Chapter 7 Notes

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Chapter 7 Notes Door Mind Map: Chapter 7 Notes

1. Field Note

1.1. During 1964 in Soviet Union the world was divided into West and East in the Cold War

1.2. Religion causes conflict.

1.3. USSR is the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

1.3.1. established in 1924

1.3.2. extended from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic to Central Asia

1.3.3. territoriality the largest state in the world and culturally one of the most diverse

1.3.4. favored Russa

1.3.4.1. evidenced by the country's policy of Russification

1.3.4.1.1. through Russification, the Soviet Union sought to spread the Russian language and culture through out the entire Soviet Union

1.3.4.1.2. the Soviet union believed its people would show less allegiance to their republics and more allegiance to the Soviet Union if power rested in the local rather than the republic scale

1.3.5. The Soviets appeared to regard Buddhism as a lesser threat

1.3.6. In the 1960s it seemed as though the Soviet plan to diminish religion would succeed

1.3.7. In 1931 the Soviet regime decided to destroy one of Moscow's great monuments, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior

1.3.8. Soviet Union collapsed in 1991

1.4. The Republic of Russia included 70 distinct territories

1.5. religion is durable, perhaps the most durable, element of culture at all scales

2. WHAT IS RELIGION, AND WHAT ROLE DOES IT PLAY IN CULTURE?

2.1. religion and language lie at the foundation of culture

2.1.1. both confer and reflect identity

2.2. like languages, religions are constnatly changing

2.3. religions diffuse through expansion diffusion, including both contagious and hierarchical, and religions also diffuse through relocation diffusion

2.4. the cultural landscape is marked by religion

2.4.1. most obviously by church, synagogues, temples, and mosques, cemeteries, and shrines, statues, and symbols

2.5. religion is also proclaimed in modes of dress (veils, turbans) and personal habits (beards, ritual scars).

2.6. in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, in 1991, the government proclaimed that possessing a beard would be a condition for the appointment of judges

2.6.1. the beard requirement is an outward display of religion, and it also shows the inward structure of Islam in Pakistan, where women are not in place of judicial power

2.7. Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak define religion as "a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities"

2.8. across the multitude of religions, some religious practices such as ritual and prayer are common

2.8.1. rituals may mark important evens in people's lives

2.8.1.1. birth and death

2.8.1.2. attainment of adulthood

2.8.1.3. marriage

2.8.1.4. rituals are typically expressed at regular intervals in a routine manner, as is done on certain days in the Christian and Jewish worlds, certain times of the day in the Muslim world, or according to certain astronomical events int he Jewish, Hindu, Muslim,and Christian worlds.

2.8.1.5. a common ritual is prayer

2.9. secularism is the indifference to or rejection of formal religion

2.9.1. the most secular countries in the world today are in Europe

2.10. a 2009 Pew survey asked people in 56 countries how important religion is in their lives

2.10.1. the United States stood out as the highest

2.10.1.1. 57 percent of Americans surveyed saying religion is very important in their lives

2.10.2. only 13 percent of people survey in France agreed that religion is very important in their lives

2.10.3. 8 percent in Sweden agreed that religion is very important in their lives

2.10.4. 7 percent in the Czech Republic agreed that religion is very important in their lives

2.10.5. regionally, survey respondents in Subsaharan Africa, South Asia, Southwest Asia, and South America more strongly agreed that reeligion is very important in their lives

2.10.6. 98 percent in Senegal reported religion to be very important in their lives

2.10.7. 97 percent in Bangladesh reported religion to be very important in their lives

2.10.8. 95 percent in Indonesia reported religion to be very important in their lives

2.10.9. 78 percent in Brazil reported religion to be very important in their lives

2.11. religion is one of the most complex and often controversial aspects of the human condition

3. WHERE DID THE MAJOR RELIGIONS O THE WORLD ORIGINATE, AND HOW DO RELIGIONS DIFFUSE?

3.1. despite the wide variety of religions found around the world, they are commonly classified into three caterogies based on their approaches to the concept of divinity

3.2. adherents of monotheistic religions worship a single deity, a God or Allah

3.3. believers in polytheistic religions worship more than one deity, even thousands

3.4. Animistic religions are centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mountains, boulders, rivers, and trees possess spirits and should therefore be revered

3.5. somewhere around 3500 years ago a monotheistic religion developed in Southwest Asia called Zoraostrianism

3.6. by 500 BCE (Before the Common Era), four major hearths of religion and philosophy were developed in the world

3.6.1. the hearth of Greek philosophy is along the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea

3.6.2. the hearth of Hinduism is South Asia, along the Indus River Valley

3.6.3. the hearth of Judaism is the eastern Mediterranean

3.6.4. the hearth of Chines philosophies is the Huang He River Valley in China

3.7. the two religions with the greatest number of adherents in the world today are Christianity and Islam, they were both influenced by Judaism and Greek philosophy

3.8. The World Map of Religions Today

3.8.1. of the 1.2 billion people in India, 161 million are Muslims, which makes India the third largest country in the world behind Indonesia and Pakistan

3.8.2. many Christian and Muslim Africans continue to believe in traditional powers even as they profess a belief in a universalizing religion

3.8.3. a 2010 Pew Research survey of 25,000 people in 19 African countries found "Large numbers of Africans actively participate in Christianity or Islam yet also believe in witchcraft, evil spirits, sacrifices to ancestors, traditional religious healers, reincarnation, and other elements of traditional African religions

