people are alone, reflect on previous events

1.8. Whether resolved or not, disjuncture changes the person (Jarvis, 2012: 9)

1.9. If people fail to resolve disjuncture,

1.9.1. They can live in ignorance This can be appropriate, for instance in relation to math and nuclear physics, I choose to live in ignorance

1.9.2. They can live aware that they need to learn to resolve it

1.9.3. They can start the whole process (figure 2.4) again

1.10. Disjuncture can cause dissonance in any aspect - knowledge, skills, sense, emotions, beliefs etc

1.11. Can occur

1.11.1. As slight gap between our biography and our perception of the situation Respond by slight adjustment

1.11.2. Larger gaps Demand considerable learning

1.11.3. Meeting a stranger (discourse, culture)

1.11.4. Magic moments Sometimes impossible to incorporate our learning from this into biography & taken-for-granted

2. Learning

2.1. It is the person who learns (Jarvis, 2009: 24)

2.1.1. The whole person Body Genetic, physical and biological Mind Knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, emotions, beliefs and senses The human essence needs experiences (as stimuli) to emerge and develop We experience it through senses (see, hear, feel, smell and taste)

2.2. Starts with experience (Jarvis, 2009: 24)

2.3. Definition

2.3.1. Human learning is the combination of processes throughout a lifetime whereby the whole person – body (genetic, physical and biological) and mind (knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, emotions, beliefs and senses) – experiences social situations, the perceived content of which is then transformed cognitively, emotively or practically (or through any combination) and integrated into the individual person’s biography resulting in a continually changing (or more experienced) person.

2.4. Is existential and experiential

2.5. Is influenced by the social context

2.5.1. There is interaction See Figure 1 (Jarvis 2012)

2.6. Learning Is not just psychological

2.7. How to understand a person's learning?

2.7.1. See it from two perspectives Psychologist: arrow from person to external, objectified culture Sociologist: starts with objectified culture and points inwards to the individual person (Jarvis, 2009: 32)

2.7.2. Start with an understanding of the person (the learner) and then begin to explore the psychological and sociological aspects of the learning process in tandem

2.7.3. But analysis of the person calls for a philosophical anthropology

2.8. Much learning is incidental & unrecognised (Jarvis, 2012: 2)

2.8.1. Children ask questions openly, adults don't as often. We adjust behavior to fit group(family. And we adjust knowledge base

2.9. Learning is experiental & existential (Jarvis, 2012: 2)

2.10. Is in opposite to "Non-Learning" (Jarvis, 2012: 2)

2.10.1. We don't want to change our behavior; instead we want to change the world! Can be a strength when committed to a cause Inflexibility of fundamentalism can be dangerous in a world that demands degrees of tolerance and a level of deliberative politics

3. Experience

3.1. Is social

3.2. Focus on experiencing social situations (Jarvis, 2009: 25)

3.3. All experiences of life-world begins with bodily sensations

3.3.1. which occurs at the intersection of the person and the life-world (Jarvis, 2009: 26)

3.4. Begins with disjuncture

3.5. In the first sense, experience is a matter of the body receiving sensations (e.g. sound, sight, etc)

3.5.1. We transform these sensations into the language of our brains and minds and learn to make them meaningful to ourselves We cannot make this meaning alone, since we are social beings. All meanings will reflect the society into which we are born. (Figure 2.3)

3.6. Conscious experience has disjuncture in the heart of it

3.6.1. Because conscious experience happens when we cannot take our world for granted

3.7. Primary experiences

3.7.1. With the senses Figure 2.3

3.7.2. Primary and secondary experiences occur simultaneously

3.8. Secondary experiences

3.8.1. result of language or other forms of mediation speech & written word also TV & Web

3.8.2. cultural meanings fx meanings of words rather than sounds

3.8.3. Primary and secondary experiences occur simultaneously

3.9. Experience is used by Jarvis to recognise learning from everyday life.

3.9.1. Others have used it to highlight the practical side of theoretical propositions.

3.10. Can be transformed by thought, emotion or action

4. Sensations

4.1. Something that is given meaning

4.2. Something that is tramsformed (figure 2.3)

4.3. Primary sensations

4.3.1. throughout our lives, however old and experienced we are, we still enter novel situations and have sensations that we do not recognise Both adult and child have to transform the sensation to brain language and eventually to give it meaning. It is in learning the meaning, etc. of the sensation that we incorporate the culture of our life-world into ourselves; this we do in most, if not all, of our learning experiences