3.8.3.1. the survey found 25 percent of Christian Americans and 30 percent of Muslim Africans they interviewed believed in the protective power of sacrifices to spirits or ancestors

3.8.3.2. the country with the highest percentage of respondents who agreed with this statement was Tanzania with 60 percent, and the lowest was Rwanda with 5 percent

3.8.3.3. in Cameroon, 42 percent of those surveyed believed in the protective power of sacrifices to spirits or ancestors

3.8.3.4. the Bamilke tribe in Cameroon lives in an area colonized by the French, who brought Catholicism to the region

3.8.3.4.1. the Bamileke are largely Christian today, but they also continue to practice aspects of their traditional, animist religion

3.8.3.4.2. ancestors are still very important in the lives of the Bamileke

3.8.4. Christian religions have diffused 2.25 billion adherents worldwide

3.8.5. Hinduism has 950 million adherents

3.8.6. Buddhism has 247 million followers

3.8.7. many factors help explain the distributions shown on the map, but each of the widespread religions shares one characteristic in common: they are all universalizing religions

3.8.8. universalizing religions actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal

3.8.8.1. Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism all fall within this category, and their universalizing character helps explain their widespread distribution

3.8.9. in an ethnic religion, adherents are born into their faith and converts are not actively sought

3.8.10. ethnic religions tend to be spatially concentrated-as is the case with traditional religions in Africa and South America (250 million followers)

3.8.10.1. the principal exception is Judaism (13 million adherents), and ethnic religion whose adherents are widely scattered as a result of forced and voluntary migrations

3.9. From the Hearth of South Asia

3.9.1. Hinduism

3.9.1.1. Hinduism ranks third after Christianity and Islam as a world region

3.9.1.2. one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years

3.9.1.3. originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan

3.9.1.4. does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins

3.9.1.5. the common account of the history of Hinduism holds that the religion is based on ancient practices in the Indus River cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

3.9.1.5.1. the ancient practices included ritual bathing and belief in reincarnation, or at least a long journey after death

3.9.1.5.2. the common history says that Aryans invaded (some say migrated) into the Indus region and gave the name Hinduism to the diverse religious practices of the people who lived along the Hindus River

3.9.1.6. despite the ambiguous beginnings of Hinduism one thing is certain: Hinduism is no longer associated with its hearth in Pakistan

3.9.1.6.1. the vast majority of Pakistanis are Muslim and the vast majority of Indians are Hindu

3.9.1.7. archaeologists hypothesize that flooding along the Indus spurred the migration of early Hindus eastward to the Ganges River

3.9.1.7.1. the Ganges (Ganga, as Indians called it) is Hinduism's sacred river

3.9.1.8. some define Hinduism as polytheistic religion because of the presence of many gods

3.9.1.9. however, many Hindus define their religion as monotheistic

3.9.1.9.1. the one god is Brahman (the universal soul), and the other gods in the religion are varies expressions of Brahman

3.9.1.10. western academics define Hinduism today as an ethnic religion because Hindus do not actively seek converts

3.9.1.11. at the same time, historical evidence shows Hindus migrating into Southeast Asia and diffusing their religion, as a universalizing religion would, before the diffusion of Buddhism and Islam into Southeast Asia

3.9.1.12. although Hinduism is now more of an ethnic religion, the religion has millions of adherents in the populous region of South Asia, extending beyond India to Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Nepal

3.9.1.13. the Hindu religion does not have a prophet or a single book of scriptures, although most Hindus recognize the sacredness of Vedas, the four texts that make up the sacred books of Hinduism

3.9.1.14. is a conglomeration of beliefs characterized by a great diversity of instituional forms and practices

3.9.1.15. the fundamental doctrine is karma, which has to do with transferability of the soult

3.9.1.16. according to Hindu doctrine, all things have souls and are arranged in a hierarchy

3.9.1.17. hiduism's doctrines are closely bound to Indian society's caste system, for castes themselves are steps on the universal ladder

3.9.1.17.1. however, the caste system locks people in particular social classes and imposes many restrictions, especially in the lowest of the castes and in those considered beneath the caste system, Dalits

3.9.2. Diffusion of Hinduism

3.9.2.1. Hinduism evolved in what is today Pakistan

3.9.2.1.1. from there, Hinduism migrated to the Ganges River and diffused throughout South Asia and into Southeast Asia before the advent of Christianity

3.9.2.2. later, when Islam and Christianity appeared and were actively spread in Hindu areas, Hindu thinkers attempted to integrate certain new teachings into their own religion

3.9.2.3. throughout most of Southeast Asia, Buddhism and Islam overtook the places where Hinduism had diffused during its universalizing period

3.9.2.4. overwhelmingly Muslim Indonesia, the island of Bali remains a Hindu outpost

3.9.2.4.1. it became a refuge for Hindu holy men, nobles, and intellectuals during the sixteenth century, when Islam engulfed neighboring Java, which now retains only architectural remnants of its Hindu age

3.9.2.4.2. since then, the Balinese have developed a unique faith still based on Hindu principles but mixed with elements of Buddhism, animism, and ancestor worship

3.9.2.4.3. temples and shrines dominate the cultural landscape, and participation in worship, festivals, and other ceremonies of the island's unique religion is almost universal

3.9.2.5. during the British colonialism, the British transported hundreds of thousands of Hindu adherents from their colony of India to their other colonies in East and South Africa, the Carribean, northern South America, and the Pacific Islands

3.9.2.6. because Hinduism is not a universalizing religion today, the relocation diffusion produced pockets rather than regions of Hinduism

3.9.3. Buddhism

3.9.3.1. splintered from Hinduism over 2500 years ago

3.9.3.2. Prince Siddhartha, who was heir to a wealthy kingdom in what is now Nepal, founded Buddhism

3.9.3.2.1. Siddhartha was profoundly shaken by the misery he saw around him, which contrasted sharply with the splendor and wealth in which he had been raised

3.9.3.2.2. Siddhartha cam to be known as Buddha, the enlightened one

3.9.3.2.3. he may have been the first prominent Indian religious leader to speak out against Hinduism's caste system

3.9.3.2.4. died in 489 BCE at the age of 80

3.9.3.3. Buddhism spread as far south as Sri Lanka and later advanced west toward the Mediterranean, north into Tibet, and east into China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and Indonesia, over a span of about ten centuries

3.9.3.4. today Buddhism is practiced by relatively few in India, but thrives in Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Nepal, Tibet and Korea

3.9.3.5. along with other faiths, Buddhism is part of Japanese culture

3.9.3.6. Buddhism's various branches have an estimated 347 million adherents, with Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism claiming the most adherents

3.9.3.6.1. Theravada Buddhism is a monastic faith practiced in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia

3.9.3.6.2. Mahayana Buddhism, which is practiced mainly in Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and China

3.9.3.6.3. Mahayana Buddhists do not serve as monks, but they spend much time in personal meditation and worship

3.9.3.6.4. other branches of Buddhism include the Lamaism of Xizang (Tibet), which combines monastic Buddhism with the worship of local demons and deities, and Zen Buddhism, the contemplative form that is prevalent in Japan

3.9.3.7. Buddhism has become a global religion over the last two centuries, diffusing to many areas of the world, but not without conflict in its wake.

3.9.3.7.1. militant regimes have attacked the region in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam

3.9.3.7.2. in Thailand, Buddhism has been under pressure owing to rising political tensions

3.9.3.7.3. Buddhism has gained adherents in the western world

3.9.4. Shintoism

3.9.4.1. Buddhism is mixed with a local religion in Japan, where Shintoism is found

3.9.4.2. focuses on nature and acnestor worship

3.9.4.3. the Japanese emperor made Shintoism the state religion of Japan in the nineteenth century, according himself the status of divine-right monarch

3.9.4.4. at the end of World War II, Japan separated Shintoism from the emperor, taking away the state sanctioning of the religion

3.9.4.5. the number of adherents in Japan is somewhere between 105 and 118 million, depending on the source

3.9.4.5.1. the majority of Japanese observe both Buddhism and Shintoism

3.10. From the Hearth of the Huang He River Valley

3.10.1. Taoism

3.10.1.1. while the Buddha's teachings were gaining converts in India, a religious revolution of another kind was taking place in China

3.10.1.1.1. two major schools of Chines philosophy, Taoism and Confucianism, were forming

3.10.1.2. the beginning of Taoism are unclear, but scholars trace the religion to an older contemporary of Confucius, Lao-Tsu, who published a volume title Tao-te-ching, or "Book of the Way"

3.10.1.2.1. in his teaching, he focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature: people should learn to live in harmony with nature

3.10.1.2.2. the best government, according to Lao-Tsu, is the least govenment

3.10.1.3. among the Taoist virtues are simplicity and spontaneity, tenderness, and tranguility

3.10.1.3.1. competition, possession, and even the pursuit of knowledge are to be avoided

3.10.1.3.2. war, punishment, taxation, and ceremonial ostentation are viewed as evils

3.10.1.3.3. people, animals, even dragons became objects of worship

3.10.2. Confucianism

3.10.2.1. Confucius lived from 551 to 479 BCE, and his followers constructed a blueprint for Chines civilization in almost every field, including philosophy, government, and education

3.10.2.1.1. Confucius addressed the traditional Chinese tenets that included belief in heaven and the existence of the soul, ancestor worship, sacrificial rites, and shamanism

3.10.2.1.2. he held that the real meaning of life lay in the present, not in some future abstract existence, and that service to one's fellow humans should supersede service to spirits

3.10.2.1.3. appalled at the suffering of ordinary people at the hands of feudal lords, Confucius urged the poor to assert themselves

3.10.2.1.4. Confucius came to be revered as a spiritual leader after his death in 479 BCE, and his teachings diffused widely throughout East and Southeast Asia

3.10.2.1.5. over the centuries, Confucianism (with its Taoist and Buddhist ingredients) became China's state ethic, although the Chinese emperor modified Confucian ideals over time

3.10.2.2. Confucianism is mainly a philosophy of life

3.10.3. Diffusion of Chinese Religions

3.10.3.1. Confucianism diffused early into the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia, where it has long influenced the practice of Buddhism

3.10.3.1.1. more recently, Chinese immigrants expanded the influence of the Chinese religions in parts of Southeast Asia and helped to introduce their principles into societies ranging from Europe to North America

3.10.3.2. the diffusion of Chinese religions even within China has been tempered by the Chinese government's efforts to suppress religion in the country