5. The Life-World

5.1. We assume it doesn't change a great deal from one experience to another

5.1.1. But the world is liquid / changing rapidly "The same water never flow under the same bridge twice" - situations never repeat themselves precisely

5.1.2. Developed categories and classifications That allow this taken-for-grantedness to occur (Jarvis, 2009: 26) Encountering the world ... necessarily involves a process of ordering the world in terms of our categories, organising it and classifying it, actively bringing it under control in some way. We always bring some framework to bear on the world in our dealings with it. Without this organisational activity, we would be unable to make any sense of the world at all.

5.2. We have a continued ambivalent relationship with our life-world

5.2.1. In experiencing sensations

5.2.2. In experiencing meaning

5.2.3. In knowing and not knowing

5.3. We can take it for granted because we are in harmony with it (Jarvis, 2012: 2)

6. Figure 2 (Jarvis 2012) aka Figure 2.3 (Jarvis 2009)

6.1. "The transformation of sensations: learning from primary experience"

6.2. Box 1

6.3. Box 2

6.4. Box 3

6.5. Box 4

6.5.1. Once we have an answer, we have to practise or repeat it in order to commit it to memory

6.6. Box 5

6.6.1. A socially acceptable resolution that is memorised leads to the person taking our world for granted again provided that the world hasn't changed in some other way

6.6.2. As we change and others change as they learn, the social world is always changing And so our taken-for-grantedness becomes more suspect, since we always experience slightly different situations.

6.7. If we do not resolve dilemma (from figure 2.3) we revert from box 3 to 2, or from 4 to 3, in a process of trial and error (Jarvis, 2012: 7)

7. Figure 3 (Jarvis 2012) aka Figure 2.4 (Jarvis 2009)

7.1. "The transformation of the person through learning"

7.2. A secondary process

7.3. Must be understood in relation to Figure 2.3

7.4. Box 1,1

7.5. Box 2

7.6. Box 3

7.6.1. thought can transform experience

7.7. Box 4

7.7.1. emotion can transform experience

7.8. Box 5

7.8.1. action can transform experience

7.9. Box 6

7.9.1. Box 6 & 7 er opdateret jf. Jarvis 2012 Box 6: people learn or fail to resolve disjuncture Changes person either way

7.10. Box 7

7.11. Box 1,2

8. The person

8.1. Is a "whole" person

8.1.1. Body & Mind Human essence emerges from the human existent A process that continues through life Essence is moulded through interaction with world (Jarvis, 2009: 31) The human essence needs experiences to emerge and develop These are interrelated. But how? Maslins 5 theories (Jarvis, 2009: 31)

8.1.2. in a social situation

8.1.3. Biography Memories are integrated into the person's biography

8.1.4. Self 3 elements Self 1: the sense one has of possessing a unique set of attributes Self 2: the shifting totality of personal characteristics Self 3: the totalities of impressions that individuals make on other people Includes identity

8.2. Is about knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions, beliefs, values, senses and even identity (Jarvis, 2009: 30)

8.3. If we are to understand how the person learns to become a whole person, then we need to combine many theories

8.3.1. Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg, Mead, Wenger etc Work on personal and cognitive development, religious faith development, moral development, personal identitiy, social identity

8.4. Being & becoming

8.4.1. Are intertwined

9. Psychology

9.1. The exclusive claims of psychology detract from the fullness of our understanding of learning

9.1.1. When we recognise this, we can look afresh at human learning

9.2. Theories are valid as far as they go, but they don't go far enough

9.2.1. they all have an incomplete theory of the person

10. Figure 1 (Jarvis 2012)

10.1. Ego is the individual learner

10.2. Arc represents the objectified culture of the learner's life-world

10.3. Larger inward arrows represent the process of internalising the culture

11. Culture

11.1. Social capital (Jarvis, 2006: 63)

11.1.1. A combination of network, norms and trust (see Putnam, 2000)

12. Meaning

12.1. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, emotions and skills (Jarvis, 2006: 25 & 45)

13. Social space

13.1. Jarivs, 2006: 64-65