3.10.3.2.1. like the Soviet government, the communist government that took control of China in 1949 atttemtped to ban religion, in this case Confucianism, from public practice

3.10.3.3. traditional Chinese beliefs favor a coffin and burial plot aligned with Feng Shui teachings

3.10.3.3.1. however, with the growth of China's population, the government has highly encouraged cremation over the past few decades

3.10.3.3.2. although cremation is on the rise in Hong Kong, traditional Chinese beliefs are dictating the final resting places of ashes

3.11. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean

3.11.1. Judaism

3.11.1.1. Judaism grew out of the belief system of the Jews, one of the several nomadic Semitic tribes living in Southwest Asia about 4000 yars ago

3.11.1.2. the roots of Jewish religious tradition lie in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship one and only God

3.11.1.3. the history of the Jews is filled with upheaval

3.11.1.3.1. Moses lead them from Egypt, where they had been enslaved, to Canaan, where an internal conflict developed and the nation split into two branches, Israel and Judah

3.11.1.3.2. the Jews regrouped to rebuild their headquarters, Jerusalem, but then fell victim to a series of foreign powers

3.11.1.4. Judaism is distributed throughout parts of the Middle East and North Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Europe, and parts of North and South America

3.11.1.5. according to The Atlas of Religion, of all the world's 18 million Jews, 40.5 percent live in the United States, 40.2 percent live in Isael, and then in rank order, less than 5 percent live in France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia, and Argentina

3.11.1.6. one of the world's most influential religions, although it claims only 18 million adherents

3.11.1.7. during the nineteenth century, a Reform movement developed with the objective of adjusting Judaism and its practices to current times

3.11.1.7.1. however, many feared that this reform would causea loss of identity and cohesion, and the Orthodox movement sought to retain the old precepts

3.11.1.7.2. between these two extremes is a sector that is less strictly orthodox but nos as liberal as that of the reformers; itis known as the Conservative movement

3.11.1.7.3. significant differences in ideas and practices are associated with these three branches, but Judaism is united by a strong sense of ethnic distinctiveness

3.11.2. Diffusion of Judaism

3.11.2.1. the scattering of Jews after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem is known as the diaspora

3.11.2.1.1. diaspora is a term that now signifies the spatial dispersion o members of any ethnic group

3.11.2.1.2. the Jews who went north into Central Europe came to be known as Ashkenazim

3.11.2.1.3. the Jews who scattered across North Africa and into the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) are called Sephardim

3.11.2.1.4. the idea of homeland for the Jewish people, which became popular during the nineteenth century, developed into the ideology of Zionism

3.11.3. Christianity

3.11.3.1. Christianity can be traced back to the same hearth in the Mediterranean as Judaism, and like Judaism, Christianity stems from a single founder, in this case, Jesus

3.11.3.1.1. Christian teachings hold that Jesus is the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan

3.11.3.2. Christianity split from Judaism, and it, too, is a monotheistic religion

3.11.3.3. the first split in Christianity, between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox, developed over a number of centuries

3.11.3.3.1. at the end of the third century, the Roman Emperor Diocltian attempted to keep the empire together by dividing it for purposes of government

3.11.3.4. the Eastern Orthodox Church suffered blows when the Ottoman Turks defeated the Serbs in Kosovo in 1389, when the Turks took Constantinople in 1453, when the Soviet Union suppressed Eastern Orthodox churches in the twentieth century

3.11.3.4.1. today, the Easter Orthodox Church rmains one of the three major branches of Christianity and is experiencening a revival in former Soviet areas

3.11.3.5. the Roman Catholic Church claims the most adherents of all Christian denominations (more than 1 billion)

3.11.3.5.1. centered in Rome, Catholic theology teaches the infallibility of the pope in interpreting Jesus' teachings and in formulating ways to navigate through the modern world

3.11.3.6. in the early 1300s three people claimed to be the pope

3.11.3.7. the Protestant sects of Christianity compose the third major branch of Christianity

3.11.3.7.1. like Buddhism's challenge to Hinduism, the Protestant Reformation affected Roman Catholicism, which answered some of the challenges to its theology in the Counter-Reformation

3.11.3.8. the largest and globally the most widely dispersed religion

3.11.3.9. Christian churches claim more than 1.5 billion adherents, including 430 million in Europe and the former Soviet Union; approximately 355 million in North and Middle America; approximately 310 million in South America; perhaps 240 million in Africa; and an estimate 165 million in Asia

3.11.3.9.1. Christians thus account or nearly 40 percent of the members of the worlds' major religions

3.11.3.10. Roman Catholicism is the largest segment of Christianity

3.11.4. Diffusion of Christianity

3.11.4.1. the dissemination of Christianity occurred as a result of expansion combined with relocation diffusion

3.11.4.2. in western Europe, Christianity declined during the centuries immediately after the fall of the Roman Empire

3.11.4.2.1. then a form of contagious diffusion took place as the religious ideas that had been kept alive in remote places such as coastal Ireland and Scotland spread throughout western Europe

3.11.4.3. in the case of the Eastern Orthodox faith, contagious diffusion took place from the religion's harth in Constantinople to the north and northeast

3.11.4.4. Protestantism began in several parts of western Europe and expanded to some degree through contagious diffusion

3.11.4.4.1. much of its spread in northern and central Europe, however, was through hierarchical diffusion, as political leaders would convert-sometimes to escape control from Rome-and then the population would gradually accept the new state religion

3.11.4.5. the worldwide diffusion of Christianity occurred during the era of European colonialism beginning in the sixteenth century

3.11.5. Islam

3.11.5.1. the youngest of the major religions

3.11.5.2. can be traced back to a single founder

3.11.5.2.1. Muhammad

3.11.5.3. he subsequinetly devoted his life to the fulfillment of the divine commands

3.11.5.3.1. in those days the eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula were in the religious and social disarray, with Christianity and Judaism coexisting with polytheistic religions

3.11.5.4. Islam forbids alcohol, smoking, and gambling

3.11.5.5. divided principally between Sunni Muslims (the great majority) and the Shi'ite or Shiah Muslims (concentrated in Iran)

3.11.5.5.1. smaller sects of Islam include Wahhabis,Sufis, Salafists, Alawites, Alevis, and YAzeedis

3.11.5.6. the religion's main division between Sunni and Shi'ite occurred almost immediately after Muhammad's death, and it was caused by a conflict over his succession

3.11.5.7. Sunni Islam is much less centralized

3.11.6. Diffusion of Islam

3.11.6.1. at the time of Muhammad's death in 632 CE, Muhammad and his followers had converted kings on the Arabian Peninsula to Islam

3.11.6.1.1. the kings then used their armies to spread the faith across the Arabian Peninsula through invasion and conquest

3.11.6.2. moving west, in waves of invasion and conquest, Islam diffused throughout North Africa

3.11.6.3. by the early nineteenth century, the Muslim world included emirates extending from Egypt to Morocco, a caliphate occupying most of Spain and Portugal, a unified realm encompassing Arabia, the Middle East, Iran, and most of what is today Pakistan

3.11.6.4. as Muslim traders settled trading ports in Southeast Asia, they established new secondary hearths of Islam and worked to diffuse the religion contagiously from the secondary hearths

3.11.6.5. recent diffusion of Islam into Europe (beyond Spain and Portugal), South Africa, and the Americas has largely been a result of migration-of relocation diffusion

3.11.6.6. Islam is the fastest growing of the worlds major religions, dominating in Northern Africa and Southwest Asia, extending into Central Asia, the former Soviet Union and China, and including clusters in Indonesia, Bangladesh, and southern Mindanao in the Philippines

3.11.6.7. Islam is strongly represented in India, with over 161 million adherents, and in Subsaharan Africa with approximately 190 million adherents

3.11.6.8. 1.57 billion followers

3.11.6.8.1. more than half live outside Southwest Asia and North Africa

3.11.7. Indigenous and Shamanist

3.11.7.1. Indigenous religions are local in scope, usually have a reverence for nature and are passed down through family units and groups (tribes) of indigenous peoples

3.11.7.2. large areas in Africa and several other parts of the world as "Indigenous and Shamanist"

3.11.7.3. Shamanism is a community faith in which people follow their shaman-a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary

3.11.7.4. Shamans have appeared at various times to various peoples in Farica, Native America, Southeast Asia, and East Asia

3.11.7.5. unlike Christianity or Islam, the shamanist faiths are small and comparatively isolated

3.11.7.6. Shamanism is a traditional religion, an intimate part of a local culture and society, but not all traditional religions are shmanist

3.11.8. The Rise of Secularism

3.11.8.1. when polled about their church-going activities, fewer than 3 percent of the people in Scandinavia reported frequent attendance

3.11.8.1.1. in France and Great Britain, less than 10 percent reported attending church at least once a month

3.11.8.2. the lack of members active or otherwise underscores the rise of secularism-indifference to or rejetion of organized religious affiliations and ideas

3.11.8.3. in North America a poll in 2002 asked whether people felt religion was very important to them

3.11.8.3.1. only 30 percent of the Canadians agreed with this statement

3.11.8.3.2. 59 percent o Americans felt religion was very important to them

3.11.8.4. in France, the government recently banned the wearing of overt religious symbols in public schools

3.11.8.4.1. the French government wanted to remove the "disruption" of Muslim girls wearing "hijab" (head scarves), Jewish boys wearing yarmulke (skull caps), and Christian students wearing large crosses to school

3.11.8.5. secularism has become more widespread during the past century

4. WHAT ROLE DOES RELIGION PLAY IN POLITICAL CONFLICTS?

4.1. religious beliefs and histories can bitterly divide peoples who speak the same language, have the same ethnic background, and make their living in similar ways

4.2. the "religious" conflict in Northern Ireland is not just about different view of the Christianity, and the conflict between Hindus and Muslims in India has a strong political as well as religious dimension

4.3. Conflicts along Religious Borders

4.3.1. some countries lie entirely within the realms of individual world religions whereas other countries straddle interfaith boundaries, the boundaries between the world's major faiths

4.3.2. in several countries in Africa that straddle the Christian-Muslim interfaith boundary

4.3.2.1. other countries with major religious disputes straddle intrafaith boundaries, the boundaries within a single major faith

4.3.2.2. intrafaith boundaries include divisions between Christian Protestants and Catholics, divisions between Muslim Sunni and the Shi'ite, and the likd

4.3.3. in Northern Ireland, where Protestants and Catholics, who both worship in the Christian tradition, have a long history of conflict

4.3.4. Israel/Palestine, Nigeria, and the former Yugoslavia provide examples of interfaith conflicts, and Northern Ireland is an example of an intrafaith conflict

4.4. Israel and Palestine

4.4.1. the region of Israel and Palestine is home to one of the most contentious religious conflicts in the world today

4.4.2. civil disturbances erupted almost immediately, and, by 1947-1948, Jews and Palestinians engage in open warfare

4.4.3. in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Israel gained control of the Palestinian lands in Gaza, the West Bank and the Golan Heights

4.4.3.1. the international community calls these lands the Occupied Territories

4.4.3.2. the Jewish presence in Gaza has always been small, but over the last three decades, the Israelis built Jewish housing settlements throughout the West Bank and have expanded the city of Jerusalem eastward into the West Bank (razing Palestinian houses along the way) to gain more control of territory

4.4.4. the Israeli government severely restricts new building by Palestinians, even on lands in the Palestinian zones of the West Bank

4.4.4.1. events in the early and mid-1900s began to change this religious political mosaic as self-government was awarded to Gaza and to small areas inside the West Bank

4.4.5. in September 2005, the Israeli government shifted its policy toward the Gaza Strip

4.4.6. the Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip rejoiced-visiting the beaches that were previously open only to Israeli settlers and traveling across the border into Egypt to purchase goods

4.4.7. Until 2011 the Palestinians in the west Bank and Gaza were represented by separate governments

4.5. Nigeria

4.5.1. many of the countries of West Africa are predominantly Muslin in the North, but not in the South

4.5.2. the causes of north-south violence in Nigeria cannot be attributed solely to different religious beliefs

4.5.3. the climate in the central part of the country is somewhere in between, being both wetter than the arid north and drier than the south

4.5.4. it is in these central regions of the country where the worst violence between Muslims and Christians has taken place

4.5.5. such developments reinforce the perceptual importance of Nigeria's intrafaith Christian-Muslim boundary, and promote a sense-whether right or wrong-that religious differences represent the most important obstacle to social cohesion in the country

4.6. The Former Yugoslavia

4.6.1. the dividing line between the two branches of Christianity runs right through the Balkan Peninsula

4.6.2. the Slovenians and Croats in the west of the peninsula are Catholic and the Serbians and Montenegrans in the east and south of the peninsula are Eastern Orthodox

4.6.3. the Balkan Peninsula is also a dividing line for language in Europe, with people west of the line using the Roman alphabet and people east of the line using the Cyrillic alphabet

4.6.4. the Serbo-Croatian language is now recognized as two languages, Serbian and Croatian

4.6.5. these division sin religion and language were complicated by the entry of another universalizing religion during the 1300s

4.6.6. the Ottomans took control of the region by force, beginning with the bloody battle of Kosovo in 1389, which was the Serbian homeland during the European Middle Ages

4.6.6.1. from that point on, the region has had pockets of Muslims in the middle and south of the peninsula, creating numerous interfaith boundaries

4.6.7. after 1945, Yugoslavia came under the control of a communist dictator, Josip Broz Tito.

4.6.7.1. for decades, Tito ran Yugoslavia as a centralized country with six republics

4.6.7.2. Tito never healed the ethnic divides in Yugoslavia; he simply suppressed them and pushed them out of view during his control

4.6.7.3. After his death in 1980, nationalist sentiments began to emerge, and Yugoslavia was subsequently swept up in the winds of change produced by the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s

4.6.8. the term ethnic cleansing came into use to describe the ouster of Bosnian Muslims and others from their homes and lands-and sometimes their slaughter

4.6.9. in 2003, the name Yugoslavia disappeared from the maps and was replaced by the name Serbia and Montenegro for the former Yugoslavia

4.7. Northern Ireland

4.7.1. for centuries, the island of Ireland was its own entity, marked by a mixture of Celtic religious practices and Roman Catholicism

4.7.1.1. as early as the 1200s, the English began to infiltrate the island of Ireland, taking control of its agricultural economy

4.7.2. colonization began in the sixteenth century, and by 1700, Britain controlled the entire island

4.7.3. during the colonial period, the British treated the Irish Catholics harshly, taking away their lands, depriving them of their legal right to won property or participate in government,and regarding them as second-class citizens

4.7.4. in the late 1800s, the Irish began reinvigorating their Celtic and Irish traditions; this strengthening of their identity fortified their resolve against the British colonialism

4.7.4.1. this rebellion was successful throughout most of this island, which was Catholic dominated, leading to the creation of the Republic of Ireland

4.7.5. in the 1922 settlement ending the conflict, Britian retained control of six countries in the northeast, which had Protestant majorities

4.7.5.1. these counties constituted NOrthern IReland, which became part of the United Kingdom

4.7.6. the substantial Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, however, did not want to be part of the United Kingdom-particularly since the Protestant majority, constituting about two-thirds of the total population (about 1.6 million) of Northern Ireland, possessed most of the economic and political advantages

4.7.7. as time went on, economic stagnation for both populations worsened the situation, and the Catholics in particular felt they were being repressed

4.7.7.1. terrorist acts by the Irish Republican Army (IRA), an organization dedicated to ending British control over all of Ireland by violent means if necessary, brought British troops into the area in 1968

4.7.8. in the face of worsening conflict, Catholics and Protestants in the Northern Ireland increasingly distanced their lives and homes from one another

4.7.9. the cultural landscape marks the religious conflict, as each group clusters in its own neighborhoods and celebrates either important Catholic or Protestant dates

4.7.10. Irish geographer Frederick Boal wrote a seminal work in 1969 on the Orthern Irish in one area of Belfast

4.7.10.1. Boal used the concept of activity space to demonstrate how Protestants and Catholics ahd each chosen to separate themselves in their rounds of daily activity

4.7.10.2. Boal found that each group traveled longer distances to shop in grocery stores tagged as their respective religion, walked further to catch a bus in a neighborhood belonging to their own religion, gave their neighborhood different toponyms, read different newspapers, and cheered for different football (soccer) teams

4.7.10.3. in the 1990s, Boal updated his study of Northern Ireland and found hope for resolution

4.7.10.3.1. Boal found that religious identities are actually becoming less intense among the younger generation and among the more educated

4.7.10.4. Boal's observations proved to be right, and a movement toward resolution among the population along with the British government's support for devolution helped fuel April 1998 adoption of an Anglo-Irish peace agreement known as the Belfast Agreement & Good Friday Agreement, which raised hopes of a new period of peace in Northern Ireland

4.7.11. although religions is the tag-line by which we refer to "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the conflict is much more about nationalism, economics, oppression, access to opportunities, terror, civil rights, and political influence

4.7.12. following a decade of one step forward and two steps back toward peace, Northern Ireland finally realized a tenuous peace in 2007 when the Northern Ireland Assembly (Parliament) was reinstated

4.8. Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism

4.8.1. today, throughout the world, religious leaders and millions of their followers are seeking to return to the basics of their faith

4.8.2. the drive toward religious fundamentalism is often born out of frustration over the perceived breakdown of society's mores and values, lack of religious authority, failure to achieve economic goals, loss of a sense of local control, or a sense of violation of a religions core territory

4.8.3. religious extremism is fundamentalism carried to the point of violence

4.8.3.1. the attacks on the Untied States in September 2001 reinforced the tendency of many Americans to equate extremism with Islam

4.8.4. Christian extremism is also a potent force, as witnessed in the United States when religious zealots kill physicians who perform legal abortions

4.8.5. today the forces of globalization affect relgions.

4.8.5.1. education, radio, television, and travel have diffused notions of individual liberties, sexual equality, and freedom of choice-but also consumerism and secularism

4.8.5.1.1. in the process, the extent of cultural diffusion and innovation ahs accelerated

4.8.6. others have gone in the opposite direction, reaffirming fundamental or literalist interpretations to religious texts and trying to block modern influences and external cultural interference

4.8.7. Christianity

4.8.7.1. among the issues giving rise to disputes are birth control, family planning, and the role of women in religious bureaucracy

4.8.7.2. the major religions tend to be male-dominated and a few women have manage to enter the hierarchy

4.8.7.2.1. this is true in the Roman Catholic Church, where women are not allowed to serve as priests

4.8.7.3. the Roman Catholic Church preaches against the use of artificial means of birth control as well as abortion

4.8.7.4. actor/director Mel Gibson belongs to the Holy Family Church, which does not recognize the pope, and the Vatican does not recognize that church as part of the Cahtolic Church

4.8.7.4.1. Gibson's church is most associated with the Tradtionalist Catholic Movement, a fundamentalist movement that believes Mass should still be conducted in Latin and that modern popes and clergy are not following the tradtional theology and practices of the Church

4.8.7.5. Protestant churches have become increasingly active in political and social arenas

4.8.8. Judaism

4.8.8.1. the most conservative of the three major sects of Judaism is Orthodox

4.8.8.2. much diversity exists among Orthodox Jews, with varying views on Israel, education, and interaction with non-Orthodox Jews

4.8.9. Islam

4.8.9.1. not all Muslim communities adhere precisely to the rules of the Qu'ran prohibiting the use of alcohol

4.8.9.2. the Taliban regime seized control of much of the country during the 1990s

4.8.9.3. the leadership imposed a wide range of religious restrictions, sought to destroy all statues depicting human forms, required followers of Hinduism to wear identifying markers, and forbade women to appear in public with their head exposed

4.8.9.4. the Taliban in Afghanistan also provided a haven for the activities of Islamic extremists who sought to promote an Islamic holy war, or jihad, against the West in general and the United States in particular

4.8.9.4.1. one of the key figures in the Islamic extremist movement of the past decade, Osama bin Laden, helped finance and mastermind a variety of terrorist activities conducted against the United States, including the destruction of the World Trade Towers, the attack on the Pentagon, and the downing of Flight 93 on September 11, 2001

4.8.9.5. a form of Islam is Wahhabi Islam, which developed in the eighteenth century in opposition to what was seen as sacrilegious practices on the part of Ottoman rulers

4.8.9.6. a variety of forces have fueled the violent path on whcih the Wahhabi extremist movement has embarked

4.8.9.6.1. perhaps the most important is the widely held view among movement followers that "infidels" have invaded the Islamic holy land over the past 80 years

4.8.9.6.2. of particular concern to Islamic extremists are the presence of American military and business interest in the Arabian Peninsula

4.8.9.6.3. another geographically related concern of Wahhabi extremists is the diffusion of modern culture and technology and its impact on traditional lifestyles and spiritual practices

4.8.9.7. Islamic fundamentalists who have resorted to violence in pursuit of their cause are relatively small in numbeer

4.8.9.7.1. yet one of the critical contemporary issues is the extent to which they can attract widespread support throughout the Islamic world

4.8.9.8. a key to avoiding the division of the world into mutually antagonistic religious realms is to promote an atmosphere in which such feelings do not become widespreade

5. HOW IS RELIGION SEEN IN THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE?

5.1. religion marks cultural landscapes with houses of worship such as churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples; with cemteries dotted with religious symbols and icons; with stores designated to sales of religious goods; and even with services provided to religious adherents who travel to sacred sites

5.2. when adherents voluntarily travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site, the act of travel is called a pilgrimage.

5.2.1. Geographers who study religion are interested in the act of pilgrimage and its impacts on place, people, religion, culture, and environmetn

5.3. sacred sites are places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning

5.3.1. in ancient human history, sacred spaces were typically features in the physical geographic landscape, such as buttes, mountain peaks, or rivers

5.3.2. in more recent history, as universalizing religions diffused across the world, sacred sites were abadoned, usurped, or altered

5.3.3. in continental Europe "sacred" (bones of saints or images) were typically brought to a place in order to infuse the place with meaning

5.3.4. geographer Kari Forbes-Boyte studied Bear Butte, a site sacred to members of the Lakota an Cheyenne people in northern Great Plains of the United States and a site that became a state park in the 1960s

5.3.5. nearby Devils Tower, which is a National Monument, experiences the same pull between religious use by American Indians and recreational use by tourists

5.4. Sacred Sites of Jerusalem

5.4.1. the ancient city of Jerusalem is sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims

5.4.2. the most important sacred site for Jews is the Western Wall (also called the Wailing Wall), at the edge of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem

5.4.3. on this hill, Jews built two temples, each of which was destroyed by invaders

5.4.4. for Christians, Jerusalem is sacred both because of the sacrifice Abraham was willing to make of his son at the Temple Mount and because Jesus' crucifixion took place outside of the city's walls

5.4.5. Muslims constructed a mosque called the Dome of the Rock adjacent to the Western Wall to mark the site where Muslims believe Muhammad arrived from Mecca and then ascended into heaven

5.4.6. Between 1095 and 1199, European political and religious leaders organized a series of Crusades to retake the so-called Holy Land

5.4.6.1. the first Christian crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, ruling the city for almost 100 years

5.4.7. Muslims ultimately retook Jerusalem in 1187, and later Christian crusaders were unable to conquer it again

5.5. Landscapes of Hinduism and Buddhism

5.5.1. traditional Hinduism is more than a faith; it is a way of life

5.5.2. pilgramages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are attended by millions of people

5.5.3. festivals and feasts are frequent, colorful, and noisy

5.5.4. the Hindu cultural landscape-urban as well as rural-is dotted with countless shrines, ranging from small village temples to structures so large and elaborate that they are virtually holy cities

5.5.5. the cultural landscape of Hinduism is the cultural landscape of India

5.5.6. when Buddha received enlightenment, he sat under a large tree, the Bodhi (enlightenment) tree at Bohd Gaya in India

5.5.7. Buddhist shrines include sutpas, bell shaped structures that protect burial mounds

5.6. Landscapes of Christianity

5.6.1. the cultural landscapes of Christianity's branches reflect the changes the faith has undergone over the centuries

5.6.1.1. in medieval Europe the cathedral, church, or monastery was the focus of life

5.6.2. the Reformation, the rise of secularism, and the decline of organized religion are reflected in the cultural landscape as well

5.6.3. many of the ornate churches in the town squares of medieval cities now function as museums instead of serving active congregations

5.6.4. Cities in Europe are also home to centuries-old Christian cemeteries

5.6.5. Christian cemeteries can resemble large parks

5.6.5.1. these cemeteries often reflect class differences

5.6.6. Religious Landscapes in the United States

5.6.6.1. the United states, a predominantly Christian country, demonstrates the considerable diversity in its religious cultural landscapes

5.6.6.2. the New England region is strongly Catholic; the South's leading denomination is Baptist; the Upper Midwest has large numbers of Lutherans; and the Southwest is predominantly Spanish Catholic

5.6.6.3. the broad midland region extending from the Middle Atlantic to the Mormon region (in the Western United States) has a mixture of denominations in which no single church dominates; this is also true of the West

5.6.6.4. some regions represent local clustering, such as the French Catholic area centered in New Orleans and the mixed denominations of Peninsular Florida, where a large Spanish Catholic cluster has emerged in metropolitan Miami

5.6.7. Christian cemeteries can resemble large parks

5.7. Landscapes of Islam

5.7.1. elaborate, sometimes magnificently designed mosques whose balconied minarets rise above the townscape dominate Islamic cities, towns, and villages

5.7.2. often the mosque is the town's most imposing and most carefully maintained building.

5.7.2.1. five times every day, from the towering minarets, the faithful are called to prayer

5.7.2.1.1. the sounds emanating from the minarets fill the streets as the faithful converge on teh holy place to pray facing Mecca

5.7.3. one of the most well-know pilgrimages in the modern world is the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the hajj

5.7.3.1. one of the five pillars in Islam, the hajj implores all Muslims (if financially and physically able) to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during their lifetime